Poli330 Chap13


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Political Science 330

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Poli330 Chap13

  1. 1. Chapter 13
  2. 2. <ul><li>Population: 1.3+ billion </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic area: slightly smaller than U.S. – fourth largest country in world </li></ul><ul><li>Political system: Communist party-state – officially a socialist state under people’s democratic dictatorship. Chinese Communist Party - CCP </li></ul><ul><li>Executive: Premier (head of government) and president (head of state) elected by legislature, but approval of CCP leadership. Current president – Hu Jintao </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Legislature: Unicameral National People’s Congress – 2985 delegates – elected indirectly – five-year terms. Rubber stamp for CCP policies </li></ul><ul><li>Judiciary: nationwide system of people’s courts. Supreme People’s Court supervises. </li></ul><ul><li>Party System: one-party system – CCP (but eight other insignificant “democratic” parties) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Three important historical periods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial period (221 BC to 1911 AD) – series of dynasties/emperors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican period (1912-1949) – civil wars and foreign invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist period (1949-present) – founding of People’s Republic of China </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>One of world’s oldest cultural & political traditions </li></ul><ul><li>China’s first emperor unified country 221 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by dozen different family-based dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution 1911 – ended 2000 year old imperial system </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Five major reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective national government – merit-based bureaucracy – competitive exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Chinese economy strong – urbanization occurred before W. Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of traditional society – small villages – landlords & elites maintained system in countryside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring influence of Confucianism (Confucius 551-478 BC) – importance of group over individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant political, military, & cultural force </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Established 1912 – revolutionary Dr. Sun Yat-sen became president </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with warlords </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1921 – Chinese Communist Party established – inspired by Russian Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially joined Sun Yat-sen to fight warlords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance fell apart when Chiang Kai-shek took power after Sun Yat-sen’s death 1925 – he ordered bloody suppression to wipe out communists </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Communists regrouped – relocated to countryside – focus on peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Long March – 1934-35 – communists escaped attack by Chiang’s forces </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong – consolidated power of CCP – elected party chairman in 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>Communists given boost by Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 which brought WWII to China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao mobilized peasants to use guerilla warfare </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>By 1945 – CCP had expanded membership – controlled much of north China </li></ul><ul><li>After Japan surrendered – civil war resumed </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists (Chiang) retreated to Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – Mao declared founding of People’s Republic of China </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Massive land reforms – redistributed property from rich to poor - increased agricultural productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalization of industry & collectivization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elimination of opium addiction & prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Laws enhancing status of women – freed from arranged marriages </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hundred Flowers Movement (1956)– shake up bureaucrats, allow people to have more voice </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957)– reaction to criticism of Hundred Flowers – thousands fired, sent to labor camps </li></ul><ul><li>Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) – attempt at “true communism” – leap a flop – 20-30 million died </li></ul><ul><li>Great Proletarian Revolution (1966-1976) ideological crusade – back to socialism – but with violent methods – Red Guard purges </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Successor after Mao’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Break with Maoist past – private enterprise encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese economy grew during 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Tiananmen Square (June 1989) – students & intellectuals demonstrated in Beijing – military eventually “cleared” the square </li></ul><ul><li>Political repression ensued </li></ul><ul><li>When Soviet Union collapsed by 1992 – PRC sought to avoid similar fate </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Continued economic reform & growth </li></ul><ul><li>Admitted to World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Hu Jintao took power 2003 – new kind of leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hu hardline on dissent, but softer on dealing with economic issues </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>China nuclear power – world’s largest conventional military </li></ul><ul><li>One of five permanent members of UN Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1970s, détente with U.S. because China more afraid of USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Sino-American relations are difficult </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagreements over human rights in Tibet, and political status of Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, PRC chief ally against terrorism after 9/11 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Considered “one of century’s greatest economic miracles” </li></ul><ul><li>China now major player – creditor to the world – even U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International trade central component – takes advantage of low-wage domestic labor to produce goods sold worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. biggest market for Chinese goods (lead & tainted milk) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic changes – led to increased gulf between rich & poor – more political & social tensions </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>China’s contradictory position in world economy: </li></ul><ul><li>Trending towards system of “Market-Leninism” – economic openness & political rigidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low level of economic & technological development – makes it part of “Third World” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Web access tightly controlled for citizens – bureaucracy “polices” the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, total output and expanding trade – and vast population – make it economic superpower among nations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Tibet </li></ul><ul><li>China’s One-child policy </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge of democratic ideas </li></ul>