Global Warming

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CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING

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  • Photo: remember when 2 outlets per wall was more than enough??
  • Here we see the typical saw-tooth pattern of temperature which marks the short interglacial (warm) periods followed by longer glacial periods. In every case, CO2 records and temperature records correlate. What will happen in our newly CO2-enriched climate, however, is anybody’s guess. Scientists have used computer models to show that temperatures will likely increase between 3 and 11 °F over the next 100 years. Following every peak in CO2, there is an immediate drop. This happened 10,000 years ago, but slowed once humans began agricultural activity. Now, the level of CO2 is skyrocketing and is expected to exceed 600 ppm by 2050!
  • Air bubbles trapped in ice cores allow us to extend this CO2 record back about a million years.
  • Decades ago, climate scientists told of the predicted patterns of UNNATURAL climate change caused by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. They nailed the patterns. What they predicted is exactly what we are seeing.
  • Images of Kilimanjaro taken from the shuttle in 1993 and in 2000.
  • Albedo feedback is apparent when comparing NH snow cover from January 2004, for example, to July 2004 (next slide). Caption: This image shows the Earth in January 2004 from the Blue Marble: Next Generation. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory . See: http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/features/bmng_gallery_3.html And: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/BlueMarble/BlueMarble_monthlies.html
  • As glaciers melt in a warmer climate, sea levels rise.
  • Satellite images reveal a widening melt area in early summer each year.
  • Here’s what FL’s coast looked like.
  • Species of land animals are disappearing faster now than any time since the dinosaurs were wiped out 65 million years ago. From polar bears in the Arctic no longer having sea ice for hunting, mating, and migration, to frog in the tropics, we are losing species fast, and humans are almost completely to blame. Increased winds are carrying dust farther, worsening conditions like allergies and asthma, while longer breeding seasons for insects are helping spread insect-borne disease like malaria.
  • Global Warming

    1. 1. GLOBAL WARMING A WARNING FOR LIFE
    2. 2. <ul><li> * It is simply defined as the increase in the earth’s atmosphere by green house gases. </li></ul>WHAT IS GLOBAL WARMING?
    3. 4. <ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxide </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs(Chloro fluro Carbons </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro carbons </li></ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapour </li></ul>Greenhouse Gasses
    4. 5. <ul><li>Causes of global warming: . </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Population explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in GHG concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Main cause: CARBON DIOXIDE </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Earth’s “cooling” system is “clogged” </li></ul><ul><li>Net effect: </li></ul><ul><li>E A R T H H E A T S </li></ul><ul><li>U P </li></ul>Increased GHG Concentration
    6. 7. <ul><li>CO 2 6-10 times present </li></ul><ul><li>Temps ~ 14 o C warmer than present </li></ul><ul><li>Could this be an analog for the future? </li></ul>Cretaceous – a hot-house world 85 Ma
    7. 8. Atmospheric CO 2 (parts per million)
    8. 9. 800 600 400 200 0 CO 2 (ppmv) Thousands of Years Before Present 240 300 270 210 180 Petit et al., 1999; Siegenthaler et al., 2005; EPICA Community members, 2004 Temp. Proxy Present CO 2 concentration (386 ppmv) CO 2 concentration after 50 years of unrestricted fossil fuel burning (600 ppmv)
    9. 10. 270 290 360 370 380 Carbon Dioxide Concentration (ppmv) 280 300 310 320 330 340 350 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Mauna Loa (1958 - present) Siple Station (1750 - ) Reconstructed CO 2 concentrations
    10. 11. Climate fluctuates naturally Glacier ice Sea ice 18,000 years ago Present
    11. 12. Global mean temperature Global average sea level Northern hemisphere snow cover Observations of recent climate change
    12. 13. Global Instrumental Temperature Record 10 warmest years
    13. 16. <ul><li>For over 30 years, scientists have predicted increased greenhouse gasses will cause unnatural changes </li></ul><ul><li>By 2000: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic sea ice and ice shelf break-ups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic Peninsula warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic sea ice melting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faster Arctic warming ( 11°F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melting of small glaciers and ice caps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level rise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And more… </li></ul></ul></ul>Predicted changes of human-caused warming
    14. 17. Larsen B, Mar-02 Antarctic Sea Ice Break-ups
    15. 18. Larsen B, Mar-02
    16. 19. Larsen B, Mar-02
    17. 20. Wilkins, Mar-08
    18. 23. Arctic Sea Ice Melting 1979
    19. 24. Arctic Sea Ice Melting 2005
    20. 25. Arctic Sea Ice Melting 2007
    21. 26. Ice Extent (10 6 km 2 ) Arctic sea ice extent 2007
    22. 27. Arctic is warming faster 1860 1880 -2.0 Difference (°C) from 1961-1990 mean All land area 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 Arctic (land north of 65°N)
    23. 28. Carroll Glacier 1906 2004 1980
    24. 29. McCarty Glacier, Alaska
    25. 30. Muir and Riggs Glaciers
    26. 31. Kilimanjaro 1970 2005
    27. 32. 1993 2000
    28. 33. Qori Kalis 1978 2002 1928 2004 Patagonia
    29. 34. <ul><li>Glaciers and ice caps gone by 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>Ice sheets melting too! </li></ul><ul><li>Over 40% of world’s water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Direct rise in sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect sunlight </li></ul>Who cares?
    30. 35.
    31. 36. Sea-level rise <ul><li>Temperatures and sea levels will continue to rise for centuries. Arctic sea ice will disappear in the next few decades Hot extremes, heat waves, and heavy rains will continue to become more frequent </li></ul>Global warming facts (IPCC, 2007):
    32. 37. Sea-level rise <ul><li>Thermal expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of water </li></ul><ul><li>Freshening of water </li></ul><ul><li>Melting ice sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland: 7.4 m (25’) potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctica: 74 m (250’) potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Antarctica (7 m) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>East Antarctica (67 m) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 38. West Antarctic Ice Sheet
    34. 39. Greenland satellite melt record 1992 2005
    35. 40. 1980 0.5 0.8 Melt Extent (10 6 km 2 ) 0.6 0.7 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0.4 0.2 0.3 Greenland Melt Extent (April - September 25) 1992 2002 2005
    36. 41. 17-Jun-2003 13-Jun-2002 14-Jun-2001
    37. 42. Sea-level rise
    38. 43. Coastal population Coastal migration
    39. 44. Sea level 18,000 years ago (-70m) Florida’s coast if Greenland OR the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Melted 7m rise in sea level 5m rise in sea level 8m rise in sea level
    40. 45. <ul><li>Fastest extinction rate in 65 M years (1000x normal rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased poverty and hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Increased disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air-borne (e.g. asthma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insect-borne (e.g. malaria) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More extreme weather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat-waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storms </li></ul></ul>Additional consequences
    41. 46. Habitat loss Mass extinction
    42. 47. Coral bleaching GREAT LOSS TO AQUATIC LIFE CHANGE IN LIFE FORMS
    43. 48. Methane hydrates Melting of Methane Hydrate crystals could lead to run-away greenhouse
    44. 49. Projected risks due to climate change
    45. 50. What can you do?
    46. 51. Reduce consumption
    47. 52. Plant trees
    48. 53. Drive less
    49. 54. Shop smart
    50. 55. Alternative energy
    51. 56. Be informed
    52. 57. Unplug
    53. 58. Improve efficiency
    54. 59. Don’t buy ocean-front property

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