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definition of terrorism

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  1. 1. Terrorism What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism?
  2. 2. Definition of Terrorism <ul><li>Terrorism actually comes from the Latin Word “Fear” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Unlawful Use of Force Against Persons or Property to Intimidate or Coerce a Government, the Civilian Population, or Segment Thereof, in the Furtherance of Political or Social Objectives.”(Source FBI) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terrorism <ul><li>Is an unlawful act of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Intimidates governments or societies </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives </li></ul>Arthur H. Garrison
  5. 5. “… warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities; terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point” NYTimes, 1/6/2000 “ Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen”
  6. 10. Terrorism Priorities <ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty Bombs </li></ul>
  7. 11. Property of Terrorism <ul><li>Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint </li></ul><ul><li>One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter </li></ul>
  8. 12. The Terrorist and their Thinking
  9. 13. Educational Deterence Fear always springs from ignorance. Emerson, 1837
  10. 14. Modern History of Terrorism <ul><li>Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998). </li></ul></ul>Arthur H. Garrison
  11. 15. Terrorism conclusions <ul><li>Terrorism is an ancient tactic. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a mode of communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war . </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a political act . </li></ul>Arthur H. Garrison
  12. 16. Two Types of Groups <ul><li>Domestic/ </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul>
  13. 17. Terrorist Motives <ul><li>Ethnic Cleansing </li></ul><ul><li>Damage Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Disrupt Normal Life </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Kill of an Enemy </li></ul>
  14. 18. Terrorist Motives <ul><li>Undermine Confidence In Government </li></ul><ul><li>- Requires Media Coverage </li></ul><ul><li>- Should effect as many people as possible </li></ul><ul><li>- Must last long enough to overwhelm (NYC) </li></ul><ul><li>Local resources </li></ul><ul><li>Media audience </li></ul><ul><li>- Usually directed towards injury fatality (International Terrorist) </li></ul>
  15. 19. Target Selection <ul><li>Based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Device Available </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Deployment Method Available </li></ul>
  16. 20. Thinking Outside the Box <ul><li>They ARE!! </li></ul>
  17. 21. Types of Terrorist Incidents Four Primary Types for Emergency Services
  18. 22. Terrorist Incidents <ul><li>Explosives and Arson </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Agents </li></ul>
  19. 23. Explosives and Arson <ul><li>70% of Attacks Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes Property Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Target Individuals (Letter or Package Bombs) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy Building, Aircraft, Monuments, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Large Devices, Truck or Car Bombs </li></ul>
  20. 24. Suspicious Thing to Look for
  21. 25. Operational Procedures for Terrorist Incidents FACTORS FOR PREPARING Common Weapons Stand-off Weapons Super Terrorism
  22. 26. Operational Changes <ul><li>Emergency Services strategic thinker must be willing to “think the unthinkable” so that appropriate responses may be conceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not overstate the threat. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Terrorist Units and Cells: A Functional Approach Funding <ul><li>Sources: crime, harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Processing and management, </li></ul><ul><li>Nation States </li></ul>Training <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul>Intelligence <ul><li>Supplied </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Internet/other open source </li></ul><ul><li>Information and politics </li></ul>Logistics <ul><li>Equipment & supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Other essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul>Operations <ul><li>One-man </li></ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral/ collaborative </li></ul>
  24. 28. Government Response to Terrorism: A Functional Approach Funding <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Federal, State and </li></ul><ul><li>Local Taxes </li></ul>Training <ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors </li></ul><ul><li>Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul>Intelligence <ul><li>Supplied </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Internet/other open source </li></ul><ul><li>Information and politics </li></ul>Logistics <ul><li>Equipment & supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Other essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul>Operations <ul><li>One-man </li></ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral/ collaborative </li></ul>
  25. 29. Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorist Targets and their Weapons
  26. 30. Biological terrorism <ul><li>Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror </li></ul><ul><li>The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul></ul>Phillip L. Coule, M.D.
  27. 31. Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths Terrorism takes much Time and planning
  28. 32. Nuclear Terrorism <ul><li>Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Detonate a nuclear weapon </li></ul><ul><li>No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred </li></ul>
  29. 33. Common Weapons <ul><li>Fertilizer Bombs </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamite </li></ul><ul><li>Semtex </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and Semi-automatic and Pistols remain the weapons of choice. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Stand-Off Weapons <ul><li>American Stinger </li></ul><ul><li>Russian SA-7 Hand-Held Anti-Aircraft missiles </li></ul><ul><li>US Army Light Anti-tank Weapon (LAW) </li></ul><ul><li>Russian RPG-7 Anti-Tank Weapon </li></ul><ul><li>And Increasing Bombing Technologies. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Where is Terrorism Going? The CYBER World
  32. 36. HE IS!!!!!!!!!
  33. 37. Prevention of Terrorism <ul><li>Primary prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate the root of terrorism </li></ul></ul>
  34. 38. Prevention of Terrorism <ul><li>Secondary prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve protective system for citizens </li></ul></ul>
  35. 39. Prevention of Terrorism <ul><li>Tertiary prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early detection of the sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the extension of impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue the survivors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Console the rest of the population </li></ul></ul>
  36. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>Terrorism is unlawful act </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism can be conducted through firearms, explosive devices and biological, chemical, nuclear materials </li></ul><ul><li>Even through the events of 2001,the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage . </li></ul>
  37. 41. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. FDR, 1933 Fears are educated into us & can, if we wish, be educated out.