CONCEPT OF TOWN
• The concept of planning new
town development introduced
in early 19th century that had
been divided into four types of
concept which are Garden City
Concept, Neighborhood Unit,
parallel Town, Urban Land
GARDEN CITY CONCEPT
Found by Ebenezer Howard on 1902 with his
book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
The main objectives of Garden City concept is
to overcome problems of congestion and
increase in population.
Basic Principal’ s
Appearance - have one town and six Garden cities around
Circulation – circulation system for highway applied circle
Size of the population :
-maximum size of population in Garden City is 32000 people,
suitable for an area for 6000 acres.
-when the population increased from 32000 it will form other
Population density – for housing area, the population
density is about 20 unit for every acre.
Future Town Development – concentric form which is
• size : 5000 population ( 1 school), 160 acre (area for one
• Border : the function of main road around neighborhood
unit is as a border .
• Free area : 10% provide as free area.
• Public facilities and institution : provide in the middle
of neighborhood unit.
• Shops: to fulfill market purpose. the location is on the
corner of four junction.
• Road network system: design as to prevent short road (
prevent from across neighborhood unit). Hierarchy of road
width is 132 feet, 100 ft, 66ft, 50 ft, and 40 ft.
Layer on WARD Garden City :
• First layer : green area that called as ‘centre of garden’. Become as
• second layer : have ‘glass castle’ and promade where visitor came to
• third layer: residential area and public facility such as school, field,
church and other facilities.
• fourth layer : residential area with landscape garden around that.
• fifth layer : industrial activities such as factory and warehouse.
• fixed green area : located outside of the layer. provided for agriculture
Found by Clarence Perry ( A Scheme Of
Arrangement For The Family Life
Main objective is to repair social condition
and town physical.
Ideas from others Neighborhood unit
Clarence Stein Neighborhood Concept
Jose Sert Neighborhood Concept
Frank Lloyd Wrights neighborhood Concept
PARALLEL CITY Concept
• found by Cuidad Lineal in Madrid.
• Main objectives is to focus on town
development with main road and other road
basic principles :
• size : 5000 people are suggested.
• Main transport system as an axis : development focus on
• Road network system : connection area have width about
500 meter . for the main road, rezab for road is 40 meter
while 20 meter for small road rezab. Rezab used to piping
• residential housing : situated on the left side and right side
of main transportation system. Limited only to 200 meter
each side, followed by green area after that.
URBAN LAND USE MODEL
• Proposed by a few of intelligent person in 19th century.
Central Zone Model :
: An early idea from Ernest Burges.
: An approach that had been used is ‘sociology’ (development and social
: suggestion of 5 loop for land use (lukis gambar rajah)
ZONE 1 : centre of district business
. . truth central zone..
-support all economic activities, social and politics.
.. central city area surrounded area..
-business activities has been carried out and if the area located
near to the beach, it will turn into port. (lukis gambar rajah)
ZONE 2 : transition zone
-known as characteristics changing land zone.
ZONE 3 : occupational residential zone
-contained residential for factory staff, labour, and others. usually the residents
are former residents from zone 2.
ZONE 4: moderate residential area
-zone to place professional officer and middle group. the condition in this area
more neat than previous zone.
zone 5 : high class residential area
-the most outer zone and located in the edge of town.
: found by Homer Hoyt
• ZONE 1 : city centre of business district
• ZONE 2 : industrial
-there is no residential area. activity carry out are trading and industrial.
• ZONE 3 : lower class residential
-land used for lower class group.
• ZONE 4 : middle class residential
-residential for middle class and more comfortable.
• ZONE 5 : high class residential
-this type of group need more privacy and consist of high class people.
found by Harris and Ullman
: Four factor to show division of land used design :
• interrelated with activities and desire closed to physical factor.
• such as retail business, industrial area and etc.
• cluster economical activities. for example, retail business was placed in
• various use of land not suitable to place in one area. in example,
industrial and high cost residential area do not suitable to located
• relation factor between cost in site includes rent and value depend on
economic activity carried out in town.