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21548667 t-shirt-operation-breakdown


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21548667 t-shirt-operation-breakdown

  1. 1. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt Paper: Garment Manufacturing Technology Faculty: Ms. Garima Srivastava Submitted by: Akansha Choudhary | MFM, Sem 1, 03 Anurodh Agnihotri | MFM, Sem 1, 05 Arnav Paitandy | MFM, Sem 1, 06 Natasha Dhawan | MFM, Sem 1, 16 National Institute of Fashion technology, Mumbai November, 2008
  2. 2. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 2 T-shirts are multi-functional garment worn by all age groups as innerwear and outerwear. They are simply constructed garments that consist of a front and a back, sleeves and a neckline. A few styles may also have pockets. Many styles are now considered unisex. Fashion maybe reflected in oversize styling, deep armhole, cutoff lengths and fitted body. Seasonal changes in T- shirts maybe reflected in sleeve length, color and fabric weight. Reversible T-shirts may be made with two layers of fabric. Plain T-shirts are often referred to as Blanks for the imprint market. Printed T-shirt, which appeal to both males and females, provide humor, ideas or interests. They provide identity through screen printed or heat transfer applications of lettering, logos and licensed designs. Designs provide intrinsic appeal beyond the intrinsic value of the garment. SIZING AND FIT T-shirts are produced in al size ranges. Infant and toddler shirts are sized by month and weight. Youth and adult sizes are small, medium, big, extra large and so on. T-shirt fit is concerned with length and circumference of a garment body, cut of sleeves and neckline shape and depth. Sleeve fit is often determined by styling. Set-in sleeves which fit close to the body require room for movement and arm expansion. Necklines of T-shirts should lay flat against the body regardless of styling, depth of the neck band or method of assembly. During application, neckband is stretched slightly to fit neck edges. One of the causes for poor neckline fit is banding the stretches but never recovers. This maybe due to, incorrect stitch selection or too many stitches per inch. Product testing and complete product specifications can help prevent poor fit. Differences in body proportions must be accommodated in the styling and fit of garments. Example of a T-shirt size chart:
  3. 3. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 3 MATERIALS Fabrics used for T-shirts are primarily 100% cotton or cotton /polyester blends. All cotton is generally used in producing better quality garments, though yarn type, fabrication and fabric finished also affect quality. Fiber length and alignment affect durability and appearance. Ring-spun yarns provide long-range performance. Heavier fabrics are often 100 percent cotton and require more yarn which leads to increase in costs. Trims used on T-shirts consist of neckbands, cuffs, bindings; screen printed designs, embroidery, etc. Trims maybe matching or contrasting. Tubular neckbands do not require seaming and are often used for better turtlenecks and crew necks. Other trims used are braids, stripes and bindings Trims must be compatible with other materials, garment performance care and use. Tape maybe used on back necklines, to stabilize and enclose the seams and improve durability and performance. Narrow twill tape or stable strips maybe sewn in shoulder seams to prevent breaking of the stitch line. Elastic application ensures recovery of stretched seams. Threads of many types are used in sewing T – shirt .Budget shirts are stitched with white thread, while top-stitching is usually done with color- matched threads. SPREADING AND CUTTING Tubular knit fabric, which is frequently used in adult T- Shirts, creates some challenges in preproduction that are different than products being spread and cut from flat goods. Closed markers are usually used to cut tubular goods to be able to utilize the full width of the fabric. Tubular goods may be cut with an open marker but primarily for children’s clothing. Fabric may be knife cut or die cut. If it is die cut, lengths of the fabric cut to the lengths of the die must be cross or section from the new fabric. Sections or blocks of knife are stacked until they meet the specified ply height and the spread is moved to the die cutter. Better T-shirt will have a tubular goods turns ¼ turn before cross cutting and stacking. This will transfer the crease lines from sides of the spread to the centre. This moves the fold from what would be centre front and center back to the underarm area.turning the fabric although automated, provides a less distorted surface for centre front. Die cutting usually causes less distortion problems in the cutting process.
  4. 4. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 4 COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLY OF A T-SHIRT Final T-shirt
  5. 5. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 5
  6. 6. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 6 Garment Operation Breakdown List Form Date: 28 November 2008 Style Number: _________________________ Sketch: Description: T-shirt. Casual wear. Knitted fabric . Op. # Description Stitch Seam 1 Seams Most T-shirt seams are superimposed seams, stitched with overedge stitch. This stitch/seam combination produces a narrow, finished seam with good stretch and flexibility if properly executed. Knitted fabrics do not need a wide seam allowance for good performance. However, seaming of knit fabrics needs to be monitored to prevent yarn severance. Broken yarn caused by faulty needles or the wrong needles type may allow runs to start at seams. 504 Superimposed 2 Sleeve Because of automation and ease in handling, sleeves are often finished prior to setting into T-shirts. Automated seaming allows sleeves to be carried by conveyer to the sewing head for hemming. For tubular T- shirts, sleeves are seamed before setting. For other cut and sewn T- shirts, the sleeve is set into the garment and the sleeves and the side seam are closed in one operation. Edge treatments, weather band or hems, are easiest to apply while sleeves are flat. Bands may be applied as binding (BSb) or as superimposed seam (SSa). 504 Superimposed 3 Hemline Better quality T-shirt 406 Efa Budget T-shirt 503 EFc Hems must be stretchy, flat and wide enough to avoid rolling when the fabric is stretched. A narrow hem on a jersey is likely to curl when tension is applied to the edge of the garment. Stitch tension should be loose and the stitches not visible on the right side. Hems may be the first operation on a t-shirt or the last depending how the production line is set up.
  7. 7. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 7 4 Patch Pockets Patch pockets are found on some outwear T-shirts. Pocket hems of better t-shirts have filler or interlining in the pocket hem to retain shape and prevent stretching. Support material is fed in as hems are stitched to the pocket. Automatic pocket setters may be used to attach pocket to shirt fronts. With automation, an operator places a pocket and shirt and shirt front and engages the machine. The machine aligns and stitches the pocket. If pockets are applied, it may be one of the first operations because it is easier to manipulate a flat open piece. 5 Shoulder Seams Budget garments may only be seamed, while better garments have the shoulders taped or elastic applied. This approach may be closed before the neckbone is applied. 504 SSa Superimposed 6 Neckline Bound Seam Neckline Bound seam neckline applications stitched with a cover stitch are fast and easy to apply. They may be used to finish neckline of crew necks, scoops, tanks and so on. Bound seams are flat except where joined at shoulder(s), and provide a neat topstitch appearance. Neckbands, when applied as bound seams, are strips of rib knit fed off rolls through tensioning devices and folders. When neckbands are applied and the shoulder seams(s) closed, the neckline is completed. Neckbands may be applied separately to the neckline back and front or to the neckline after one shoulder seam is closed. Closure of the shoulder seam(s) after trim is applied leaves exposed seam(s) at the neckline edge. This method is fast, minimizes handling, amd is widely used on budget and moderate shirts. 406 Bsb Tubular Neckband Neckbands in tubular form require both shoulder seams to be closed before application. Tubular neckbands may be cut from appropriately sized tubular knits or cut and sewn from piece goods. Tubular neckbands are folded with wrong sides together, positioned on top of the neckline in a superimposed seam, and attaching tubular neckbands to necklines with closed shoulder seams requiring manual application. Sewing operators fold, stretch, and align neckbands and shirt necklines while sewing them together. 504 SSa Superimposed
  8. 8. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 8 7 Taping of Shoulder and Neckline Superimposed neckline seam, are often taped, cover stitched or topstitched to improve comfort, aesthetic appeal, and durability. Unfinished super imposed seam at the neckline may not remain flat during wear or may not stretch and not cover. More durable T-shirts are taped continuously around the back neckline and shoulder seam to flatten the seams, maintain shape, and provide hanger appeal. Continuous taping reinforces the junction of shoulder and neckline seams, which is subject to high stress. Only back neckline seams may be taped when neckbands are applied with both shoulder seams open. This gives the appearance of a better-quality shirt when only the back neck is stabilized. Topstitching may also be used on better-quality garments in areas where the neckline is not taped. 406 SSf, SSag, LSbn Superimposed 8 Label Stitching Label setting is often combined with neckline with neckline seaming. Most T-shirts have neckline labels to provide information and appeal while some shirts have a second label sewn to the outside lower front in a separate operation. This is intended to add fashion appeal and differentiation to some types of shirts. 9 Optional Features Some T-shirts will have trim or screen prints added for decorative purposes. Special T-shirts for infants have larger openings at the head. The shoulder seams are left open near the neck, and buttons or other fasteners are attached. 10 Finishing Operations T-shirts are inspected for flaws in the fabric, stitching, and thread. High- quality T-shirts may be pressed through steam tunnels before they are packaged. Packaging depends on the type of T-shirt and the intended distribution outlet. 11 Quality Control Most of the operations in manufacturing clothing are regulated by federal and inter-national guidelines. Manufacturers may also set guidelines for the company. There are standards that apply specifically to the T-shirt industry, which include proper sizing and fit, appropriate needles and seams, types of stitches, and the number of stitches per inch. Stitches must be loose enough to allow the garment to stretch without breaking the seam. Hems must be flat and wide enough to prevent curling. T-shirts must also be inspected for proper application of neck-lines, which should rest flat against the body. The neckline should also recover properly after being slightly stretched.
  9. 9. Operation Breakdown of a T-shirt MFM, Sem 1 | NIFT, Mumbai | 2008 Garment Manufacturing Technology 9 BOTTLENECK OPERATION We have identified the stitching of the neckline of the T-shirt as a major bottleneck operation. This is a still a manual and time consuming process. There are many variations of attaching the neckline and each of these methods effect the appearance, quality and cost of t-shirts. Attaching the neckline is a very time consuming process and leads to accumulation of WIP. This can be avoided by employing 2 operators instead of one for attaching neckbands. It will add to the cost but there will be a certain cost benefit advantage.