Elements of City plan
• Communications & Transportation
• Built-up area
• Open space(parks, playgrounds, recreational
• Public utility services(Electricity,
• Public amenities(post office,bank,police
station,solid waste disposal,petrol pump,court)
“Kevin Lynch” has identified various urban forms
with respect to their circulation network.
• Sheet form
• Core form
• Galaxy form
• Satellite form
• Linear form
• Ring form
• Star form
• Poly-centred net form
Characteristics of modern circulation
Larger the city, traffic is less
Smaller the city, traffic is more
Types of land use and covered area
Well developed transportation network
• Zoning is defined as the creation by laws, zones
such as residential. commercial,industrial,civic,
Institutional and recreational unit and the
density of population
Classification of Zoning
• Use Zoning:
a) Residential zone(40-50%)
b) Commercial zone(2-5%)
c) Industrial zone(5-20%)
d) Civic zone(2-3%)
e) Institutional zone(1-2%)
f) Recreational zone(15-20%)
• Height Zoning:
• To control the volume of building the height
zoning is required.
• Tall buildings impair the value of small
neighbouring houses by cutting off sunshine,
air, breeze etc. and thus make it small houses
unsuitable for inhabitation. They should be
arranged in the layout of proper grouping with
the smaller building.
• Density zoning:
• The density of population may be either gross
or net density
• Gross density is the avg. density of population
per unit land use area.
• Net density is the avg. density of the housing
including local roads only.
• Land use represents physical characteristics of a
land. India has total land area approx. 328 million
hect. And land utilization is almost 93% of area
i.e, around 306 million hect.
a) Reporting & non-reporting land
b) Cultivated & uncultivated land
c) Waste land
d) Other land use
e) No land use
Land use patterns:
• Towns and cities do not grow in a haphazard
way but trend to develop recognisable shapes
• Each town is unique and will have developed
its own distinctive pattern, it will also show
some characteristics shared by other urban
Urban land use models:
• Land use models are theories which attempt
to explain the layout of urban areas. A model
is used to simplify complex, real world
situations and make them easier to explain
Concentric zone or Burgess Model:
Limitations of Burgess’s model:
• The model was produced in the 1920’s much
has changed since then.
• Chicago is near lake Michigan thereby making
• The model was only based on Chicago – so
only shows only one city at one point in time.
Burgess Model applied to Oxford:
To what extent does the pattern of urban zones in Oxford
fit the burgess model? (5 marks)
Sector or HOYT’s Model:
• Hoyt model was created in 1939 based on 142
• Proposed his model after the development of
• Suggested that urban areas developed in
sectors or wedges, alongside transport routes
in and out of the city.
• Claimed that if industry and low cost housing
developed in one part of a town in the 19th C,
then newer industry and modern low cost
housing would also locate in the same sector.
• Wealthy people chose to live where they
could afford to – close to services.
• Wealthy residents use their cars as
transport from home to work and vice
versa thereby living further from
industry but close to main roads.
• Similar types of land use clustered
together to create “Sector”
Limitations of the model
• The model was developed in 1939
• Does not take into account commuter
villages which developed with the
popularization of the car.
• Other similar limitations seen In the
Multiple Nuclei Model
• Developed by two geographers: Harris & Ullman
in 1945 based on Washington
• Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a
single core but have several nodes
• CBD need not be at the center
• Proximity to other locations (universities,
airport, malls) can generate clusters of highintensity land use
Multiple Nuclei Model
2. Wholesale & Light
3. Low-income Residential
4. Middle-Income Residential
5. High-Income Residential
6. Heavy Manufacturing
7. Outlying Business District
8. Residential Suburb
9. Industrial Suburb
Urban land use and functional
Each of the zones shown in the
Burgess and Hoyt models has a
Four main types of function:
Shops and offices
Urban land use and functional
• The location of each zone and the
distribution of each functional zone are
related to several factors:
1. Land values and space
4. Wealth of inhabitants
Changes in Demand:
• Land use and function change with time. E.G.
• 19th C industry was located next to the CBD
whereas modern industry prefers edge of the
• The main land use in the 19th C was for
industry and low-cost housing. Today it if for
industry, shops and better quality housing, all
in a more pleasant environment, and open
• Dominates the commercial and cultural
activity in a city.
• In many cities it is immediately recognisable
by the tall skyscrapers, neon lights at night
and the very high density of buildings, traffic
• CBD is usually highly accessible – focus of
roads, public transport.
CBD – Main functions
• Shops – top of the shopping hierarchy in a city.
Widest range and the largest department stores.
Wide sphere of influence.
• Offices – Banks, building societies, solicitors,
government offices. Offices occupy high-rise blocks
or upper floors above shops.
• Culture and Entertainment – Areas of the CBD “come
alive” at night. London's West End and Newcastle
Bus and coach
CBD – Problems and solutions
• Traffic congestion – Towns grew and street
patterns were established before the motor
car was invented. Rush hour traffic – “gridlock”
• Pollution – Water, land, air and noise pollution
are all common in city centres. Pollution adds
to the stresses of living in urban areas and is
thought to aggravate some diseases such as
asthma and bronchitis.
• Attempted solutions:
Lack of space and high cost of land
• Competition for land – extremely high prices.
Smaller firms and retailers forced away from
• Attempted solutions:
• Parts of the CBD have declined. Shops and
offices closed down and empty buildings are
vandalised. City centres now compete with
out of town shopping centres and growing
demands of shoppers.
• Attempted solutions:
• A house is defined by the “National building
organization” as a pucca or semi-pucca unit of
dwelling that can accommodate an avg.
• The economic importance of housing is also very
significant. It contributes to national income,
national wealth and employment.
• It has a great extent in promoting human welfare,
social life, economic growth of human life.
Issues of Housing
• Unplanned growth of settlements
• Non availability of developed land and
unfavourable land management.
• Lack of financial resources
• Inadequate open space
• Manpower shortage
• Unimproved technology and materials.
Types of Housing
1. Urban housing
2. Rural housing
3. Mass housing
• According to the Census of India, 1971, a
housing is defined as an urban settlement
only if the following conditions are satisfied.
a) The estimated pop. is atleast 5000 persons
b) The density of the pop. Should be 400 sq.km
per unit area
c) 75% male are working in non-agricultural
Problems in urban housing
• Building regulations that limit urban density
• Outdated rent control regulations reduce the
number of houses available on rent.
• Poor access to finance.
• Policy ,planning and regulation deficiencies
• Growing up slum area.
• Poor Infrastructure problem
• All settlements having pop. Less than 5000
persons can be considered as the rural
settlements. The housing problems of rural areas
a) Unavailability of land
b) Unavailability of materials
c) Unavailability of technical supervision.
d) Poor economic condition
e) Living habit and status
f) Social obligations
Aspects of Rural Housing
Other social amenities
• If the building project has more than thousand
units, it is known as mass housing.
• It is cost effective and time efficient
• Environmentally sustainable
• It is an integrated township
• The town centre is a meeting place for the
pop. As a whole. It is nearer to the central bus
terminus or railway station. The town centre is
divided into following groups:
• Business centre
• Civic centre
• Light shopping centre
Characteristics of Town centre
• Attractions: Multiple retailer,shops,restaurants &
café,Distinctive markets,Education & health
facilities,theatre hall, cultural
• Accessibility: parking place,rapid transit
system,transport interchanges etc.
• Amenities: Lighting,greenaries,frequent cleaning,
crime prevention initiatives.
• Action: Strategic action programme,
development partnership,regular monitoring
• It includes offices,big shops,markets etc.
• It consists of the following thee groups:
a) Convenience store(daily necessary goods)
b) Demand store(clothes,cycle,clocks etc.)
c) Impulse store(luxury items)
It is known as community centre
It is an assemble of public buildings
It should be neat & clean and beautiful
The civic centre may be cultural or educational.
It included town hall,court,post office, library,
museum, auditorium, art galary etc.
• Transport facilities should be well connected with
the civic centre
Light shopping centre:
• It may be departmental store or street
shopping centre or market.
Light shopping centre
A development plan can be defined as a general plan
for future layout of a city showing both the existing
and proposed streets or roads, open space, public
A development plan is prepared either for
improvement of an old city or for a new town to be
developed on virgin soil.
So a development plan aims to controlling the future
growth of a town along preconceived and
In India, the idea of preparation of development plan
is understood to have been flourished after 1915 when
the Bombay Town Planning Act was passed and was
soon followed by the Madras Town planning act in
The comprehensive Act requiring the preparation of
DP and authorizing, its enforcement is the Bombay
Town and country planning Act, 1954 which actually
came into force in 1957.
Objects of Development Plan
Following are the main objects of preparing a
development plan for the town.
It aims at intelligent and economic spending of the
public funds for achieving welfare of the inhabitants in
respect of amenity, convenience and health.
It arranges the pattern of a town in such a way so as to
satisfy the present requirements without introduction of
future improvements by the coming generation.
It helps in restricting the haphazard and unplanned
It places various functions which a town has to
perform in physical relationship of each other so as to
avoid the chances of mutual conflict.
It serves as a guide to the planning body for making
any recommendation for public improvement.
It removes the defects of uncoordinated physical
growth of the various components of town
Necessity Of Development Plan:
Following are the reasons which have lead to the
thinking of having a development plan for the town.
to control the development of various industries in a
To discharge the growth of town in an unplanned and
To give a perspective picture of a fully developed town.
To limit to a certain extent the flow of rural population to the
To offset the evils which have come up due to overcrowding of
Data To Be collected
Details of trades and industries,
Development of the airports
Economic conditions of the authority.
Environments of the site.
Facilities of transport
Geological conditions of the site.
Land values and land use pattern
Locations of spots of the natural beauty
Location of the water supply units.
Meteorological details such as intensity and direction
of wind , temperature, rainfall, etc.
Places of the historic origin,
Political position of the surrounding area.
Requirements for railway stations, goods yards and
Specials requirements for power houses, gas works,
sewage disposal plant and storm water drainage etc.
Following are the details contained in the usual
drawings prepared for the development plan.
Boundaries of land of different types such as residential,
agricultural, industrial etc.
Boundary of green belt surrounding the town
Contours of the whole city
Location of the publics buildings and town centers.
Open spaces including parks and playgrounds
Positions of the natural springs, rivers and streams
Position of the public utility services such as water supply
station, sewage disposal plant, power plant etc.
The neighbourhood is a residential area with
homogeneous characteristics. It is a settlement of
It sometimes become difficult to develop a sense of
neighbourliness, mainly for the following two reasons.
The neighbors are not dependent on one another’s
company and aid because city life gives a wide field of
The neighbors may not have common modes and habits
Principles of planning of neighborhood unit.
Following are the principles of planning a
School, temple , club, community hall, shopping
centre, recreational unit, sports centre etc
5) Street system
6) Building layout(50-100 dwellings)
The neighborhood planning can make a valuable
contribution towards the creation of a community
spirit and a properly balanced population structure.
The neighborhood plan aims at welding various
elements of social and cultural life of a community in a
Features of neighborhood unit
1) It is desirable to devote a minimum area of about
10% or so for parks and playground.
2) the boundary of the unit need not be fixed by
arterial roads. But it may even take the form of
physical barriers such as a large park, a railway station ,
a river, an industrial area, a hill etc.
3)The exact shape of the unit is not necessary. But it is
preferable to have all sides fairly equidistant from the
centre of unit.
4) The planning of residential units of neighborhood
unit should be carefully done with respect to the
habits of residents, direction of winds, sanitation, etc.
5) the provision of shopping centre should be at the
periphery of unit and near traffic junctions.
6) the width of interior streets of the units should be
just sufficient to serve a specific purpose. and these
streets should give easy access to the shops and
Town Planning scheme
Town planning scheme is prepared as per the provision
of town planning and urban development act for the
Generally Town planning scheme is known as T.P.
scheme. It is firstly introduced by “ Bombay Town
planning act” of 1915.
The basic concept of T.P. scheme is pooling together all
the land under different ownerships and redistributing
in a proper form after deciding the land required for
To achieve the objectives of the Town development
plan, town planning schemes are prepared as micro
level planning for smaller area around 100 hect.
The following objectives should be carried out of any
a) Pooling of lands.
b) Reconstitution of plot boundaries
c) Keep provision for social & physical infrastructure.
d) Recovery for the cost of development.
Contents of the Scheme:
The area,ownership and tenure of each plots
Estimation of cost of the scheme
Verification of ownership and area as per revenue records.
Reconstitute final plots
Calculation of cost of the scheme
Submit the draft scheme to the Govt. for sanction.
Maps preparation(land use, infrastructure , original plot etc.)
• Decide land value of original plot
• Decide land value of final plot(developed &
• Determined and fixed the cost.
To complete the entire process of T.P scheme
preparation and finalization will take 27 months.