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Model 2


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Model 2

  1. 1. Describe how the UK government has tried to improve our inner cities since the1990’s.This question is looking to see whether you have revised precise governmentinitiatives. However, the mark scheme is kind to you in that credit is given formentioning developments that took place before the 1990’s. So you could get creditfor mentioning inner city slum clearance and high-rise flats developments in the1960-1970’s, as well as Urban Development Corporations (e.g. London Docklands)which started in the 1980’s but extended into the 1990’s.Level 1 (1-4 marks)These are marks for simple statements consisting of a list of improvements withoutany reference to government action e.g. - they put in bathrooms - they put in inside toilets - they provided play areas - they created more open spaceLevel 2 (5-6 marks)Linked statements consisting of a list of improvements, without any reference tocentral government action. Statements are likely to refer to local government ratherthan central government action. - Nineteenth Century terraced houses lacking in modern facilities were knocked down and replaced with houses with bathrooms and indoor toilets. - Derelict houses were knocked down to provide people with more open space such as gardens, play areas and parks. - Factories were removed from housing areas so that people suffered less from noise, air and visual pollution. - Money was spent for roads to be turned into cul-de-sacs to stop through traffic, or speed bumps were built to slow down traffic and improve safety for pedestrians.Level 3 (7-8 marks)Detailed knowledge of government actions and / or case study evidence needed e.g. - ‘City Challenge’ was a government initiative in the 1990’s. It aimed to regenerate (improve) inner city areas by getting local councils, private companies and the local community to work together e.g. Hulme, Manchester, where the aim was to replace old terraced houses and improve those built in the 1960’s, as well as improve the environment, community facilities and shops. New homes were designed to conserve water and be more energy efficient. Some old buildings were kept but new schools and a park were built. - ‘Sustainable Communities’ was a government initiative started in 2003. It aimed to give people in an area a reasonable quality of life, with access to a job, education and health care that is in balance with the environment e. g. New Islington Millennium Village, Manchester. A wide variety of house sizes and styles will be built as well as new shops, public transport, parks, play areas and community facilities. To help sustainability, boreholes will be drilled to provide water and heat and there will be a high level of waste recycling.