The Siege of
Vicksburg
December 1862 July 1863
The capture of Vicksburg,
Mississippi, was vital if the
Union was to regain control over
the Mississippi River.
Ulysses S ...
Vicksburg was essential to the
South
• From its position on
the Mississippi River
it dominated trade
between New
Orleans a...
Vicksburg was the only link
between the eastern and
western halves of the
Confederacy
• If the Union
captured the city it
...
The Union Plan
• Grant had planned a
two-part assault on the
heavily fortified city from
the north
• In December 1862 he
s...
The Union Plan
• Grant intended to march
overland into Vicksburg
from Memphis to attack
simultaneously
• He had to abandon...
The Union Plan
• General Sherman
attempted to capture
the land north of the city
on his own, but failed
and had to withdra...
The Union plan
• Grant planned to
lead his army
through the swamps
along the river by
building elaborate
canals and then
f...
The Union plan falls apart
• He attempted this plan
three different times
during the winter and
each time the plan
failed ...
Grant’s new plan
• Grant sent his army 30 miles south to cut a way
through the swamps to the river
• Under cover of night ...
Grant’s new plan
• On April 30 the
gunboats ferried
Grant’s men across
the river
• General Sherman
kept the
Confederates b...
Grant’s new plan
• Grant did not turn to
Vicksburg immediately
• Instead he engaged the
Confederate
reinforcements and
cap...
Grant attacks Vicksburg
• As he advanced on the city Confederate forces led by
John C. Pemberton advanced to meet him
• Gr...
Grant attempts to take the city
• Twice Grant
attempted to take
the city but it was
too well guarded
and fortified
• Grant...
The siege of Vicksburg
• On May 22nd Grant
and his men settled
in for a siege
• They cut Vicksburg
off from all supplies
•...
The siege of Vicksburg
• The city of Vicksburg was more than just a military
fortress, it was also a city populated by men...
The siege of Vicksburg

• Shells and cannon fire rained down on the city nonstop from the Union’s 220 heavy guns
• Vicksbu...
The siege of Vicksburg
• Food and supplies soon began to run out
• Citizens of Vicksburg were forced to eat their
mules, h...
The siege of Vicksburg ends
• Confederate general Pemperton tried to negotiate a
compromise
• Grant refused, insisting onl...
The siege of Vicksburg ends
 Along

with Gettysburg, Vicksburg was
the most important victory in the war
 The Mississipp...
9. the siege of vicksburg
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  • 9. the siege of vicksburg

    1. 1. The Siege of Vicksburg December 1862 July 1863
    2. 2. The capture of Vicksburg, Mississippi, was vital if the Union was to regain control over the Mississippi River. Ulysses S Grant’s campaign to take the city lasted eight months
    3. 3. Vicksburg was essential to the South • From its position on the Mississippi River it dominated trade between New Orleans and Memphis • The Union had captured both those cities already
    4. 4. Vicksburg was the only link between the eastern and western halves of the Confederacy • If the Union captured the city it would split the Confederates in two • Jefferson Davis ordered that Vicksburg must be saved at all costs
    5. 5. The Union Plan • Grant had planned a two-part assault on the heavily fortified city from the north • In December 1862 he sent the powerful and respected General Sherman down the Mississippi River for a frontal assault
    6. 6. The Union Plan • Grant intended to march overland into Vicksburg from Memphis to attack simultaneously • He had to abandon his plan when his main supply base was destroyed by Confederate raiders
    7. 7. The Union Plan • General Sherman attempted to capture the land north of the city on his own, but failed and had to withdraw • Grant needed to take the city but the wide Mississippi River lay between them
    8. 8. The Union plan • Grant planned to lead his army through the swamps along the river by building elaborate canals and then ferry his troops across the river and attack from the high ground to the east
    9. 9. The Union plan falls apart • He attempted this plan three different times during the winter and each time the plan failed because of rain, high water, and Confederate opposition • By the start of spring Grant realized he would have to change tactics
    10. 10. Grant’s new plan • Grant sent his army 30 miles south to cut a way through the swamps to the river • Under cover of night Union gunboats sailed past Confederate guns to meet with Grant’s army
    11. 11. Grant’s new plan • On April 30 the gunboats ferried Grant’s men across the river • General Sherman kept the Confederates busy with a diversionary attack north of the city
    12. 12. Grant’s new plan • Grant did not turn to Vicksburg immediately • Instead he engaged the Confederate reinforcements and captured the Mississippi capital of Jackson so the Confederate troops there couldn’t be sent to strengthen Vicksburg
    13. 13. Grant attacks Vicksburg • As he advanced on the city Confederate forces led by John C. Pemberton advanced to meet him • Grant defeated him twice and Pemberton retreated back into Vicksburg
    14. 14. Grant attempts to take the city • Twice Grant attempted to take the city but it was too well guarded and fortified • Grant realized the city would never surrender until its supplies ran out
    15. 15. The siege of Vicksburg • On May 22nd Grant and his men settled in for a siege • They cut Vicksburg off from all supplies • They surrounded it with 15 miles of trenches
    16. 16. The siege of Vicksburg • The city of Vicksburg was more than just a military fortress, it was also a city populated by men, women, and children • This was an example of the concept of “total war”, combat waged against a civilian population as well as military targets with the object of reducing a people’s will to fight
    17. 17. The siege of Vicksburg • Shells and cannon fire rained down on the city nonstop from the Union’s 220 heavy guns • Vicksburg civilians suffered as much as soldiers • Many dug caves into the hillsides and took refuge after their homes had been destroyed
    18. 18. The siege of Vicksburg • Food and supplies soon began to run out • Citizens of Vicksburg were forced to eat their mules, horses, dogs, and even rats just to survive
    19. 19. The siege of Vicksburg ends • Confederate general Pemperton tried to negotiate a compromise • Grant refused, insisting only on unconditional surrender • On July 4th, 1863 when the city’s food and ammunition were gone they surrendered and Grant’s men finally took the city
    20. 20. The siege of Vicksburg ends  Along with Gettysburg, Vicksburg was the most important victory in the war  The Mississippi River was now in Union hands, and the backbone of the Confederacy was broken  For the next 81 years the citizens of Vicksburg would refuse to celebrate Independence Day on July 4th

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