• The concept of planning new town development introduced in early 19th century that had been divided into four types of concept which are Garden City Concept, Neighborhood Unit, parallel Town, Urban Land Use Model.
GARDEN CITY CONCEPT• Found by Ebenezer Howard on 1902 with his book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow.• The main objectives of Garden City concept is to overcome problems of congestion and increase in population.
Cont’d..Basic principles :• Appearance - have one town and six Garden cities around that.• Circulation – circulation system for highway applied circle form.• Size of the population :– maximum size of population in Garden City is 32000 people, suitable for an area for 6000 acres.- when the population increased from 32000 it will form other new Garden.## sketch gambar• Population density – for housing area, the population density is about 20 unit for every acre.• Future Town Development – concentric form which is the focus centre is located on the middle.
Cont’d..Layer on WARD Garden City :• First layer : green area that called as ‘centre of garden’. Become as recreation area.• second layer : have ‘glass castle’ and promade where visitor came to take shelter.• third layer: residential area and public facility such as school, field, church and other facilities.• fourth layer : residential area with landscape garden around that.• fifth layer : industrial activities such as factory and warehouse.• fixed green area : located outside of the layer. provided for agriculture and farming.
NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT• Found by Clarence Perry ( A Scheme Of Arrangement For The Family Life Community)• Main objective is to repair social condition and town physical.• Ideas from others Neighborhood unit :o Clarence Stein Neighborhood Concepto Jose Sert Neighborhood Concepto Frank Lloyd Wrights neighborhood Concept
Cont’d..Basic principles :• size : 5000 population ( 1 school), 160 acre (area for one unit neighborhood).• Border : the function of main road around neighborhood unit is as a border .• Free area : 10% provide as free area.• Public facilities and institution : provide in the middle of neighborhood unit.• Shops: to fulfill market purpose. the location is on the corner of four junction.• Road network system: design as to prevent short road ( prevent from across neighborhood unit). Hierarchy of road width is 132 feet, 100 ft, 66ft, 50 ft, and 40 ft.• Density: rough density for this system is about 5 unit house for every acre.
PARALLEL CITY Concept• found by Cuidad Lineal in Madrid.• Main objectives is to focus on town development with main road and other road system.
Cont’d..basic principles :• size : 5000 people are suggested.• Main transport system as an axis : development focus on main road.• Road network system : connection area have width about 500 meter . for the main road, rezab for road is 40 meter while 20 meter for small road rezab. Rezab used to piping connection.• residential housing : situated on the left side and right side of main transportation system. Limited only to 200 meter each side, followed by green area after that.
URBAN LAND USE MODEL• Proposed by a few of intelligent person in 19th century.Central Zone Model : : An early idea from Ernest Burges. : An approach that had been used is ‘sociology’ (development and social planning) : suggestion of 5 loop for land use (lukis gambar rajah) ZONE 1 : centre of district business . . truth central zone.. -support all economic activities, social and politics. .. central city area surrounded area.. -business activities has been carried out and if the area located near to the beach, it will turn into port. (lukis gambar rajah)
Cont’d..• ZONE 2 : transition zone -known as characteristics changing land zone.• ZONE 3 : occupational residential zone -contained residential for factory staff, labour, and others. usually the residents are former residents from zone 2.• ZONE 4: moderate residential area -zone to place professional officer and middle group. the condition in this area more neat than previous zone.• zone 5 : high class residential area -the most outer zone and located in the edge of town.
Cont’d..SECTOR MODEL : found by Homer Hoyt• ZONE 1 : city centre of business district (lukis gambar)• ZONE 2 : industrial -there is no residential area. activity carry out are trading and industrial.• ZONE 3 : lower class residential -land used for lower class group.• ZONE 4 : middle class residential -residential for middle class and more comfortable.• ZONE 5 : high class residential -this type of group need more privacy and consist of high class people.
Cont’d..NUCLEUS MODELfound by Harris and Ullman: Four factor to show division of land used design :• interrelated with activities and desire closed to physical factor.• such as retail business, industrial area and etc.• cluster economical activities. for example, retail business was placed in concentration area.• various use of land not suitable to place in one area. in example, industrial and high cost residential area do not suitable to located nearer.• relation factor between cost in site includes rent and value depend on economic activity carried out in town.