12T052 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING:
• History & development
• Various techniques of Industrial Engineering
• Scope in Textiles
SYLLABUS - 12T052 INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING: Definition, history & development, various techniques of Industrial Engineering,
scope in Textiles.
PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL: Definition, Difference between production & productivity. Productivity analysis in
spinning and weaving. Causes for low productivity in textile and apparel industries. Suggestions for productivity
improvement. LINE BALANCING: Objectives. Procedure. Techniques and applications in Textile and Apparel industries.
WORK STUDY: Definition, purpose, techniques of work study. Procedure of work study. Method study-steps in conducting
method study, principles of motion economy. Motion study Therbling, SIMO chart, Left hand & right hand chart, flow
diagram, flow chart, string diagram, process flow, multiple activity chart. Work Measurement-Techniques of work
measurement, Time study-time study equipments, steps in conducting time study, scale of rating, basic time,
allowances and standard time. PTMS, MTM .Case studies in textile and apparel industries.
LAYOUT: Layout planning and development. Types of layout – process, product, combination and fixed. Layout for Textile
and Apparel industries.
WORK ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICES: Lighting. Ventilation. Climatic Condition – Temperature Control and Humidity
Control. Noise Control, Safety, Ergonomics. Services- Stores, Health, Feeding and Convenience related services).
MATERIAL HANDLING: Objectives, Classifications of material handling equipments. Descriptions and characteristics of
material handling equipments. Specialized material handling equipments related to Textile and Apparel industries.
Total L : 45
Reference – Unit 1
• Kiell B.Zandin, “Maynard’s “Industrial
Engineering Hand Book”, Mc Graw Hill, Inc.,
New York, 2001.
– CHAPTER 1.1 - THE PURPOSE AND EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL
ENGINEERING, By Louis A. Martin-Vega, National Science Foundation
• Provides insights into many principles that
dominated its practice
History and Development
• 18th century – first engineering school
• IE born in 19th century
• Dominated – practice and development -20th
• Early engineering
• Technological innovations -mechanize - many
manual operations in the textile industry.
– Flying Shuttle
– Spinning jenny
– Water frame
The flying shuttle was patented by John Kay (1704–c. 1779) in 1733.
The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and
was one of the key developments in the industrialization of
weaving during the early Industrial Revolution. It
was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves in Stanhill,
Oswaldtwistle, Lancashire in England.
The water frame is the name given to a spinning frame,
when water power is used to drive it. Both are credited to
Richard Arkwright who patented the technology in 1768.
History and Development
• Industrial Revolution, which began in England during
the mid eighteenth century
• As industrial organizations profit from technological
developments, the size and the complexity of
manufacturing units increased dramatically.
• Interchangibility of parts
• Specialization of labor
• The Industrial Revolution
• Specialization of Labor
– Charles Babbage
• Interchangeability of Parts
– Eli Whitney
PIONEERS OF INDUSTRIAL
• Taylor and Scientific Management - Frederick W.Taylor
– Taylor’s system consisted of breaking down the production process into
its component parts and improving the efficiency of each.
– Development of “time study”
• Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
– motion-picture camera to the task of analyzing motions and categorize
the elements of human motions into 18 basic elements or therbligs
– Motion study
– human factors or ergonomics
• 1912 –Henry Towne and Henry Gantt, Frederick Halsey,
• Gantt chart: a systematic graphical procedure for planning and
scheduling activities that is still widely used in project management.
1. The idea that engineers have to design and fabricate products at costs, large number of
consumers can afford to pay was advocated. This idea gave birth to the subject of Engineering
Economics subsequently. H.R. Towne’s address in 1886 to American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME) “The Engineer as an Economist” was a classic paper in this area. The papers
of Oberlin Smith also fall in this group.
2. Engineers got interested in wage incentive methods. Papers by Towne, F.R. Halsey and H.L.Gantt
between 1880 ad 1895 addressed this issue.
3. Engineers got involved in factory accounting issues. An English engineer and accountant, Emile
Garcke and J.M. Fells published a book on factory accounts in 1889.
4. Engineers recognized the importance of production control and paid attention to improve the
procedures of production control. H.C. Metcalfe’s “ A Shop Order System of Accounts” was an
early paper in this regard.
5. F.W. Taylor addressed issues related to shop management in a more comprehensive manner in
his paper “Shop Management” (1903).
6. Frank Gilbreth developed the motion study technique.
7. H.L. Gantt advocated training of operators.
8. Harrington Emerson came out with a book that emphasized efficiency of business organizations
9. Lillian Moller Gilbreth work along with Frank Gilbreth on applied psychology to industrial work.
10. Hugo Diemer authored book on Factory Management emphasizing industrial engineering
11. Charles Going authored the book, Principles of Industrial Engineering (1911).
Match the following
PIONEERS OF INDUSTRIAL
1. H.R. Towne’s
3. F.W. Taylor
4. Hugo Diemer
a. motion study
b. Engineering Economics
d. Factory Management
e. Time study
Match the following
Pioneers of Industrial
a. Operations Research
b. Mass Production
c. Systems Engineering
d. Industrial Engineering
-IISE official definition
• Industrial and systems engineering is
concerned with the design, improvement and
installation of integrated systems of people,
materials, information, equipment and energy.
It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill
in the mathematical, physical, and social
sciences together with the principles and
methods of engineering analysis and design,
to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to
be obtained from such systems.
• Design - Some industrial engineering tasks involve the creation of a new facility, process, or
• Improvement - Most industrial engineering tasks involve the improvement of an existing
facility, process, or system.
• System - Most engineers design physical objects, but most IEs design systems. Systems
include physical components, but also include processes, rules, and people. Components of
a system have to work together. Material and information flow between the components of
a system. A change to one part of system may affect other parts of the system.
• People - Among all types of engineers, IEs think the most about people.
• Machines - An IE must select the appropriate machines - including computers.
• Information - Data can be used for immediate decision making and can be analyzed to make
improvements to the system.
• Money - An IE must weigh costs and savings now against costs and savings in the future.
• Goal - Every designed system exists for some purpose. The IE must think about different
ways to accomplish that goal and select the best way.
• Efficiency - Whatever the goal of the system, the IE usually seeks to have the system achieve
that goal quickly and with the least use of resources.
• Quality - The IE’s organization always has a customer and the organization must deliver
goods and services to the customer with the quality that the customer wants.
• Safety - IEs have to make sure that the system is designed so that people can and will work
Techniques of Industrial Engineering
Following tools and techniques are used to improve
productivity of the organization by optimum utilization of
1- Method Study
2- Time Study (Work Measurement).
3- Motion Economy.
4- Financial and Non Financial Incentives.
5- Value Analysis.
6- Production, Planning and Control.
7- Inventory Control.
8- Job Evaluation.
9- Material Handling Analysis.
10-Ergonomics (Human Engineering).
11- System Analysis.
12- Operations Research Techniques.
• Work Study -( Method and Time Study)
Definition: Work study may be defined as the
analysis of a job for the purpose of finding the
preferred method of doing it and also
determining the standard time to perform it
by the preferred (or given) method. Work
study, therefore, comprises of two areas of
study: method study (motion study) and time
study (work measurement).
• Method study (also sometimes called Work Method
Design) is mostly used to improve the method of doing
work. It is equally applicable to new jobs. When
applied to existing jobs and existing jobs, method study
aims to find better methods of doing the jobs that are
economical and safe, require less human effort, and
need shorter make-ready / put-away time. The better
method involves the optimum use of best materials
and appropriate manpower so that work is performed
in well organized manner leading to increased resource
utilization, better quality and lower costs.
Time study-Work Measurement
• Time study, on the other hand, provides the standard
time, that is the time needed by worker to complete a
job by the standard method. Standard times for
different jobs are necessary for proper estimation of
• manpower, machinery and equipment requirements
• daily, weekly or monthly requirement of materials
• production cost per unit as an input to better make or
• labor budgets
• worker's efficiency and make incentive wage payments.
Work Study and Ergonomics
• The work study and the ergonomics are the
two areas of study having the same objective:
design the work system so that for the
operator it is safe, and the work is less
fatiguing and less time taking.
• OBJECTIVES IN PLANT LAYOUT
1. Minimize investment in equipment.
2. Minimize overall production time.
3. Utilize existing space most effectively.
4. Provide for employee convenience, safety and
5. Maintain flexibility of arrangement
6. Minimize Material handling cost.
7. Minimize variation in types of material handling
8. Facilitate the manufacturing process.
9. Facilitate the organizational structure
• Material handling is the function of moving
the right material to the right place in the
right time, in the right amount, in sequence,
and in the right condition to minimize
PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL
What is Productivity?
• Productivity, in simple words, is the relation
ship between output and input.
Productivity = ————