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Crop production ppt

crop production and management

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Crop production ppt

  1. 1. FOOD It is the basic requirement of life to survive. It is made up of various kind of energy rich substances like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, which are known as nutrients.
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS OF FOOD Food provide energy for various metabolic activities. It helps in growth and development of body. It helps in the replacement of worn out tissues, repair of damaged cells and healing of wounds. It provide protection against diseases.
  3. 3. SOURCES OF FOOD Cereals Pulses Oil seed crops Fruits and vegetables
  4. 4. CEREALS  WHEAT RICE
  5. 5. MAIZE BAJRA 
  6. 6. Jowar
  7. 7. PULSES Pigeon pea (arhar) Urad
  8. 8. Lentil (masoor) Pea
  9. 9. Black gram
  10. 10. OIL SEED CROPS Soyabean Groundnut
  11. 11. Sunflower Niger
  12. 12. Sesame Castor
  13. 13. Mustard Linseed
  14. 14. ROOT CROPS Turnip Carrot Sweet Potato
  15. 15. SUGAR CROPS Sugarcane Beet
  16. 16. FIBRE CROPS Cotton Jute
  17. 17. PLANTATION CROPS Tea Coffee Coconut Rubber
  18. 18. FODDER CROPS Berseem Elephant Grass
  19. 19. AGRICULTURE It is the branch of science which deals with the productions of plants and raising of animals useful to man Involves soil cultivation, breeding and management of crops and livestock.
  20. 20. CROP When plants of same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scales, it is called a crop. Different types of crops require different climate conditions.
  21. 21. TYPES OF CROP KHARIF/RAINY SEASON CROP RABI / WINTER SEASON CROP ZAID CROP Grown during monsoon/rainy season Grown during winter season  grown during mainly summer season Require warm and wet weather Require cold and dry weather Require warm dry weather  sown in june/ july and harvested in september/october Sown in october/november and harvested in march/april Sown in march and harvested in june Eg…rice, jowar, urad, bajra, cotton, pea, moong, groundnut Eg…wheat, barley, gram, mustard, potato Seasonal fruits and vegetables
  22. 22. AGRICULTURE IMPLEMENTS NAME OF IMPLEMENT USES  KHURPA FOR WEEDING  SPADE FOR DIGGING AND BUNDS FORMATION  WOODEN PLOUGH FOR TILLING  SOIL PLANK FOR BREAKING CRUMBS  SEED DRILL FOR SOWING  HARROW FOR WEEDING  SICKLE FOR HARVESTING  SPRAYER FOR SPRAYING INSECTICIDES  COMBINE FOR HARVESTING AND THRESHING
  23. 23. Khurpa Spade Soil Plank Harrow
  24. 24. CROP PRODUCTION PRACTICES PREPARATION OF SOIL SOWING ADDING MANURE AND FERTILIZERS IRRIGATION PROTECTION FROM WEEDS HARVESTING STORAGE
  25. 25. PREPARATION OF SOIL Includes ploughing and levelling PLOUGHING / TILLING process of loosening and turning of soil  done by using a plough  ploughs are made of wood or iron  allows the roots to penetrate deeper easily  soil is overturned and properly aerated by ploughing
  26. 26. PLOUGH Wooden Plough Iron Plough
  27. 27. TRADITIONAL PLOUGHING
  28. 28. MODERN PLOUGHING
  29. 29. LEVELLING process to make soil surface in level for sowing seeds Done by using a leveller , made of wood or iron Wooden leveller Iron leveller
  30. 30. TRADITIONAL LEVELLING
  31. 31.  MODERN LEVELLING
  32. 32. SOWING  Done by broadcaster and seed drill  Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected Broadcasting Seed Drill
  33. 33.  MANUAL SOWING
  34. 34.  SOWING BY SEED DRILL
  35. 35. APPLYING MANURE AND FERTILIZERS MANURE FERTILIZER  Organic natural substances , derived from decomposition of biological materials.  organic or inorganic substances.  contain organic matter in large quantities.  organic matter not present.  contain nutrient in small quantities & are needed in large quantities. Contain much higher amount of nutrients & are required in very small quantities.  they are not nutrient specific.  they are nutrient specific.  they are prepared in fields & villages.  they are manufactured in factories.  manures are bulky substances. So these are inconvenient to store, use and transport  these are available in concentrated form . So these are easy to store, use and transport.  do not cause pollution  cause water pollution
  36. 36. Manure Manure Spreader
  37. 37.  MANURE SPREADING
  38. 38. Fertilizer Sprayer
  39. 39. FERTILIZERS SPRAYING
  40. 40. IRRIGATION  Process of supplying water to crop plants growing in the fields by means of canal, reservoir, wells, tube wells, etc. Water provide essential macronutrients to crop --- hydrogen and oxygen
  41. 41. TYPES OF IRRIGATION SOIL BASED IRRIGATION Eg - crop grown in sandy soil require more frequent irrigation than crop grown in clayey soil CROP BASED IRRIGATION Eg – paddy crop is transplanted in standing water requires more water supply as compared to wheat, gram, cotton.
  42. 42. METHODS OF IRRIGATION TRADITIONAL METHODS :-  Moat (pulley system)  Chain pump  Dhekli  Rahat (level system)
  43. 43. Moat System Chain Pump
  44. 44. Rahat System Dhekli System
  45. 45.  RAHAT SYSTEM
  46. 46. CHAIN PUMP
  47. 47. DHEKLI SYSTEM
  48. 48. MOAT SYSTEM
  49. 49.  MODERN METHODS:-  Drip Irrigation Method  Sprinkler System  Fertigation
  50. 50. Drip Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation
  51. 51. DRIP IRRIGATION
  52. 52. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
  53. 53. REMOVAL OF WEEDS  WEEDS :- undesirable plants with the main crop, compete with the main crop for water, nutrients, space, light.  WEEDING :- removal of weeds.
  54. 54. WEEDING METHODS METHODS EXAMPLES BIOLOGICAL METHODS Cassia plant against Parthenium weed Herbivorous fish in paddy fields CHEMICAL METHODS 2,4-D, Nitrofen, Atrazine CULTURAL METHODS Crop rotation, Mixed Cropping, Intercropping MECHANICAL METHODS Ploughing, Flooding, Burning
  55. 55. WEEDING IN BANANA CROP
  56. 56. HARVESTING Cutting of crop after its maturation Done by sickle or by a machine called harvester Grains are separated from chaff by a process called threshing Threshing is carried out by combine (harvester + thresher)
  57. 57. SICKLE HARVESTER
  58. 58. COMBINE
  59. 59. MANUAL HARVESTING
  60. 60.  MODERN HARVESTING
  61. 61. STORAGE OF GRAINS After threshing, grains are dried in sun and then packed. Farmers store food grains in jute bags or metallic bins Large scale storage is done in silos and granaries and stored in godowns At domestic level, dried neem leaves are also used
  62. 62. SILOS
  63. 63. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR GRAINS LOSS DURING STORAGE BIOTIC (LIVING) FACTORS:- insects, rodents, birds, mites ABIOTIC (NON LIVING) FACTORS:- Temperature, moisture, humidity, material of container
  64. 64. MEASURES TO PREVENT GRAIN LOSS Drying before storage Maintenance of hygeine Plant product treatment Prophylactic treatment Improved storage structures
  65. 65. DISEASES OF CROPS CATEGORY DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT SYMPTOMS Seed borne diseases Ergot of Bajra Claviceps perpuria Fungus infect florets and develops in ovaries, producing sticky liquid called honey dew. Leaf Spot of Rice Bipolaris oryzae Brown leaf spots occur which are small and circular
  66. 66. Ergot of Bajra Leaf Spot of Rice
  67. 67. CATEGORY DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT SYMPTOMS Soil borne diseases Tikka disease of groundnut Cercosporidium personatum Spots are reddish brown to black on upper surface and light brown on the lower surface of leaf. Smut of bajra Tolyposporium sp. In affected ears, some of grain become deep green which becomes black.
  68. 68. Tikka disease of groundnut Smut of Bajra
  69. 69. CATEGORY DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT SYMPTOMS Water borne disease Bacterial blight of rice Xanthomonas oryzae Leaves of young plant become pale green , whole leaf become whitish, greyish and then die.
  70. 70. Bacterial Blight of Rice
  71. 71. CATEGORY DISEASE CAUSATIVE AGENT SYMPTOMS Air borne disease Rust of wheat Puccinia triticana Brown pustules on the stalk and leaves. These pustules burst and release brown powder which consist of spores. Blast of rice Magnaporthe grisea White to green lesions with dark border appear on all parts of shoot. Internodal infection also occur which result in the breakdown of stem.
  72. 72. Rust of wheat Blast of rice
  73. 73. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE Agriculture practices that can continue for very long time without damaging the natural resources Can be done by:- Mixed farming Crop rotation Mixed cropping Intercropping
  74. 74. Intercropping
  75. 75. Mixed Cropping Three Sisters(Bean+Squash+Corn) The spreading, big-leafed squash shades the ground conserving moisture, inhibiting weeds and deterring pests. The corn acts as a natural beanpole, while the beans contribute nitrogen to the soil for the other crops to use. Together, beans and corn provide a complete protein. In this photo, you can see the light green leaves of a bean plant growing at the base of the cornstalk.
  76. 76. Three Sisters
  77. 77. GREEN REVOLUTION  Started in 1960 by Dr. M.S. Swaminathan (father of green revolution)  Main aim was to increase production of wheat by modern agricultural practices  High yield dwarf variety of wheat “Sharbati sonara” was developed in 1967.
  78. 78. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Science which deals with scientific management of animals. It includes:- Breeding Feeding Heeding Weeding
  79. 79. THANKS Biology Department Udaipur Study Centre

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