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What is it?
Where does it come from?
Why is it used?
How can we prevent it?
What do we fear about Terrorism?
FALLOUT SHELTER
Terrorism
 Is an unlawful act of violence
 Intimidates governments or societies
 Goal is to achieve political, religious or
ideological objectives
Arthur H. Garrison
“…warfare seeks to conquer territories
and capture cities;
terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and
to scare a lot of people in order to make
a point” NYTimes, 1/6/2000
“Putting the horror in the minds of the
audience, and not necessarily on the screen”
Fear always springs from ignorance.
Emerson, 1837
http://www.west.asu.edu/itweb/services/classroom.gif
Early History of Terrorism
 Terror has been used to achieve political ends
and has a long history
 As early as 66 – 72 A.D. Resistance to Roman
occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers and
destroyed Roman property.
 Terror was used to resist occupation.
Arthur H. Garrison
Early History of Terrorism
 Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed
by invaders which resulted in rewards in
heaven. It dates back thousands of years in
most societies and religions.
 Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed
as a religious act.
Arthur H. Garrison
Modern History of Terrorism
 The term “terrorism” was coined in the French
Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794). .
 This was the birth of Government-Sponsored
Terrorism
 The line between terrorism and political violence
is often blurred
 Goal: of State terrorism was to eliminate
opposition, consolidate power, e.g., the Vanished
in Argentina
Arthur H. Garrison
Modern History of Terrorism
 Anarchists were seen in the late 19th
century
 Individual terrorism
 The use of selective terror against an
individual in order to bring down a
government, e.g. Lincoln assassination
 Propaganda by deeds …terrorists acts
 Terrorism became tool of communication,
propaganda
Arthur H. Garrison
Modern History of Terrorism:
 Middle 20th century, terrorism became a tool
used by both sides of colonial conflicts.
 The last 20 years of of the 20th century
religious based terrorism became more and
more frequent.
 Another format is economic terrorism, which
destructs industry and agriculture system.
Arthur H. Garrison
Modern History of Terrorism
 Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.
 Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently
random/unpredictable violence by an weak
military against a stronger military to gain
advantage. (Allen, 1997).
 The key of Asymmetric warfare is using
unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat
(Craig, 1998).
Arthur H. Garrison
Terrorism conclusions
 Terrorism is an ancient tactic.
 Terrorism is a mode of communication.
 Terrorism is a special type of violence and
Asymmetrical warfare.
 Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and
war.
 Terrorism is designed to make a point, through
psychological means, fear.
 Terrorism is a political act.
Arthur H. Garrison
Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack
Preparation
5 years
Execution 1 day
Diagnosed case 3 days
First Death
Multiple deaths
Terrorism takes much
Time and planning
Property of Terrorism
 Terrorism is different from regular crime
because of its strong political properties
 The definition of terrorism can vary from
people to people due to the differences in
standpoint
 One person’s terrorist can be another’s
fighter
Prevention of Terrorism
 Primary prevention:
 Education!!!
 Understand the differences in cultures,
religions, beliefs and human behaviors
 Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all
human beings, not just “my group of people”
 Eliminate the root of terrorism
Prevention of Terrorism
 Secondary prevention:
 Establish surveillance and monitoring system
on terrorism attack
 Improve protective system for citizens
Prevention of Terrorism
 Tertiary prevention
 Early detection of the sources
 Prevent the extension of impairments
 Rescue the survivors
 Console the rest of the population
Types of Terrorism
 Domestic terrorism involves groups whose
terrorist activities are directed at elements of
our government without foreign involvement.
Oklahoma City is a primary example.
 International terrorism involves groups
whose terrorist activities are foreign-based
and/or directed by countries or groups
outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an
example of International Terrorism.
the Center for National Security Studies
Methods of Terrorism
 Firearms
 Explosive and Incendiary Devices
 Chemical Agents
 Biological Agents
 Nuclear Weapon
From Emergency Net NEWS Archives, 1994
Document Courtesy of the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office
Suspicious Thing to Look for
Chemical Agents
 Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people,
destroy livestock or ravage crops
 Some agents are odorless and tasteless
 They can have an immediate or a delayed
effect
Example of Chemical Terrorism
 Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo
subway system in March 20, 1995
 12 people were killed and 53 were
seriously injured
Genro Ochi M.D
Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 28
Biological terrorism
 Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to
produce illness, death and terror
 The paths of infection can be contaminated
water, food, air and packages.
 Microbes
 Bacteria
 Viruses
 Toxins
Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 29
Is this something new?
 14th Century – Kaffa
 City on Crimean Peninsula
 Hurled plague infested corpses over walls
of city to infest it
Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 30
Is this something new?
 18th Century French and Indian War
 British Officers gave blankets from smallpox
victims to Indians aligned with French
 Caused an epidemic in tribes
 Effective means of incapacitating group
Motives for bioterrorism
Incident Motive
Polish resistance Resistance against foreign occupation
Mau Mau Resistance against colonialism
Dark Harvest Send a political message
Rajneeshes Win a local election by incapacitating the
non-Rajneeshee voters
AUM Shrinkyo Seize control of Japan through mass
murder, causing fear and apprehension
Dr.Suzuki Revenge for unfair treatment he received
at the medical training
Anthrax(USA) Inculcate fear
Fred T. Muwanga M.D. Msc
Responses to Bioterrorism
 Early detection of active and potential cases
 Emergency measures to save lives
 Prevention and management of secondary
contamination
Nuclear Terrorism
 Spreading of radioactive materials through
ventilation system or explosion
 Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and
cause leakage of radioactive materials
 Detonate a nuclear weapon
 No use of nuclear material for non-military
terrorism has ever occurred
Proportion of death from terrorism
in total death in the United States
Average
death per
year
From
terrorism
From all
causes
Proportion
(%)
1990’s 8 2534203 0.0003
2001 2893 2404624 0.12
Risk of Dying
Smoking 10 cigarettes a day One in 200
All natural causes age 40 One in 850
Road accident One in 8,000
Playing soccer One in 25,000
Homicide One in 100,000
Terrorism attack in 2001 One in 100,000
Hit by lightning One in 10,000,000
Terrorism attack in 1990’s One in 50,000,000
Penguin Books, 1987
Death Rate of Various Causes in
2000 USA and that from Terrorism
Heart disease* One in 400
Cancer * One in 500
Cerebrovascular diseases* One in 2,000
Accidents * One in 3,000
Diabetes* One in 4,000
Suicide* One in 10,000
Homicide* One in 20,000
Terrorism in 2001 One in 100,000
Terrorism in 1990’s One in 50,000,000
What occupation has had the greatest
risk of death from Terrorism?
Why did terrorism draw considerable
attention in 2001?
 The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely
low in 1990’s, and was still relatively low
compared with some diseases in 2001
 But the death rate increased by 500 times in
2001 due to Sept. 11
 Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been
high
 Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear
engulfed the United States and world
Conclusion
 Terrorism is unlawful act
 Terrorism has a long history of being used to
achieve political, religious and ideological
objectives
 Terrorism can be conducted through firearms,
explosive devices and biological, chemical,
nuclear materials
 Even through the events of 2001,the risk of
dying from terrorism has remained much
lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking,
and alcoholic beverage.
The only thing we
have to fear is
fear itself. FDR, 1933
Fears are educated into us & can,
if we wish, be educated out. — Karl A. Menninger

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Global Terrorism and its types and prevention ppt.

  • 1.
  • 2. Supercourse A project designed to create a free lecture library of PowerPoint prevention slides, 9212 Academic Faculty from 120 countries with over 800 available Free Powerpoint Lectures http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/
  • 3. What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it used? How can we prevent it? What do we fear about Terrorism?
  • 5. Terrorism  Is an unlawful act of violence  Intimidates governments or societies  Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives Arthur H. Garrison
  • 6. “…warfare seeks to conquer territories and capture cities; terrorism seeks to hurt a few people and to scare a lot of people in order to make a point” NYTimes, 1/6/2000 “Putting the horror in the minds of the audience, and not necessarily on the screen”
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  • 9. Fear always springs from ignorance. Emerson, 1837
  • 11. Early History of Terrorism  Terror has been used to achieve political ends and has a long history  As early as 66 – 72 A.D. Resistance to Roman occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property.  Terror was used to resist occupation. Arthur H. Garrison
  • 12. Early History of Terrorism  Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders which resulted in rewards in heaven. It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions.  Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed as a religious act. Arthur H. Garrison
  • 13. Modern History of Terrorism  The term “terrorism” was coined in the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror (1793 – 1794). .  This was the birth of Government-Sponsored Terrorism  The line between terrorism and political violence is often blurred  Goal: of State terrorism was to eliminate opposition, consolidate power, e.g., the Vanished in Argentina Arthur H. Garrison
  • 14. Modern History of Terrorism  Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century  Individual terrorism  The use of selective terror against an individual in order to bring down a government, e.g. Lincoln assassination  Propaganda by deeds …terrorists acts  Terrorism became tool of communication, propaganda Arthur H. Garrison
  • 15. Modern History of Terrorism:  Middle 20th century, terrorism became a tool used by both sides of colonial conflicts.  The last 20 years of of the 20th century religious based terrorism became more and more frequent.  Another format is economic terrorism, which destructs industry and agriculture system. Arthur H. Garrison
  • 16. Modern History of Terrorism  Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare.  Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997).  The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998). Arthur H. Garrison
  • 17. Terrorism conclusions  Terrorism is an ancient tactic.  Terrorism is a mode of communication.  Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare.  Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war.  Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear.  Terrorism is a political act. Arthur H. Garrison
  • 18. Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack Preparation 5 years Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths Terrorism takes much Time and planning
  • 19. Property of Terrorism  Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties  The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint  One person’s terrorist can be another’s fighter
  • 20. Prevention of Terrorism  Primary prevention:  Education!!!  Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors  Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people”  Eliminate the root of terrorism
  • 21. Prevention of Terrorism  Secondary prevention:  Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack  Improve protective system for citizens
  • 22. Prevention of Terrorism  Tertiary prevention  Early detection of the sources  Prevent the extension of impairments  Rescue the survivors  Console the rest of the population
  • 23. Types of Terrorism  Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.  International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism. the Center for National Security Studies
  • 24. Methods of Terrorism  Firearms  Explosive and Incendiary Devices  Chemical Agents  Biological Agents  Nuclear Weapon
  • 25. From Emergency Net NEWS Archives, 1994 Document Courtesy of the U.S. Postal Inspector's Office Suspicious Thing to Look for
  • 26. Chemical Agents  Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops  Some agents are odorless and tasteless  They can have an immediate or a delayed effect
  • 27. Example of Chemical Terrorism  Sarin nerve agent attacked the Tokyo subway system in March 20, 1995  12 people were killed and 53 were seriously injured Genro Ochi M.D
  • 28. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 28 Biological terrorism  Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror  The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages.  Microbes  Bacteria  Viruses  Toxins
  • 29. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 29 Is this something new?  14th Century – Kaffa  City on Crimean Peninsula  Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it
  • 30. Phillip L. Coule, M.D. 30 Is this something new?  18th Century French and Indian War  British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French  Caused an epidemic in tribes  Effective means of incapacitating group
  • 31. Motives for bioterrorism Incident Motive Polish resistance Resistance against foreign occupation Mau Mau Resistance against colonialism Dark Harvest Send a political message Rajneeshes Win a local election by incapacitating the non-Rajneeshee voters AUM Shrinkyo Seize control of Japan through mass murder, causing fear and apprehension Dr.Suzuki Revenge for unfair treatment he received at the medical training Anthrax(USA) Inculcate fear Fred T. Muwanga M.D. Msc
  • 32. Responses to Bioterrorism  Early detection of active and potential cases  Emergency measures to save lives  Prevention and management of secondary contamination
  • 33. Nuclear Terrorism  Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion  Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials  Detonate a nuclear weapon  No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred
  • 34. Proportion of death from terrorism in total death in the United States Average death per year From terrorism From all causes Proportion (%) 1990’s 8 2534203 0.0003 2001 2893 2404624 0.12
  • 35. Risk of Dying Smoking 10 cigarettes a day One in 200 All natural causes age 40 One in 850 Road accident One in 8,000 Playing soccer One in 25,000 Homicide One in 100,000 Terrorism attack in 2001 One in 100,000 Hit by lightning One in 10,000,000 Terrorism attack in 1990’s One in 50,000,000 Penguin Books, 1987
  • 36. Death Rate of Various Causes in 2000 USA and that from Terrorism Heart disease* One in 400 Cancer * One in 500 Cerebrovascular diseases* One in 2,000 Accidents * One in 3,000 Diabetes* One in 4,000 Suicide* One in 10,000 Homicide* One in 20,000 Terrorism in 2001 One in 100,000 Terrorism in 1990’s One in 50,000,000
  • 37. What occupation has had the greatest risk of death from Terrorism?
  • 38. Why did terrorism draw considerable attention in 2001?  The risk of dying from terrorism was extremely low in 1990’s, and was still relatively low compared with some diseases in 2001  But the death rate increased by 500 times in 2001 due to Sept. 11  Overall the death rate of terrorism has not been high  Despite the low risk, shock, surprise and fear engulfed the United States and world
  • 39. Conclusion  Terrorism is unlawful act  Terrorism has a long history of being used to achieve political, religious and ideological objectives  Terrorism can be conducted through firearms, explosive devices and biological, chemical, nuclear materials  Even through the events of 2001,the risk of dying from terrorism has remained much lower than that from motor vehicles, smoking, and alcoholic beverage.
  • 40. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. FDR, 1933 Fears are educated into us & can, if we wish, be educated out. — Karl A. Menninger