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  1. 1. Terrorism Its Type,Nature and Prevention Avinash Rajput Criminology 1st Semester Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. 2. Definitions of Terrorism  “Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against person or Property to intimidate or coerce o government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” - F.B.I Definition  "calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear. It is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies ... [to attain] political, religious, or ideological goals." - U.S. Army Manual  “Terrorism is the use or threatened use of force designed to bring about political change.” - Brian Jenkins  “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” - Walter Laqueur
  3. 3. Types of Terrorism  National Terrorism  International Terrorism
  4. 4. National Terrorism National Terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.
  5. 5. International Terrorism International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.
  6. 6. Other Types of Terrorism • • • • • • State Terrorism Bio Terrorism Cyber Terrorism Eco Terrorism NuclearTerrorism Narco Terrorism
  7. 7. State Terrorism  State terrorism may refer to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against a foreign state or people.  State terrorism refer to acts of violence by a state against its own people.  State terrorism is a system of political domination based on the spreading of terror in society.
  8. 8. Bio Terrorism  Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, or toxins.  Bioterrorism is the term used for terrorist activities in which biological substances are used to cause harm to other people. Example: They can be contaminated water, food, air and packages to create infection.
  9. 9. Cyber Terrorism In this Terrorist use Information Technology to attack civilians. In this Terrorist use Computer System and Telecommunications as a tool to attack. Example: The internet worms and viruses that are designed to take down some of the systems that the government uses.
  10. 10. Eco Terrorism Eco terrorism is a recently coined term describing violence in the interests of environmentalism.
  11. 11. Nuclear Terrorism "Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. Nuclear terrorism is any different way that nuclear weapons might be used for terrorism. Example: Use of Radioactive materials through explosion. Use of nuclear reactor method.
  12. 12. Narco Terrorism  In Narco terrorism, terrorists making, transporting, and selling illegal drugs to fund terrorists activities.  Narco terrorism has denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. Example: Making, transporting, and selling illegal drugs to fund terrorists activities.
  13. 13. Characteristics of Terrorism It is exercised by organized groups It is inspired by Political Motive Use of Violence is intended to arouse fright or alarm There is systematic and indiscriminate use of violence and breach of Law
  14. 14. Psychological Impact of Terrorism Strong motivation to terminate terror Evokes classic ego defense mechanisms and displacement Often produces frustration-aggression reaction general increase in mental illness Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  15. 15. Causes Of Terrorism Injustice Politicians Poverty and Illiteracy Media ( Controlled By Politicians) Religious causes
  16. 16. Methods of Terrorism Firearms Explosive and Incendiary Devices Chemical Agents Biological Agents Nuclear Weapon
  18. 18. Purpose of Terrorism Fear Panic Disruption Demoralization Intimidation Embarrass Government Media Attention
  19. 19. Similarities Between Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups Hierarchy structure Operate secretly Underground network Control over the individual is strong front organizations (Businesses or Charities) Similar tactics
  20. 20. Differences Between Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups Terrorist  ideologically or politically motivated  seek media attention  Victimization is generally less discriminate  wish to compete with governments for legitimacy Organized Crime  profit-oriented  Do not seek media attention  Victimization is generally less discriminate  Do not do this
  22. 22. Different Acts for Terrorism Terrorism Act 2000 Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 ANIMAL ENTERPRISE TERRORISM ACT
  23. 23. Prevention of Terrorism Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention
  24. 24. Primary Prevention Education!!! Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people” Eliminate the root of terrorism
  25. 25. Secondary Prevention Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack Improve protective system for citizens
  26. 26. Tertiary Prevention Early detection of the sources Prevent the extension of impairments Rescue the survivors Console the rest of the population
  27. 27. Solutions for Terrorism Remove Poverty Justice Dealing with media Improving international behaviour

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