From the “Age of Limits” to the Age of Reagan By: Kevin Gamarra, Armida Villalon, Jeremy Tayag
The Ford Custodianship● President Ford tried to rebuild confidence among the masses after the Watergate Scandals.● He granted Richard Nixon pardon for any crimes he had committed during his presidency.● The Ford Administration was not as successful, he sought to curb inflation.● He dealt with a recession in 1974- 1975.● SALT II, President Ford met with Soviet premier and signed an arms control.
The Trials of Jimmy Carter ● He entered his presidency during a recession. ● His agenda included major reforms of the tax and welfare systems. ● He sought to reduce unemployment by raising public spending and cutting federal taxes. ● By 1980, interest rates had exceeded 20%. ● He then delivered the "malaise speech," which in turn fueled charges that the president was blaming problems on the American people.
Human Rights and National Interests● President Carter called for the defense of “human rights” in order to replace the pursuit of “selfish interest.”● Carter was able to arrange a peace treaty with Egypt and Israel.● On March 26, 1979, Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister, Menachem Begin signed the Camp David Accords.● In 1979, Carter was able to draft the new SALT II arms control agreement, which limited the number missiles, bombers, etc...
Iranian Revolution● Iranians despised the Shahs autocratic rule.● In Jan. 1979, the Shah fled Iran.● In Nov. 4, a mob invaded the American embassy in Tehran.● After the Hostage capture, Soviets invaded Afghanistan.● "The gravest threat to world peace since WWII."
The Sunbelt and its Politics ● Sunbelt: the Southeast (Florida), the Southwest (Texas), and California ● Produced a change in the political climate ● Westerners embraced "rugged individualism" ● Sagebush Rebellion: Occurred in the late 1970s, conservatives opposed environmental laws and restrictions. ● Portrayed the West as a victim of government control.
Religious Politics ● A religious revival occurred which was more powerful than the 2nd Great Awakening. ● Revival of evangelical Christianity ● Christian evangelicals became active in political and cultural right. ● Roe v. Wade: issue with abortion
The New Right● New Right: a movement that believed environmental pursuits were hurting international business - 1970s right-wing think tanks, consulting firms,schools, etc.● Ronald Reagan supported this movement after his second marriage, to Nancy Davis.● 1966, Reagan won the first two terms as governor of CA● Presidency of Gerald Ford - Nelson Rockefeller (vice president)
The Tax Revolt● 1978, Howard Jarvis launched the first successful citizens tax revolt● Resolved the struggle to stop and reverse the growth of the federal government -directly attacking govt did not attract muchsupport -Large and expensive programs: Social Security,Medicare
The Campaign of 1980● Jimmy Carter had political trouble● Senator Edward Kennedy challenged Jimmy Carter● Republican Party supported Ronald Reagan - link campaign with tax revolts and restoration● Election day 1980, Reagan won - Republican Party won control for Senate● Reagans inauguration - American hostages in Iran...released after the444-day ordeal
The Reagan Coalition● Powerful coalition of conservative groups helped Reagans election - Corporate Elites ~wealthy Americans - Neo-conservatives ~intellectuals, "opinion leaders"● CE and NC joined an alliance in 1980 with the New Right - differentiated with the distrust of the "easternestablishment"
Reagan in the White House ● Reagan had a sharp public image ● Ronald Reagan was the oldest man to serve as president -1981, assassination attempt ● Not very involved with day-to- day affairs -administrators insulated him
"Supply-Side" Economics● Supply-side economics/Reaganomics -worked towards troubles of the American economy. -solution: Reduce taxes Reduces govt revenues Reduce govt expenses● First proposed $40 billion in budget reduction● Getting government out of the way promised to ensure economic revival (Reagan officials)● 1982- severe recession but by late 1983 economy recovered● Recovery led to the result of many things - Tight money policies by FRB helped lower inflation - Lowered interest rates by late 1983
The Fiscal Crisis● Mid-1980s, fiscal crisis became a central issue in American politics● Enormous deficit had many causes - Budget suffered from large increases in the costs of "entitlement"programs - 1981 tax cuts - Massive increase in military spending ● Administrations answer- further cuts in "discretionary" domestic spending - Reduction in funding for food - Major cut in federal grant for low-income housing
Reagan and the World● Determined to restore American pride and prestige● Soviet Regime - "evil empire"● Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) - use of lasers and satellites - provide an effective shield againstincoming missiles ● Nuclear Freeze ● Reagan Doctrine - a new American activism in the Third World
Reagan and the World Cont.● October 1982, administration sent troops into the Caribbean island of Grenada● Nicaragua, pro-American dictatorship had fallen to the revolutionary "Sandinistas" (1979) - Reagan administration supports contras● June 1982, Israeli army invades Lebanon - Changes the character of Third World struggles - increase reliance on terrorism
The Election of 1984 cont.● Republican Candidate: Ronald Reagan● Democratic Candidate: Walter Mondale● Geraldine Ferraro: first female candidate to be on a national ticket.● Reagan won but Democrats still controlled the House of Representatives.
The Fall of the Soviet Union● Mikhail Gorbachev: ○ glasnost(openness): called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union ○ perestroika (reform): an effort to restructure the Soviet economy with elements of Capitalism.● By 1989, every communist state in Europe was able to free itself from communism.● Massacre in Tiananmen Square, Beijing● South African government began to repeal apartheid laws in 1990.● Gorbachev resigned on August 19,1991.
Reagan and Gorbachev ● Gorbachev proposed to reduce the nuclear arsenals of both sides by 50 percent or more in a summit meeting with Reagan in 1986. ● They signed a treaty eliminating American and Soviet intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) from Europe in 1988. ● Gorbachev ended Soviet Union military involvement in Afghanistan.
The Fading of the Reagan Revolution● There were revelations of illegality, corruption, and ethical lapses in departments handled by the Reagan administration.● In November 1986, the White House conceded that it sold weapons to the revolutionary government of Iran.● Some of the money from the arms deal with Iran was revealed to have been illegally funneled into a fund to aid the contras in Nicaragua.
The Election of 1988 Cont.● Democrats regained control of Senate in 1986.● Democrat Candidate: Michael Dukakis● Republican Candidate: George Bush● Bush used a verbal attack on Dukakis to spark public enthusiasm.● Bush wins!
The Bush Presidency● Inherited the debt and federal deficit that had been growing for nearly a decade● Bush signed off on a significant tax increase in 1990.● The Recession began in 1990 and caused many bankruptcies.
The First Gulf War● The administration ordered an invasion of Panama in 1989.● Iraqi forces overwhelmed Kuwait on August 2,1990.● U.S. and its allies began sending military forces to the border between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.● U.S. began bombing Iraqi forces and using ground troops.● Iraq accepted terms for the cease-fire.
The Election of 1992 Cont.● Not many people wanted to be the Democratic candidate.● Ross Perot was a popular independent candidate, but dropped out for some time.● Clinton won the election with 43 percent of the vote.● Democrats still in control of both houses of Congress.