Crj3400 Terrorism Understandingthe Threat1&2


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  • Contemporary terrorist incidents-to reinforce what have been presented to this point. These incidents include: 1. The Federal Building in Oklahoma City on Aril 19, 1995. A few points that can be made. a. The arrest was made the old-fashion way- good police work by a State Trooper. b. Some of the victims were children- not too many years ago we would not have had a child-care center in a Federal building c. The motivation in cases like this are hard to determine
  • Studies of selected terrorists (those with accessible information) show they are far from the normal stereotype. Most are well-educated professionals, with good jobs, wives, and sanity.
  • Majority Middle class Majority College Educated
  • Crj3400 Terrorism Understandingthe Threat1&2

    1. 1. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Course Text: Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    2. 2. Chapter #1 <ul><li>Terrorism: First Impressions </li></ul><ul><li>Al Qaeda has symbolized terrorism in this century, but there are many more groups. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Historical Terrorism <ul><li>Biblical times (Antiquity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joshua 11:1, 4-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roman Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regicide, including Caesar in 44 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ancient-Medieval Middle East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sicarii vs Romans and Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reign of terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionary Tribunal </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Extremism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quality that is radical in opinion, especially in political matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by intolerance toward opposing interests and divergent opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents noble arguments to rationalize and justify acts of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically motivated violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed against soft targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With no intention to affect a target audience </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Ideologies <ul><li>Systems of belief </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from sociological and political theories </li></ul>
    6. 6. Ideological Analysis <ul><li>Fringe Left </li></ul><ul><li>Far Left </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate Center </li></ul><ul><li>Conservatism </li></ul><ul><li>Far Right </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe Right </li></ul>
    7. 7. Morality of Terrorist Violence <ul><li>Mala prohibita </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes made illegal by legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. gambling & prostitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mala in se </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes immoral/wrong in themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. premeditated murder & forcible rape </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Quote 1 <ul><li>One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown </li></ul>
    9. 9. Quote 2 <ul><li>One man willing to throw away his life is enough to terrorize a thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Wu Ch’I (400 BC) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Quote 3 <ul><li>Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice </li></ul><ul><li>Senator Barry Goldwater, 1964 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Quote 4 <ul><li>It became necessary to destroy the town to save it </li></ul><ul><li>Author unknown. An unnamed major in the U.S. Army said this about the decision to bomb and shell the town of Bentre, according to an Associated Press dispatch.— The New York Times, February 8, 1968, p. 14. </li></ul><ul><li>Arnett refused to identify the source of the quote, but later revealingly referred to his source as &quot;the perpetrator.&quot; </li></ul>
    12. 12. The New Terrorists
    13. 13. <ul><li>1993 World Trade Center Attack: Islamic terrorists detonated a truck bomb under the towers killing six and damaging the building. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Sarin gas attack on March 20, 1995 in the Tokyo subway: Aum Shinri Kyo (Supreme Truth) cult deposited two containers containing Sarin poison gas in the Tokyo subway system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 killed and up to 5000 hospitalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could have been much worse…air circulation evacuated most of the gas </li></ul></ul>Tokyo                              
    15. 15. Terrorism and Criminal Skill <ul><li>Richard Baumhammers </li></ul><ul><li>Ted Kaczynski </li></ul><ul><li>Ramzi Yousef </li></ul>                                       
    16. 16. Terrorist Symbolism <ul><li>Oklahoma City </li></ul><ul><li>September 11, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism can create abstract bridges between Terrorists and their victims </li></ul>
    17. 17. Murrah Building <ul><li>168 identified fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>19 were children </li></ul><ul><li>One victim was a nurse (injuries suffered during rescue effort) </li></ul><ul><li>Metro hospitals treated over 400 people injured by blast </li></ul>APRIL 19, 1995
    18. 18. Murrah Building Sentenced to DEATH on August 14, 1997 Sentenced to prison for &quot;the duration of his life&quot; TIMOTHY JOHN McVEIGH TERRY LYNN NICHOLS
    19. 19. Michael Fortier's Statement “ In the fall of 1994, I was first asked by Tim McVeigh to help him and Terry Nichols blow up a building. I considered it an outlandish request and gave an equally outlandish and negative response.” “ In December of 1994, I conspired to transport and then I did transport stolen weapons. I had to travel from Arizona to Kansas to get them. I was motivated by greed and did not care that they were stolen.”
    20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Centennial Olympic Park bombing on 26 July 1996, in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Summer Olympics . One killed, 100+ injured </li></ul></ul>
    21. 33. Do They Fit Stereotypes? <ul><li>In “Understanding Terror Networks,” Marc Sageman reported: </li></ul><ul><li>the terrorist stereotype - of poor, young, single men from the dusty backstreets of the Muslim world brainwashed into committing fanatical acts - doesn't stick when it comes to al-Qaeda. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them are well-educated , well-off, cosmopolitan and professional, with good jobs, wives and no history of mental illness. </li></ul>
    22. 34. Marc Sageman reported <ul><li>Of his sample of 382, he had information on the social status of 306 and level of education for 264: </li></ul><ul><li>17.6 per cent were upper class </li></ul><ul><li>54.9 per cent middle class </li></ul><ul><li>27.5 per cent lower class </li></ul><ul><li>16.7 per cent were educated less than high school </li></ul><ul><li>12.1 per cent had at least a high school education </li></ul><ul><li>28.8 per cent had some college education </li></ul><ul><li>33.3 per cent had a college degree </li></ul><ul><li>9 per cent had a postgraduate degree </li></ul>
    23. 35. Contrast <ul><li>Traditional Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly identifiable </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Specific target selection </li></ul><ul><li>New Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Loose, cell-based networks </li></ul><ul><li>Potential WMD usage </li></ul><ul><li>Politically vague, religious, mystical </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical </li></ul>
    24. 36. Chapter #2 <ul><li>The Nature of the Beast: Defining Terrorism </li></ul>
    25. 37. Reactionaries and Radicals <ul><li>Right-wing extremism &quot;is a reaction against a perceived threat to a group's value system, its presumption of superiority, or its sense of specialness.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Left-wing extremism is future oriented, seeking to reform or destroy an existing system prior to building a new and just society.&quot; </li></ul>
    26. 38. Understanding Extremism <ul><li>Common Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Absolutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Language & Conspiratorial Beliefs </li></ul></ul>
    27. 39. UNDERSTANDING EXTREMISM: THE FOUNDATIONS OF TERRORISM <ul><li>Why is understanding extremism important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the 19 people of the 9/11 events were from at least five different countries: Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Morocco, Turkey, and Syria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key is that each held a similar if not identical belief system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Martin Scruton: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;taking a political idea to its limits, regardless of unfortunate repercussions, impracticalities, arguments, and feelings to the contrary, and with the intention not only to confront but to eliminate opposition&quot; is political extremism, along with an &quot;Intolerance toward all views other than one's own.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    28. 40. Defining Terrorism <ul><li>Dictionary of Criminal Justice </li></ul><ul><li>there are four elements in a criminal justice definition of terrorism: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The calculated use of violence to obtain political goals through instilling fear, intimidation, or coercion. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A climate of fear or intimidation created by means of threats or violent actions, causing sustained fear for personal safety, in order to achieve social or political goals. </li></ul><ul><li>3. An organized pattern of violent behavior designed to influence government policy or intimidate the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent criminal behavior designed primarily to generate fear in the community…for political purposes.“ </li></ul><ul><li>(Crank and Gregor, p. 24) </li></ul>
    29. 41. Definitional Challenges <ul><li>Click on the object to run the slideshow </li></ul>
    30. 42. An Essay on Terrorism <ul><li>Marc Nicholson, American Diplomacy , August 19, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Former diplomat Nicholson describes terrorism as a &quot;tool of the weak, used by disaffected groups or minorities to oppose the rule and (as they see it) the oppression of an established and militarily superior power.&quot; </li></ul>
    31. 43. Terrorism Defined <ul><li>The deliberate killing of non-military personnel in order to pursue a claimed political goal through exertion of pressure on a society; the core of other definitions is that terrorism is murderous attacks on civilians for political purposes </li></ul>
    32. 44. Official Definitions of Terrorism State Department definition, Title 22 of the U.S. Code, Chapter 38, Section 2656f(d): premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. FBI definition: the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Defense Department definition:  the calculated use, or threatened use, of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives. United Nations definition: any act intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to a civilian, or to any other person not taking an active part in the hostilities in a situation of armed conflict, when the purpose of such act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act. Article 2(b) of International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism , May 5, 2004)
    33. 45. Defining Terrorism <ul><li>Common features between the definitions include: </li></ul><ul><li>* The use of illegal force. </li></ul><ul><li>* Sub-national actions. </li></ul><ul><li>* Unconventional methods. </li></ul><ul><li>* Political motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>* Attacks against &quot;soft&quot; civilian and passive military targets. </li></ul><ul><li>* Acts aimed at purposefully affecting an audience. </li></ul>
    34. 46. Defining Terrorism – U.S. <ul><li>DOD </li></ul><ul><li>US Code </li></ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul><ul><li>State Department </li></ul><ul><li>Composite Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism is a premeditated and unlawful act in which groups or agents of some principal engage in a threatened or actual use of force or violence against human or property targets. These groups or agents engage in this behavior intending the purposeful intimidation of governments or people to affect policy or behavior with an underlying political objective. </li></ul>
    35. 47. Types of Terrorism <ul><li>State terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism from above - committed by or sponsored by governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissident terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism from below - committed by individuals, groups, or movements not associated with governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religious terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism motivated by an absolute belief that an otherworldly power has sanctioned - and commanded - the application of terrorist violence for the greater glory of the faith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism motivated by sheer profit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism that spills over onto the world's stage </li></ul></ul>
    36. 48. Perspectives <ul><li>PARTICIPANTS IN A TERRORIST ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORISM OR FREEDOM FIGHTING </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREMISM OR MAINSTREAMISM </li></ul><ul><li>IDEOLOGIES AND IDEALS </li></ul>
    37. 49. Political Violence <ul><li>Combatant </li></ul><ul><li>Non-combatant </li></ul><ul><li>Indiscriminate force </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminate force </li></ul>
    38. 50. Ideologies <ul><li>Systems of beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Derived form theories that explain human conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Can constitute political, social, or economic programs </li></ul><ul><li>Can constitute religious, racial, or ethnic belief systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide the worldview and manner of living for individuals. </li></ul>
    39. 51. Ideologies <ul><li>We’ll cover these throughout the course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anarchism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascism </li></ul></ul>
    40. 52. Political Violence Matrix
    41. 53. END
    42. 54. Terrorism Understanding the Threat