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Lean manufacturing tools for garment industry

Lean manufacturing is a unified, compressive set of philosophies, rules, guidelines, tools, and techniques for improving and optimizing discrete process.
Lean is a production practice that creates more value with less work by eliminating sources of waste.

Lean manufacturing tools for garment industry

  1. 1. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) If we try to define Lean Then we can say “A systematic approach to identifying & eliminating waste (non value added Activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection” Lean manufacturing is a unified, compressive set of philosophies, rules, guidelines, tools, and techniques for improving and optimizing discrete process. Lean is a production practice that creates more value with less work by eliminating sources of waste. Brief Content Introduction Lean manufacturing Lean Principles Lean Benefits 7 Wastes of Lean in Garment Manufacturing 8 Preferred Lean Manufacturing Tools for Garment Industry Lean Implementation Model Lean Design and Implementation Conclusion Lean Manufacturing involves a variety of techniques such as one-piece flow, kaizen, cellular manufacturing, standardized work, work place organization or visual management. The major purposes of the use of lean production are to increase productivity, improve product quality, reduce inventory, reduce lead time and eliminate manufacturing waste. This assignment addresses the implementation of lean principles in a Portuguese garment industry. Traditionally operated garment industries are facing problems concerning low productivity, long production lead times, high rework, poor line balancing, etc, and the firm focused on this project was facing the same problems. On an earlier stage, a literature review on Lean Manufacturing was conducted, from the creation of the concept of LEAN to its main tools and techniques. It was also
  2. 2. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) mentioned the concept of cellular manufacturing, how to accurately balance a manufacturing line and were given some examples of previous applications in this industries. After understanding the concepts of lean manufacturing, a description and a critical analysis to the company’s productive system was made, acknowledging the problems it was facing. Next, improvement proposals were suggested related with layout change, visual management, 5S, quality management practices and cellular manufacturing. After implementation of some lean tools, results observed were highly encouraging. Some of the key benefits involve less movement, transportation and material handling, an increase of 14% in productivity in one month and an increase of 60% in profits in two months. Cellular manufacturing wasn’t implemented, although the company has being left prepared for an implementation in the future. Lean Principles:  Therefore, five main Lean principles were associated with it, briefly described below, and those are: Value, Value Stream, Flow, Pull and Perfection. Value  Express the capacity of accurately specify value from the costumer perspective, or what he’s willing to pay, for both products and services. Lean manufacturing defines the value of a product with the customer point of view. Customer don’t mind how hard you work to create the product. Customer will evaluate the product by looking at how well this going to fulfill their requirements. Customer doesn’t need to pay for the defects that removed from production lines. Value Stream  Identify the value stream of specific activities, from raw material to final goods, required for the development of a product or service, removing non-value- adding waste along that path. Flow
  3. 3. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile)  Make the product or service flow without interruptions across the entire value stream. Pull System  The production is authorized (pulled) by the costumer, as opposite to a push system where the finished goods are pushed to the costumer. Perfection  Constantly identify and remove any kind of waste along the value stream to achieve perfection. Lean Benefits : What can an organization expect as bottom-line results of applying lean thinking to eliminate waste? Documented results across various industries indicate the results in Table below 7 Wastes of Lean in Garment Manufacturing One prime objective of industrial engineering is to increase productivity by eliminating waste and non-value adding operations from the manufacturing process. So it is essential to know the wastes and non-value adding functions those exist in garment manufacturing. There are many articles published on lean manufacturing and 7 wastes related to lean manufacturing those mostly showcased example of other industries. Cases of 7 wastes in the
  4. 4. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) garment industry are rare on the web. May be that’s why I have been asked many times to write a brief note on this topic. In this article, I have explained 7 forms of wastes of Lean with examples related to garment manufacturing.
  5. 5. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) In lean manufacturing we focus increasing time on value added activities by reducing or eliminating wastes (non-value adding time). Let see what value added activities mean. Value added activities: Value added activities are those activities that transform or change the form of the material. Rests of the activities those add cost but not value to the product are called as non-value added activities. In garment manufacturing there are some activities those don't add value but necessary. Transportation of cuttings (bundles) to sewing department is such example of non- value added but essential task. 7 wastes of lean manufacturing: 7 types of wastes and non-value adding activities are as following. T – Transportation E – Excess Inventory E – Excess Motion W – Waiting O – Over production O – Over processing D – Defects To make it easy to remember 7 wastes, memorize the word TEEWOOD with initials of 7 wastes. In the following, 7 wastes are explained briefly with examples of garment industry activities. 1. Transportation When work is transferred from one place to another is a non-value added activity. Moving cuttings from cutting department to sewing lines, transporting stitched garments from sewing floor to finishing department, Moving garment bundles in the line using center table or trolley. Where transportation can’t be eliminated, think how transportation time can be reduced. By using overhead transportation rail in sewing lines, transportation of bundles or single pieces can be automated. 2. Excess inventory Inventories of a factory represents those items which are either in the process of manufacturing or idle resources (material) of a factory or materials in stock. And excess inventory means keeping or generating inventory for the following process more than the demand of the following process. Excess inventory is found in fabric and trim stores, cutting racks, finishing trolleys. Excess inventories are wastes for the factory, as per lean philosophy. Inventory is money. When
  6. 6. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) inventory piled up in stores and on floors, you are blocking your money and are blocking your working space. Even in a sewing line excess work-in-process (WIP) are considered as excess inventory. 3. Excess motion In workstations where operators sew garments, press-men press garments, workers finish and pack garments, excess motions exits there. Excess motion at workstations is found due to poor training of workers in working methods and habit of working in traditional ways. In the factories where there are engineering department to designs workstation layout, operators may use excess motion due to poor workstation layout. 4. Waiting This waste is defined as people or things waiting around for the next action. This term has been discussed in an earlier published article as one of the non-productive times in production. In garment factory, waiting as waste is found in all processes. Like, sewing operators wait for cuttings (no feeding), supervisors waits for final instruction and go ahead for quality approvals. Merchandisers wait for buyer approvals. Waiting is a visible waste in manufacturing as operators and other employees produce nothing while they wait for work or due to other reasons. Few other examples of such waste are – delay in sourcing materials, cutting delays due to fabric approvals and consumption approval. 5. Over Production This waste can be simply defined as doing or making things those are not required now. Over production generate excess inventory. In the garment factories, over production is found in cutting department and in sewing operations. For example, if daily production demand from sewing is 5000 pieces, and factory makes/cuts more than that quantity (demand), factory is producing excess units of garments than needed by the following process for the day (finishing). Over-production cause imbalance in work in process (WIP). 6. Over processing This waste can be defined as doing task or adding features to the product those are not requirement from the customer. In garment construction, some operations may not be essential to give the final look and construction. Example: Multiple checking in finishing (initial checking, pre-final checking and final checking). 7. Defects Producing defects while making garments are waste of money and effort. As everyone in the factory are aware that no defective garment can be shipped then why to produce defective pieces? Defects in garment manufacturing are like shade variation, wrong cutting, stitching defective garment etc. In case defective garments are made, factory needs to alter and repair
  7. 7. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) those defective garments before handing over to the buyer. Repair work costs money and time. In lean manufacturing factories aim to produce garments right first time. For different types of defects found in garments read this article. There are various wastes exits in garment factory. I would love to hear from you on 7 wastes and example of such wastes that you have dealt in your work areas. 8 Preferred Lean Manufacturing Tools for Garment Industry During my visits to garment factories I have seen posters on lean tools and lean slogans in some factories. It means that garment factories are really started implementation of lean tools and practicing lean culture. Factories have posters on process flow chart of lean journey. Improvement pictures of before and after implementation of 5S and Kaizen have been displayed on departments. I have seen lot of visuals on the floor. It ensures that something is happening in garment factories to bring good things and improve business performance. But your question is what lean tools are preferred and applied for garment manufacturing? In one factory, I found a poster where all lean tools were listed those were implemented in that factory. All implementation are done under guidance of external lean experts. Factory has benefited a lot after implementation lean manufacturing. These are the preferred lean tools that have been implemented by experts. So you can start with these tools in your manufacturing facilities. I have listed down 8 preferred lean manufacturing tools which are mostly applied by garment industry with brief explanation . #1. 5S: 5s stand for Seiri(sorting),Seiton(systematic arrangement),Seiso(super clean),Seiketsu(standardize) and Shitsuke(sustainment).5S is about sorting of things in your workplace and inventory stores. Keep workplace and floors clean and arrange things in right order for easy access. #2. Visual displays: Use visual displays as much as possible to communicate with people working in the factory. Display necessary information for quick access. Production board at the end of the line, Mocks of sewing operations at each work stations, quality inspection procedure on the quality checking tables, displaying right and wrong product, displaying exit sign and labeling every items are few example for visual displays factories can easily adopt. #3. Standardization of work process:
  8. 8. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) One core objective of lean manufacturing is elimination of manufacturing wastes and non-value added tasks from the internal processes and systems. For this factory has to set standardized working method. When one follows standard working procedures, there is minimum chance of making errors. #4. Quick Changeover: Quick changeover, one of the lean manufacturing tools, is used in reducing waste in garment making process. While setting a line with new styles, line losses lot of time which is known as set-up loss. Quick changeover or SMED method provides efficient way to set lines for new style in less time. #5. Error proofing: Error proofing aka Poka-Yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator to avoid mistakes. It helps in designing a process in such way that there would not be minimum chance of producing defective product. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. Even error proofing technique can be used in information generation, reporting system. #6. Kanban: Kanban is a workflow system. Kanban tool improves visibility and limit Work in Process. Where factories use Kanban, it helps to eliminate building excess work in process (WIP) in production lines. #7. Problem solving: Clothes are ever changing product. A garment manufacturers need to work with latest products, new material and machines. When one does something first time there may be a chance of having problem. You have to short out the problem to meet your business goal. Problem solving tools helps you and your team to find possible solution without external experts. Ishikawa’s Fish bone diagram method and 5 Whys are two famous tools widely used in problem solving. #8. Workload balancing: In mass production, garments are made in a line where numbers of operators involve making a single garment. A balanced line means every operator has workload and nobody sit idle without work. This maximizes operator utilization. And as a result you get maximum output from a line. It is not only sewing line, workload balance is required everywhere in the company – like department to department, process to process workload balance.
  9. 9. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) Cycle concept of Lean Manufacturing:  Identifying causes(Every problem in the system has a cause for it)  Finding root causes(sometimes one or more root causes for a problem)  Finding solution(how to overcome this problem)  Implementing(implement the solution and to make sure that you achieve your objectives)  Will go on and on again and again  This process will be continuous until there are wastes to be removed. Lean Implementation Model Lean Design and Implementation  This chapter represents the implementation phase of the project. Here, the reader is elucidated through an action plan using the 5W1H technique to solve the identified problems, following a description of its implementation, as for
  10. 10. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) the changes in layout, the implemented program, visual management applications, and implementation of 5S program, quality management practices or group technology. Action Design  After an analysis to the company’s current productive system, we resorted to the 5W1H technique to find solutions to the problems identified, also definingan action plan to be applied. This plan is shown in the next table. ActionPlanTable What? Why? Where? Who? When? How? Reduce transports Unnecessary Transport Shop Floor Responsible person To define Layout Change Establishing goals visual mgt. Low efficiency; Low motivation Shop Floor Responsible person To define Visual Management and Bonus Strategy Organize WIP and tools Large WIP and waiting time Shop Floor 5S responsible To define 5S Application Production Control Unnecessary Movement; Lack of efficiency control; Lack of performance indicators Manufa cturing Line Responsible person To define Create personalized excel program Control Quality Lack of quality practices Shop Floor Head of section To define Implement quality control practices
  11. 11. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) Areas Where Changes Have Been Made Majority (78%) of the companies said that changes in product design and manufacturing process occurred in their organization as a result of lean implementation; 44% respondents indicated a change in supplier networks and the remaining (22%) focused on factory management followed by inbound logistics (11%) and outbound logistics (11%) In addition, companies mentioned a variety of changes that took place within their organizations. These include: �cultural change �education of workers and suppliers �empowerment of employees �commitment of top level managers �relationship with suppliers �rearranging the manufacturing process �creating awareness Lean production reduces all forms of non-value added activities in organizations and improves its performance. From the analysis of the data collected, it appears that companies that adopt lean manufacturing as a working philosophy within their organizations can make significant improvement in terms of their operational performance even if it is in a modified format that best suits their particular business culture. It is obvious that there are strong benefits to be gained from implementing a lean manufacturing culture, as demonstrated by the companies in this study. Areas of organization where changes were made
  12. 12. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) SI NO. Areas of changes Percentages 1 2 3 4 5 6 Product design Inbound logistics Outbound logistics Manufacturing Processes Supplier network Factory management 78 11 11 78 44 22 Reduction in unit production cost Company Before Lean ($) After Lean ($) Reduction ($) As a % 1. Fashion Point Ltd. 2. Texas Fashion Ltd. 3. Beximco Fashions Ltd. 4. Shanta Industries Ltd. 5. DADA(Savar) Ltd. 6. Shata WashWorks Ltd. 7. Armana Fashions Ltd. 8. Shanta Denims Ltd. 9. PAXAR Bangladesh Ltd. 8.50 11.0 4.40 10.0 1.40 3.50 0.87 - 4.50 7.00 9.00 3.20 8.00 1.30 3.00 0.84 - 3.00 1.50 2.00 1.20 2.00 0.10 0.50 0.03 - 1.50 17.6 18.1 27.2 20.0 7.1 14.2 3.4 - 33.3
  13. 13. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) The amount of time (hour/minutes) to accomplish standard work sequence for making a product Company Before Lean (minutes) After Lean (minutes) Reduction (minutes) % of reduction 1. Fashion Point Ltd. 2. Texas Fashion Ltd. 3. Beximco Fashions Ltd. 4. Shanta Industries Ltd. 5. DADA(Savar) Ltd. 6. Shata WashWorks Ltd. 7. Armana Fashions Ltd. 8. Shanta Denims Ltd. 9. PAXAR Bangladesh Ltd. 60 30 55 75 50 60 50 60 40 40 15 49 60 39 40 40 40 35 20 15 06 15 11 20 10 20 05 33 50 11 20 22 33 20 33 13 Conclusion Implementation of lean manufacturing in a garment manufacturing company is carried out by this. To implemented in a Bangladeshi garment manufacturing company. For the first few weeks we tried to learn the processes in the garments finishing department. Then study and analysis those processes are performed using some lean manufacturing tools and techniques and found some problems. Eventually some layouts and process flows are proposed that improves the productivity and
  14. 14. Advanced Apparel Manufacturing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) reduces cost. The better utilization of manpower and factory floor space is also ensured by implementing the proposed layout. At the same time proposals help to develop a good relationship among the workers and will provide an easier way for the management to coordinate and integrate the factory production with the current level of resources. These techniques can be implemented in any garment manufacturing company and it will help them to improve the productivity at same level of resources. Reference  Karim, S. (2009). The Impact of Just-in-Time Production Practices on Organizational Performance in the Garments and Textiles Industries in Bangladesh, Doctoral Thesis, Dhaka University.  Lean thinking, international journal volume3 issue2 december 12,Asst.profes sor, Gandhigra Rural University, ndhigram,India.senthil.b1980@gmail.com  F. A. Abdulmalek, J. Rajgopal, Analyzing the benefits of lean manufacturing and value stream mapping via simulation: A process sector case study. International Journal of Production Economics, 107, 223-236, 2007.  Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty et al./ Study and Implementation of Lean...  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lean  www.Application Of Lean Manufacturing Tools In Garments Production/html

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