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PRODUCTION
PLANNING
AND CONTROL (PPC)
1
•Submitted By:-
•Mr. Sudhir Pawar
PRODUCTION PLANNING
Production Planning can be referred to as a
technique of forecasting every step in the long
process of production, taking them at right time and
in the right degree and trying to complete
operations at the maximum efficiency.
“The planning of industrial operations involves
Three considerations, namely, what work shall
be done, how the work shall be done and lastly,
when the work shall be done.” (by – Kimball)
2
PRODUCTION CONTROL
Production control is the process that keeps a watchful
eye on the production flow, size of resources along with
any deviation from the planned action. It also includes
arrangement for the prompt remedy or adjustment in
case of any deviation so that the production may run
according to the original or revised schedule.
“Production control refers to ensuring that all
which occurs is in accordance with the rules
established and instructions issued.” (By – Henry
Fayol)
3
PPC : HISTORY
4
Planning Department bulletin board - 1911
PPC : HISTORY
• 1776 -Specialization of labor in manufacturing -Adam
Smith
• 1799 -Interchangeable parts, cost accounting -Eli
Viihitney and others
• 1832 -Division of labor by skill; assignment of jobs by
skill; basics of time study -Charles Babbage
• 1900- Scientific management time study and work study
developed; dividing planning and doing of work -
Frederick W. Taylor
• 1900- Motion of study of jobs -Frank B. Gilbreth
• 1901- Scheduling techniques for employees, machines
jobs in manufacturing -Henry L. Gantt
• 1915 -Economic lot sizes for inventory control -F.W.
Harris 5
PPC : HISTORY
• 1927 -Human relations; the Hawthorne studies -Elton
Mayo
• 1931 -Statistical inference applied to product quality:
quality control charts -W.A. Shewart
• 1935 -Statistical sampling applied to quality control;
inspection sampling plans -H.F. Dodge &H.G. Roming
• 1940- Operations research applications in World War ll -
P.M. Blacker and others.
• 1946- Digital computer -John Mauchlly and J.P. Eckert
• 1947-Linear programming -GB. Dantzig, Williams &
others
6
PPC : HISTORY
• 1950- Mathematical programming, on-Iinear and stochastic
processes –A. Charnes, W.W. Cooper & others
• 1951- Commercial digital computer; large scale computations
available. -Sperry Univac
• 1960- Organizational behavior; continued study of people at
work -L. Cummings, L. Porter
• 1970- Integrating operations into overall strategy and policy.
Computer applications to manufacturing. Scheduling and
control. Material requirement planning (MRP)-W. Skinner J.
Orlicky and G. Wright
• 1980-Quality and productivity applications from Japan
robotics. CAD-CAM -W.E. Deming and J. Juran
7
PPC : HISTORY
• PPC concept developed since late 19th Century
• Factories were simple and relatively small
• Small number of products with large batches
• Work for each man and each machine used to
be chalked out
• even as factories grew,they were just bigger,not
more complex
• Main Industry – Textiles , Railways
8
PPC : CHARACTERISTICS
• Inputs like materials, men and machines are
efficiently used
• Factors of production are integrated to use them
economically
• Division of work is undertaken carefully so that
every available element is properly utilized
• Work is regulated from the first stage of procuring
raw materials to the stage of finished goods
• Questions like what, when and how to be
manufactured are decided
9
PPC : OBJECTIVES
10
PRODUCTION PLANNING involves….
• Preparation of production budget
• Devising manufacturing methods and sequence of
operations
• Deciding type of machines and equipments
• Preparation of operation sheets and instruction
cards
• Estimating men, machine and material
requirements
• Undertaking time and motion studies
• Preparing master schedules
11
PPC : PROCESS
12
PPC : PROCESS
• Planning : What is the Task ?
• Routing : Where it needs to be carried out ?
• Scheduling : When it needs to be carried out ?
• Loading : Who will perform the task ?
13
PLANNING
It is the first element of production planning and control.
Planning means deciding in advance what is to be done in
future. An organizational set up is created to prepare plans
and policies. Various charts, manuals and production
budgets are also prepared. Planning provides a sound base
for control. A separate department is set up for this work.
14
ROUTING
Routing is determining the exact path which will be
followed in production. It is the selection of the path
from where each unit have to pass before reaching
the final stage. The stages from which goods are to
pass are decided in this process.
“Routing is the specification of the flow
sequence of operations and processes to be
followed in producing a particular
manufacturing lot.”( Alford & Beaty)
15
ROUTING PROCEDURE
• Deciding what part to be made or purchased
• Determining Materials required
• Determining Manufacturing Operations and
Sequences
• Determining of Lot Sizes
• Determining of Scrap Factors
• Analysis of Cost of the Product
• Preparation of Production Control Forms
16
SCHEDULING
Scheduling is the determining of time and date
when each operation is to be commenced or
completed. The time and date of manufacturing
each component is fixed in such a way that
assembling for final product is not delayed in any
way.
“The determination of the time that should be
required to perform each operation and also
the time necessary to perform the entire series,
as routed, making allowances for all factors
concerned.”(Kimball)
17
TYPES OF SCHEDULES
• Master Scheduling – It is the breakup of production
requirements. It is the start of scheduling. It is
prepared by keeping in view the order or likely
sales order in near future.
• Manufacturing Scheduling – It is used where
production process is continuous. The order of
preference for manufacture is also mentioned in the
schedule for a systematic production planning.
• Detail Operation Scheduling – It indicates the time
required to perform each and every detailed
operations of a given process
18
LOADING
• The next step is Loading which is execution of the
scheduled plan as per the route chalked out. It includes
the assignment of the work to the operators at their
machines or work places.
• So Loading determines who will do the work.
19
DISPATCHING
Dispatching refers to the process of actually
ordering the work to be done. It involves putting the
plan into effect by issuing orders. It is concerned
with starting the process and operation on the basis
of route sheets and schedule charts.
“Dispatches put production in effect by
releasing and guiding manufacturing order in
the sequence previously determined by route
sheets and schedules.”(John A.Shubin)
20
DISPATCHING PROCEDURES
• Centralized Dispatching – Under this, orders are
directly issued to workmen and machines. It helps
in exercising effective control.
• Decentralized Dispatching – Under this procedure all
work orders are issued to the foreman or dispatch
clerk of the department or section. It suffers from
difficulties in achieving co-ordination among
different departments.
21
FOLLOW UP & EXPEDITING
Progress may be assessed with the help of routine
reports or communication with operating
departments. The follow up procedure is used for
expediting and checking the progress.
“Follow up or expediting is that branch of
production control procedure which regulates
the progress of materials and part through the
production process.”
22
INSPECTION
• Inspection is the process of ensuring whether the products
manufactured are of requisite quality or not.
• Inspection is undertaken both of products and inputs. It is
carried on at various levels of production process so that
pre-determined standards of quality are achieved.
• Inspection ensures the maintenance of pre-determined
quality of products.
23
CORRECTIVE
MEASURES :
• Adjusting the route
• Rescheduling of work
• Changing the workloads
• Repairs and Maintenance of machinery or
equipment,
• Control over inventories
• Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer,
demotion etc.
• Alternate methods may be suggested to handle
peak loads.
24
PPC : LIMITATIONS
• Assumption based
• Rigidity
• Difficult for small firms
• Costly
• Dependence on external factors
• Team work is a must
• Demands high level of co-ordination & efficiency
25
PPC : SIGNIFICANCE
• Structured & Planned Process
• Increased Production
• Seamless Plant Activity
• Better Co-ordination
• Optimal Resource Utilization
• Cost Control
• Rationalization of production Activities
26
PPC : TOYOTA WAY
7 Principles of Toyota Production System:
• Reduced Set up time
• Small lot production
• Employee involvement and empowerment
• Quality at source
• Equipment Maintenance
• Pull production
• Supplier Involvement
27
PPC : TOYOTA WAY
28
PPC : TOYOTA WAY
Just in Time Concept :
• Production happens according to what is needed, when
it is needed and how much needed
• Strategy is to minimize cost by process optimization and
pursuing waste reduction.(Muda)
• Increase ROI by reducing inventory and associated cost
29
PPC : TOYOTA WAY
Few Toyota Concepts :
• Elimination of 7 Muda’s (Wastefulness) (Transport,
Inventory ,Motion, Waiting, Over-Processing
Overproduction, Defects)
• Poka Yoke (mistake-proofing)
• Jidoka (automation with a human touch)
• Kanban (inventory-control system to control the supply chain)
• Kaizen (change for better)
• Respect & Empowerment to Employees
30
CONCLUSION :
Production planning and Control represents the beating
heart of any manufacturing process and are essential for
customer delight and overall success of an organization.
31
32

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Production planning control ppt

  • 2. PRODUCTION PLANNING Production Planning can be referred to as a technique of forecasting every step in the long process of production, taking them at right time and in the right degree and trying to complete operations at the maximum efficiency. “The planning of industrial operations involves Three considerations, namely, what work shall be done, how the work shall be done and lastly, when the work shall be done.” (by – Kimball) 2
  • 3. PRODUCTION CONTROL Production control is the process that keeps a watchful eye on the production flow, size of resources along with any deviation from the planned action. It also includes arrangement for the prompt remedy or adjustment in case of any deviation so that the production may run according to the original or revised schedule. “Production control refers to ensuring that all which occurs is in accordance with the rules established and instructions issued.” (By – Henry Fayol) 3
  • 4. PPC : HISTORY 4 Planning Department bulletin board - 1911
  • 5. PPC : HISTORY • 1776 -Specialization of labor in manufacturing -Adam Smith • 1799 -Interchangeable parts, cost accounting -Eli Viihitney and others • 1832 -Division of labor by skill; assignment of jobs by skill; basics of time study -Charles Babbage • 1900- Scientific management time study and work study developed; dividing planning and doing of work - Frederick W. Taylor • 1900- Motion of study of jobs -Frank B. Gilbreth • 1901- Scheduling techniques for employees, machines jobs in manufacturing -Henry L. Gantt • 1915 -Economic lot sizes for inventory control -F.W. Harris 5
  • 6. PPC : HISTORY • 1927 -Human relations; the Hawthorne studies -Elton Mayo • 1931 -Statistical inference applied to product quality: quality control charts -W.A. Shewart • 1935 -Statistical sampling applied to quality control; inspection sampling plans -H.F. Dodge &H.G. Roming • 1940- Operations research applications in World War ll - P.M. Blacker and others. • 1946- Digital computer -John Mauchlly and J.P. Eckert • 1947-Linear programming -GB. Dantzig, Williams & others 6
  • 7. PPC : HISTORY • 1950- Mathematical programming, on-Iinear and stochastic processes –A. Charnes, W.W. Cooper & others • 1951- Commercial digital computer; large scale computations available. -Sperry Univac • 1960- Organizational behavior; continued study of people at work -L. Cummings, L. Porter • 1970- Integrating operations into overall strategy and policy. Computer applications to manufacturing. Scheduling and control. Material requirement planning (MRP)-W. Skinner J. Orlicky and G. Wright • 1980-Quality and productivity applications from Japan robotics. CAD-CAM -W.E. Deming and J. Juran 7
  • 8. PPC : HISTORY • PPC concept developed since late 19th Century • Factories were simple and relatively small • Small number of products with large batches • Work for each man and each machine used to be chalked out • even as factories grew,they were just bigger,not more complex • Main Industry – Textiles , Railways 8
  • 9. PPC : CHARACTERISTICS • Inputs like materials, men and machines are efficiently used • Factors of production are integrated to use them economically • Division of work is undertaken carefully so that every available element is properly utilized • Work is regulated from the first stage of procuring raw materials to the stage of finished goods • Questions like what, when and how to be manufactured are decided 9
  • 11. PRODUCTION PLANNING involves…. • Preparation of production budget • Devising manufacturing methods and sequence of operations • Deciding type of machines and equipments • Preparation of operation sheets and instruction cards • Estimating men, machine and material requirements • Undertaking time and motion studies • Preparing master schedules 11
  • 13. PPC : PROCESS • Planning : What is the Task ? • Routing : Where it needs to be carried out ? • Scheduling : When it needs to be carried out ? • Loading : Who will perform the task ? 13
  • 14. PLANNING It is the first element of production planning and control. Planning means deciding in advance what is to be done in future. An organizational set up is created to prepare plans and policies. Various charts, manuals and production budgets are also prepared. Planning provides a sound base for control. A separate department is set up for this work. 14
  • 15. ROUTING Routing is determining the exact path which will be followed in production. It is the selection of the path from where each unit have to pass before reaching the final stage. The stages from which goods are to pass are decided in this process. “Routing is the specification of the flow sequence of operations and processes to be followed in producing a particular manufacturing lot.”( Alford & Beaty) 15
  • 16. ROUTING PROCEDURE • Deciding what part to be made or purchased • Determining Materials required • Determining Manufacturing Operations and Sequences • Determining of Lot Sizes • Determining of Scrap Factors • Analysis of Cost of the Product • Preparation of Production Control Forms 16
  • 17. SCHEDULING Scheduling is the determining of time and date when each operation is to be commenced or completed. The time and date of manufacturing each component is fixed in such a way that assembling for final product is not delayed in any way. “The determination of the time that should be required to perform each operation and also the time necessary to perform the entire series, as routed, making allowances for all factors concerned.”(Kimball) 17
  • 18. TYPES OF SCHEDULES • Master Scheduling – It is the breakup of production requirements. It is the start of scheduling. It is prepared by keeping in view the order or likely sales order in near future. • Manufacturing Scheduling – It is used where production process is continuous. The order of preference for manufacture is also mentioned in the schedule for a systematic production planning. • Detail Operation Scheduling – It indicates the time required to perform each and every detailed operations of a given process 18
  • 19. LOADING • The next step is Loading which is execution of the scheduled plan as per the route chalked out. It includes the assignment of the work to the operators at their machines or work places. • So Loading determines who will do the work. 19
  • 20. DISPATCHING Dispatching refers to the process of actually ordering the work to be done. It involves putting the plan into effect by issuing orders. It is concerned with starting the process and operation on the basis of route sheets and schedule charts. “Dispatches put production in effect by releasing and guiding manufacturing order in the sequence previously determined by route sheets and schedules.”(John A.Shubin) 20
  • 21. DISPATCHING PROCEDURES • Centralized Dispatching – Under this, orders are directly issued to workmen and machines. It helps in exercising effective control. • Decentralized Dispatching – Under this procedure all work orders are issued to the foreman or dispatch clerk of the department or section. It suffers from difficulties in achieving co-ordination among different departments. 21
  • 22. FOLLOW UP & EXPEDITING Progress may be assessed with the help of routine reports or communication with operating departments. The follow up procedure is used for expediting and checking the progress. “Follow up or expediting is that branch of production control procedure which regulates the progress of materials and part through the production process.” 22
  • 23. INSPECTION • Inspection is the process of ensuring whether the products manufactured are of requisite quality or not. • Inspection is undertaken both of products and inputs. It is carried on at various levels of production process so that pre-determined standards of quality are achieved. • Inspection ensures the maintenance of pre-determined quality of products. 23
  • 24. CORRECTIVE MEASURES : • Adjusting the route • Rescheduling of work • Changing the workloads • Repairs and Maintenance of machinery or equipment, • Control over inventories • Certain personnel decisions like training, transfer, demotion etc. • Alternate methods may be suggested to handle peak loads. 24
  • 25. PPC : LIMITATIONS • Assumption based • Rigidity • Difficult for small firms • Costly • Dependence on external factors • Team work is a must • Demands high level of co-ordination & efficiency 25
  • 26. PPC : SIGNIFICANCE • Structured & Planned Process • Increased Production • Seamless Plant Activity • Better Co-ordination • Optimal Resource Utilization • Cost Control • Rationalization of production Activities 26
  • 27. PPC : TOYOTA WAY 7 Principles of Toyota Production System: • Reduced Set up time • Small lot production • Employee involvement and empowerment • Quality at source • Equipment Maintenance • Pull production • Supplier Involvement 27
  • 28. PPC : TOYOTA WAY 28
  • 29. PPC : TOYOTA WAY Just in Time Concept : • Production happens according to what is needed, when it is needed and how much needed • Strategy is to minimize cost by process optimization and pursuing waste reduction.(Muda) • Increase ROI by reducing inventory and associated cost 29
  • 30. PPC : TOYOTA WAY Few Toyota Concepts : • Elimination of 7 Muda’s (Wastefulness) (Transport, Inventory ,Motion, Waiting, Over-Processing Overproduction, Defects) • Poka Yoke (mistake-proofing) • Jidoka (automation with a human touch) • Kanban (inventory-control system to control the supply chain) • Kaizen (change for better) • Respect & Empowerment to Employees 30
  • 31. CONCLUSION : Production planning and Control represents the beating heart of any manufacturing process and are essential for customer delight and overall success of an organization. 31
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