L3 &4 how does land use vary in an urban area


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L3 &4 how does land use vary in an urban area

  1. 1. How does land use vary in an urban area?
  2. 2. Syllabus Key idea Urban areas have a variety of functions and land uses Specification content Students should gain an appreciation of different functional parts of a settlement including locations of CBD, inner city, suburbs and rural-urban fringe.
  3. 3. References • BP page 156-7 • AQA A pg 196-7 • CGP pg 86
  4. 4. Lesson Objectives • All will understand what we mean by the terms land use and function. • Most will understand how urban areas have a variety of functions. • Some will be able to use maps to predict the characteristics and locations of some areas.
  5. 5. Key Terms • What does the term “land use” mean? The types of buildings or other features that are found in an area, e.g. terraced housing, banks, industrial estates, roads, parks. • What does the term “function” mean? The purpose of an area, e.g. for residential use, recreation or shopping.
  6. 6. Predicting how land use changes in an urban area • In every town and city land use varies from one area to the next. In some areas, shops and offices dominate, others are used for housing, industry or recreation. • In Britain, we can predict what land use will be found in different areas of cities just by looking at a map. This is because cities such as Birmingham or Manchester have often grown in a very similar way.
  7. 7. Urban land use models A model is a simplified version of reality. These diagrams show the land use patterns that you might expect to find in a city in an MEDC. The land use of a real city would never exactly correspond to the patterns suggested by Burgess and Hoyt - why not?
  8. 8. CBD characteristics • Centre of city - most accessible part • Road and rail routes converge • Prime site for several types of land use • Very competitive – high land values • Limited space • Tall buildings Users: • Commercial centre • large department stores and specialist shops which have a high turnover, high profit margin or large threshold population • banks, offices • Little residential Problems: • Congestion – which reduces accessibility and attractiveness to shop or work
  9. 9. pedestrianisation Tall buildings Information signs vegetation Vertical zoning
  10. 10. Old inner city areas • Most inner city areas developed along with industry in 19th Century • Rural urban migration led to demand for low cost housing • Housing built as close as possible together – high density, grid iron • Poorer quality housing • 1960s tower blocks, old industrial buildings • Few amenities – indoor toilet, bathroom, running water, sewerage or electricity, gardens or open space • Problems: damp, overcrowding, lack of sanitation, pollution • Run down • Some newer housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped e.g. London Docklands.
  11. 11. Industry • Large factories were build on the nearest available land to the town centre • Next to canals • And railways – transport bulky raw materials and processed goods • Besides rivers – source of power, washing, cooling, waste disposal • Near land that could be used to house the large umbers of workers • Factories forced to close due to: • Lack of space for expansion / modernisation • Narrow congested roads • Some have been left empty • Some bulldozed to leave large areas of derelict land – brownfield site
  12. 12. canal River railway Industrial sites Victorian terraced housing
  13. 13. Attempts to improve living conditions: 1960s – slum clearance and building high rise flats (urban redevelopment) Improving existing properties – urban renewal Highgate
  14. 14. Inner Suburbs • Developed during the inter-war period. • Grew due to the introduction of public transport and use of car. • Outward growth = urban sprawl. • Many interwar houses were semi-detached, with bay windows, front and back gardens
  15. 15. Outer suburbs • Private housing estates are characterised by low density, high quality housing • Large, detached • Land is cheaper • Close enough for people to commute to city centre • Modern amenities – central heating, double glazing, bathrooms, kitchen • Large gardens to both rear and front of property • Double garage • Middle class • More pleasant, greener environment, less crime or pollution
  16. 16. Rural –Urban fringe • After 1960s urban sprawl continued with land on rural- urban fringe being used for: • Modern housing estates or outer-city council housing • New industrial or trading estates.
  17. 17. Your task • Look at the O.S map of Birmingham and the photos on your handout. Complete the activities on the sheet.
  18. 18. Homework Draw a simple sketch map of Birmingham to show the different land uses in different areas (retail, residential, industrial, etc)
  19. 19. Lesson Objectives • All will understand what we mean by the terms land use and function. • Most will understand how urban areas have a variety of functions. • Some will be able to use maps to predict the characteristics and locations of some areas.
  20. 20. Plenary - In which area of a city are you most likely to… • Get your car stolen? • See a fox at night? • See a Porsche car parked? • Have a school with good exam grades? • Have people complaining about noise from their neighbours? • See empty McDonalds wrappers? • Be able to buy milk at 10.30 at night? • Be able to catch a bus to visit friends anywhere in the city? • See a police car with it's blue lights flashing? • Be able to buy drugs?