Elements of city plan 3 unit


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Elements of city plan 3 unit

  1. 1. Elements of City plan • Communications & Transportation • Built-up area • Open space(parks, playgrounds, recreational unit) • Public utility services(Electricity, Gas,Telephone,Fire safety) • Public amenities(post office,bank,police station,solid waste disposal,petrol pump,court)
  2. 2. Circulation “Kevin Lynch” has identified various urban forms with respect to their circulation network. • Sheet form • Core form • Galaxy form • Satellite form • Linear form • Ring form • Star form • Poly-centred net form
  3. 3. Core form Ring form
  4. 4. Characteristics of modern circulation • • • • Larger the city, traffic is less Smaller the city, traffic is more Types of land use and covered area Well developed transportation network
  5. 5. Zoning • Zoning is defined as the creation by laws, zones such as residential. commercial,industrial,civic, Institutional and recreational unit and the density of population
  6. 6. Classification of Zoning • Use Zoning: a) Residential zone(40-50%) b) Commercial zone(2-5%) c) Industrial zone(5-20%) d) Civic zone(2-3%) e) Institutional zone(1-2%) f) Recreational zone(15-20%)
  7. 7. • Height Zoning: • To control the volume of building the height zoning is required. • Tall buildings impair the value of small neighbouring houses by cutting off sunshine, air, breeze etc. and thus make it small houses unsuitable for inhabitation. They should be arranged in the layout of proper grouping with the smaller building.
  8. 8. • Density zoning: • The density of population may be either gross or net density • Gross density is the avg. density of population per unit land use area. • Net density is the avg. density of the housing including local roads only.
  9. 9. Land use • Land use represents physical characteristics of a land. India has total land area approx. 328 million hect. And land utilization is almost 93% of area i.e, around 306 million hect. a) Reporting & non-reporting land b) Cultivated & uncultivated land c) Waste land d) Other land use e) No land use
  10. 10. Land use structure
  11. 11. Land use patterns: • Towns and cities do not grow in a haphazard way but trend to develop recognisable shapes and patterns. • Each town is unique and will have developed its own distinctive pattern, it will also show some characteristics shared by other urban settlements.
  12. 12. Urban land use models: • Land use models are theories which attempt to explain the layout of urban areas. A model is used to simplify complex, real world situations and make them easier to explain and understand.
  13. 13. Concentric zone or Burgess Model: Inner city Suburbs
  14. 14. Limitations of Burgess’s model: • The model was produced in the 1920’s much has changed since then. • Chicago is near lake Michigan thereby making it semi-circular. • The model was only based on Chicago – so only shows only one city at one point in time.
  15. 15. Burgess Model applied to Oxford: To what extent does the pattern of urban zones in Oxford fit the burgess model? (5 marks)
  16. 16. Sector or HOYT’s Model: • Hoyt model was created in 1939 based on 142 American cities • Proposed his model after the development of public transport. • Suggested that urban areas developed in sectors or wedges, alongside transport routes in and out of the city. • Claimed that if industry and low cost housing developed in one part of a town in the 19th C, then newer industry and modern low cost housing would also locate in the same sector.
  17. 17. Hoyt’s Model - Oxford
  18. 18. Hoyt’s variables: • Wealthy people chose to live where they could afford to – close to services. • Wealthy residents use their cars as transport from home to work and vice versa thereby living further from industry but close to main roads. • Similar types of land use clustered together to create “Sector” Development
  19. 19. Hoyt’s Model
  20. 20. Limitations of the model • The model was developed in 1939 • Does not take into account commuter villages which developed with the popularization of the car. • Other similar limitations seen In the Burgess model.
  21. 21. Multiple Nuclei Model • Developed by two geographers: Harris & Ullman in 1945 based on Washington • Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a single core but have several nodes • CBD need not be at the center • Proximity to other locations (universities, airport, malls) can generate clusters of highintensity land use
  22. 22. Multiple Nuclei Model CBD 2. Wholesale & Light Manufacturing 3. Low-income Residential 4. Middle-Income Residential 5. High-Income Residential 6. Heavy Manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District (Mall) 8. Residential Suburb 9. Industrial Suburb 1.
  23. 23. Urban land use and functional zones: • • 1. 2. 3. 4. Each of the zones shown in the Burgess and Hoyt models has a function. Four main types of function: Shops and offices Industry Housing Open space
  24. 24. Urban land use and functional zones: • The location of each zone and the distribution of each functional zone are related to several factors: 1. Land values and space 2. Age 3. Accessibility 4. Wealth of inhabitants
  25. 25. Changes in Demand: • Land use and function change with time. E.G. • 19th C industry was located next to the CBD whereas modern industry prefers edge of the city sites. • The main land use in the 19th C was for industry and low-cost housing. Today it if for industry, shops and better quality housing, all in a more pleasant environment, and open space.
  26. 26. CBD CBD Central Business District
  27. 27. CBD • Dominates the commercial and cultural activity in a city. • In many cities it is immediately recognisable by the tall skyscrapers, neon lights at night and the very high density of buildings, traffic and people. • CBD is usually highly accessible – focus of roads, public transport.
  28. 28. CBD – Main functions • Shops – top of the shopping hierarchy in a city. Widest range and the largest department stores. Wide sphere of influence. • Offices – Banks, building societies, solicitors, government offices. Offices occupy high-rise blocks or upper floors above shops. • Culture and Entertainment – Areas of the CBD “come alive” at night. London's West End and Newcastle Quayside.
  29. 29. FRAME Smaller shops Bus and coach station Zone of decay Railway station Department stores Specialist shops Offices- University CORE insurance companies, solicitors High-rise Office blocks Zone of improvement Banks Multi-storey Car parks Theatres and cinemas Car sales and services
  30. 30. CBD – Problems and solutions • Traffic congestion – Towns grew and street patterns were established before the motor car was invented. Rush hour traffic – “gridlock” • Pollution – Water, land, air and noise pollution are all common in city centres. Pollution adds to the stresses of living in urban areas and is thought to aggravate some diseases such as asthma and bronchitis. • Attempted solutions:
  31. 31. Lack of space and high cost of land • Competition for land – extremely high prices. Smaller firms and retailers forced away from the CBD • Attempted solutions:
  32. 32. Urban Decline • Parts of the CBD have declined. Shops and offices closed down and empty buildings are vandalised. City centres now compete with out of town shopping centres and growing demands of shoppers. • Attempted solutions:
  33. 33. HOUSING • A house is defined by the “National building organization” as a pucca or semi-pucca unit of dwelling that can accommodate an avg. household. • The economic importance of housing is also very significant. It contributes to national income, national wealth and employment. • It has a great extent in promoting human welfare, social life, economic growth of human life.
  34. 34. Issues of Housing • Unplanned growth of settlements • Non availability of developed land and unfavourable land management. • Lack of financial resources • Inadequate open space • Manpower shortage • Unimproved technology and materials.
  35. 35. Types of Housing 1. Urban housing 2. Rural housing 3. Mass housing
  36. 36. Urban housing • According to the Census of India, 1971, a housing is defined as an urban settlement only if the following conditions are satisfied. a) The estimated pop. is atleast 5000 persons b) The density of the pop. Should be 400 sq.km per unit area c) 75% male are working in non-agricultural unit
  37. 37. Problems in urban housing • Building regulations that limit urban density • Outdated rent control regulations reduce the number of houses available on rent. • Poor access to finance. • Policy ,planning and regulation deficiencies • Growing up slum area. • Poor Infrastructure problem
  38. 38. Rural Housing • All settlements having pop. Less than 5000 persons can be considered as the rural settlements. The housing problems of rural areas are: a) Unavailability of land b) Unavailability of materials c) Unavailability of technical supervision. d) Poor economic condition e) Living habit and status f) Social obligations
  39. 39. Aspects of Rural Housing • • • • • • Accommodation Drainage Drinking water Housing activity Institutional activities Other social amenities
  40. 40. Mass Housing • If the building project has more than thousand units, it is known as mass housing. • It is cost effective and time efficient • Environmentally sustainable • It is an integrated township
  41. 41. Urban & Landscape pattern
  42. 42. Landscape
  43. 43. Town Centre • The town centre is a meeting place for the pop. As a whole. It is nearer to the central bus terminus or railway station. The town centre is divided into following groups: • Business centre • Civic centre • Light shopping centre
  44. 44. Characteristics of Town centre • Attractions: Multiple retailer,shops,restaurants & café,Distinctive markets,Education & health facilities,theatre hall, cultural zones,Library,Museum,Offices etc. • Accessibility: parking place,rapid transit system,transport interchanges etc. • Amenities: Lighting,greenaries,frequent cleaning, crime prevention initiatives. • Action: Strategic action programme, development partnership,regular monitoring
  45. 45. Business centre • It includes offices,big shops,markets etc. • It consists of the following thee groups: a) Convenience store(daily necessary goods) b) Demand store(clothes,cycle,clocks etc.) c) Impulse store(luxury items)
  46. 46. Civic centre It is known as community centre It is an assemble of public buildings It should be neat & clean and beautiful The civic centre may be cultural or educational. It included town hall,court,post office, library, museum, auditorium, art galary etc. • Transport facilities should be well connected with the civic centre • • • • •
  47. 47. Light shopping centre: • It may be departmental store or street shopping centre or market.
  48. 48. Civic centre Light shopping centre Business centre
  49. 49. Master Plan  Definition  A development plan can be defined as a general plan for future layout of a city showing both the existing and proposed streets or roads, open space, public building, etc.  A development plan is prepared either for improvement of an old city or for a new town to be developed on virgin soil.  So a development plan aims to controlling the future growth of a town along preconceived and predetermined paths.
  50. 50. In India  In India, the idea of preparation of development plan is understood to have been flourished after 1915 when the Bombay Town Planning Act was passed and was soon followed by the Madras Town planning act in 1920.  The comprehensive Act requiring the preparation of DP and authorizing, its enforcement is the Bombay Town and country planning Act, 1954 which actually came into force in 1957.
  51. 51. Objects of Development Plan  Following are the main objects of preparing a development plan for the town.  It aims at intelligent and economic spending of the public funds for achieving welfare of the inhabitants in respect of amenity, convenience and health.  It arranges the pattern of a town in such a way so as to satisfy the present requirements without introduction of future improvements by the coming generation.  It helps in restricting the haphazard and unplanned growth.
  52. 52.  It places various functions which a town has to perform in physical relationship of each other so as to avoid the chances of mutual conflict.  It serves as a guide to the planning body for making any recommendation for public improvement.  It removes the defects of uncoordinated physical growth of the various components of town
  53. 53.  Necessity Of Development Plan:  Following are the reasons which have lead to the thinking of having a development plan for the town.      to control the development of various industries in a systematic way. To discharge the growth of town in an unplanned and unscientific way. To give a perspective picture of a fully developed town. To limit to a certain extent the flow of rural population to the urban area. To offset the evils which have come up due to overcrowding of population
  54. 54. Data To Be collected  Details of trades and industries,  Development of the airports  Economic conditions of the authority.  Environments of the site.  Facilities of transport  Geological conditions of the site.  Land values and land use pattern  Locations of spots of the natural beauty  Location of the water supply units.
  55. 55.  Meteorological details such as intensity and direction of wind , temperature, rainfall, etc.  Mineral resources.  Places of the historic origin,  Political position of the surrounding area.  Population  Requirements for railway stations, goods yards and shipping facilities.  Specials requirements for power houses, gas works, sewage disposal plant and storm water drainage etc.
  56. 56. Following are the details contained in the usual drawings prepared for the development plan.  Boundaries of land of different types such as residential,          agricultural, industrial etc. Boundary of green belt surrounding the town Contours of the whole city Different zones Landscape features Location of the publics buildings and town centers. Open spaces including parks and playgrounds Positions of the natural springs, rivers and streams Position of the public utility services such as water supply station, sewage disposal plant, power plant etc. Road systems.
  57. 57. Neighborhood Planning  The neighbourhood is a residential area with homogeneous characteristics. It is a settlement of small association.  It sometimes become difficult to develop a sense of neighbourliness, mainly for the following two reasons.  The neighbors are not dependent on one another’s company and aid because city life gives a wide field of entertainment.  The neighbors may not have common modes and habits of living.
  58. 58. Principles of planning of neighborhood unit.  Following are the principles of planning a neighborhood unit.  1) facilities School, temple , club, community hall, shopping centre, recreational unit, sports centre etc  2) Population(2,000-5,000)  3) sector  4) Size  5) Street system  6) Building layout(50-100 dwellings)
  59. 59. Importance  The neighborhood planning can make a valuable contribution towards the creation of a community spirit and a properly balanced population structure.  The neighborhood plan aims at welding various elements of social and cultural life of a community in a proper order.
  60. 60. Features of neighborhood unit  1) It is desirable to devote a minimum area of about 10% or so for parks and playground.  2) the boundary of the unit need not be fixed by arterial roads. But it may even take the form of physical barriers such as a large park, a railway station , a river, an industrial area, a hill etc.  3)The exact shape of the unit is not necessary. But it is preferable to have all sides fairly equidistant from the centre of unit.
  61. 61.  4) The planning of residential units of neighborhood unit should be carefully done with respect to the habits of residents, direction of winds, sanitation, etc.  5) the provision of shopping centre should be at the periphery of unit and near traffic junctions.  6) the width of interior streets of the units should be just sufficient to serve a specific purpose. and these streets should give easy access to the shops and community centre.
  62. 62. Town Planning scheme  Town planning scheme is prepared as per the provision of town planning and urban development act for the particular area.  Generally Town planning scheme is known as T.P. scheme. It is firstly introduced by “ Bombay Town planning act” of 1915.  The basic concept of T.P. scheme is pooling together all the land under different ownerships and redistributing in a proper form after deciding the land required for open space.
  63. 63.  To achieve the objectives of the Town development plan, town planning schemes are prepared as micro level planning for smaller area around 100 hect.  The following objectives should be carried out of any T.P. scheme: a) Pooling of lands. b) Reconstitution of plot boundaries c) Keep provision for social & physical infrastructure. d) Recovery for the cost of development.
  64. 64. Contents of the Scheme:  • • • Draft scheme: The area,ownership and tenure of each plots Landuse details Estimation of cost of the scheme  • • • • • Preliminary scheme: Verification of ownership and area as per revenue records. Reconstitute final plots Calculation of cost of the scheme Submit the draft scheme to the Govt. for sanction. Maps preparation(land use, infrastructure , original plot etc.)
  65. 65.  Final Scheme: • Decide land value of original plot • Decide land value of final plot(developed & undeveloped) • Determined and fixed the cost. To complete the entire process of T.P scheme preparation and finalization will take 27 months.
  66. 66. Flow chart of T.P. Scheme