LEARNING GOAL CRN BENCHMARK: 14.11.4 P- Explain the rise of theConservative Republican movement and evaluate the argumentsabout key Constitutional issues it has prompted: judicial activism executive power new federalism the contest between national security and civil liberties
THE TRIUMPH OF CONSERVATISM President Jimmy Cartersadministration appeared to bestumped and faltering when itwas unable to control therampant inflation or handleforeign affairs. It also refused to removehampering regulatory controlsfrom major industries such asairlines.
ENTER: TEDDYKENNEDY Late in 1979, EdwardKennedy ("Ted") declared hiscandidacy for the Democraticnomination for the electionof 1980. His popularity sputtered anddied when the suspicious1969 accident in which ayoung female passengerdrowned arose.
NEW GROUPS EMERGENew Conservatism New Interest Groups As the Democrats duckedout, the Republicans,realizing that the averageAmerican was older andmore mature than during thestormy sixties and wastherefore more likely to favorthe right, chose conservativeand former actor RonaldReagan, signaling the returnof conservatism. New groups that laterspearheaded the "new right"movement included MoralMajority and otherconservative Christiangroups.
THE ELECTION OF RONALD REAGAN,1980 Ronald Reagan backed a political philosophy that condemnedfederal intervention in local affairs, favoritism for minorities, andthe elitism of arrogant bureaucrats. He drew on the ideas of the "neoconservatives"-supporting free-market capitalism, questioning liberal welfare programs andaffirmative-action policies, and calling for reassertion of traditionalvalues of individualism and the centrality of family. Ronald Reagan won the election of 1980, beating Democraticpresident Jimmy Carter.Electoral vote 489 49
THE REAGAN VICTORY Carter‘s negatives Iranian hostage crisis economic ills Reagan‘s positives win the election warm telegenic personality optimistic message draws Jewish, working class vote Republicans win majority in the SenateComing Home. After more than ayear in capitivity in Iran, thesehostages were released on the veryday of Ronald Reagan‘s presidential
THE REGAN REVOLUTION The Iranians released thehostages on ReagansInauguration Day, January20, 1981, after 444 days ofcaptivity. Reagan assembled aconservative cabinet whenhe took office. Much to the dismay ofenvironmentalists, JamesWatt became the secretary ofthe interior.
JAMES WATT- SEC. OF THE INTERIOR1981-1983- FROM TIME MAGAZINE‘S: 10 WORST CABINETMEMBERS You can say this for Watt: he was a quote machine. The Reagan appointee once infamously bifurcated the American peopleinto "liberals and Americans," made another regrettable quip featuring "ablack, a woman, two Jews and a cripple," and seemed to invoke religion asjustification for his policies. In a job that requires balancing the protection of natural resources withharnessing the commercial potential of federal land, Watt was viewed bymany as favoring development over preservation. Among the acts environmentalists decried: leasing massive tracts of land tocoal-mining companies (the amount quintipled during his tenure) andopening up large swaths of the outer continental shelf to offshore oil drillers. Read more:http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1858691_1858
The Triumph of the Right, 1980. Republican conservatives scored adouble victory in 1980, winning control of both the White House and theSenate. Aided by conservative Democratic ―boll weeviles‖, they alsodominated the House of Representatives, and a new era of conservatismdawned in the nation‘s capital.
REDUCING GOVERNMENT A major goal of Reagan was toreduce the size of thegovernment by shrinking thefederal budget and cuttingtaxes. He proposed a new federalbudget that called for cuts of $35billion, mostly in social programslike food stamps and federally-funded job-training centers.
ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT On March 6, 1981, Reagan was shot. While leaving a speaking engagement atthe Washington Hilton Hotel inWashington, D.C., Reagan and threeothers were shot and wounded by JohnHinckley, Jr. Reagan suffered a punctured lung andheavy internal bleeding, but promptmedical attention allowed him to recoverquickly. 12 days later, Reagan recovered andreturned to work. Hinckley was found not guilty by reason ofinsanity and remains confined to apsychiatric facility.
THE BATTLE OF THE BUDGET With the combination of budgetarydiscipline and tax reduction, the "supply-side" economics would stimulate newinvestment, boost productivity, promotedramatic economic growth, and reduce thefederal deficit. Supply-Side Economics: argues thateconomic growth can be mosteffectively created by lowering barriersfor people to produce (supply) goodsand services, such as lowering incometax and capital gains tax rates, and byallowing greater flexibility by reducingregulation. According to supply-sideeconomics, consumers will then benefitfrom a greater supply of goods andservices at lower prices The second part of Reaganseconomic program called fortremendous tax cuts,amounting to 25% across-the-board reductions over aperiod of 3 years. In August 1981, Congressapproved a set of tax reformsthat lowered individual taxrates, reduced federal estatetaxes, and created new tax-free saving plans for smallinvestors.
THE RECESSION OF 1982 The economy slipped into its deepestrecession since the 1930s asunemployment rose and banks closed. The anti-inflationary polices that caused therecession of 1982 had actually beeninitiated by the Federal Reserve Board in1979, during Carters presidency. For the first time in the 20th century, incomegaps widened between the rich and thepoor. Some economists located the sources ofthe economic upturn in the massive militaryexpenditures. Reagan gave the Pentagon nearly $2 trillionin the 1980s. He plunged the governmentinto major deficit that made the New Deallook cheap.
REAGAN RENEWS THE COLD WAR Reagans strategy for dealing with the Soviet Union was simple: byenormously expanding U.S. military capabilities, he could threaten theSoviets with an expensive new round in the arms race. The American economy could better bear this new financial burden thancould the Soviet system. In March 1983, Reagan announced his intentionto pursue a high-technology missile-defense system called the StrategicDefense Initiative (SDI), also known as Star Wars. The plan called for orbiting battle satellites in space that could fire laserbeams to vaporize intercontinental missile on liftoff. In 1983, a Korean passenger airliner was shot down when it flew intoSoviet airspace. By the end of 1983, all arms-control negotiations were broken, and theCold War was intensified.
Star Wars Fantasies.President Reagan‘sStrategic DefenseInitiative [popularlyknown as Star Wars]evoked extravaganthopes for animpermeable defenseshield, but its dauntingphysical andengineeringrequirements alsooccasioned muchridicule in the scientificcommunity.
TROUBLES ABROAD In June 1982, Israel invadedLebanon, seeking to destroythe guerrilla bases fromwhich Palestinian fightersattacked Israel. Reagan sent peacekeepingtroops, but after a suicidebomber killed 200 marines,he withdrew the force.
CARRIBEAN TROUBLES In 1979, Reagan sent "military advisors"to El Salvador to prop up the pro-American government. In October 1983, he dispatched aheavy-fire-power invasion force to theisland of Grenada, where a militarycoup had killed the prime minister andbrought Marxists to power. Overrunning the island and ousting theinsurgents, American troopsdemonstrated Reagans determinationto assert the dominance of the UnitedStates in the Caribbean.
ROUND TWO FOR REAGAN Ronald Reagan overwhelmingly won the election of 1984, beatingDemocrat Walter Mondale and his female vice presidential nominee,Geraldine Ferraro. Foreign policy issues dominated Reagans second term. Mikhail Gorbachev became the chairman of the Soviet Communist party inMarch 1985. Committed to radical reforms in the Soviet Union, he announced twopolicies, Glasnost and Perestroika, aimed at ventilating the Soviet societyby introducing free speech and a measure of liberty, and reviving the Sovieteconomy by adopting many of the free-market practices, respectively. The two policies required the Soviet Union to reduce the size of its militaryand concentrate aid on the citizens. This necessitated an end to the Cold War. In December 1985, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the IFN treaty, banningall intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe. The two leaderscapped their friendship in May 1988 at a final summit in Moscow.
GORBACHEV‘S REVOLUTIONGLASNOST PERESTROIKA ―Openness‖ Aimed to introduce freespeech and political liberty tothe Soviet Union ―Restructuring‖ Soviets would move towardadopting free-marketeconomies similar to those inthe WestEast Meets West. PresidentReagan greets Soviet leaderMikhail Gorbachev at a summitmeeting in Moscow in May1988
FURTHER FOREIGN AFFAIRS Also, Reagansupported CorazonAquino‘s ousting of Filipinodictator, Ferdinand Marcos. He also ordered a lightningraid on Libya, in 1986, inretaliation for Libya‘s state-sponsored terrorist attacks,and began escorting oiltankers through the PersianGulf during the Iran—IraqWar.
OPERATION EL DORADO CANYON On April 5, 1986, a bomb exploded in a discotheque in Berlin frequented byUnited States service personnel. Of the 200 injured, 63 were Americansoldiers; one soldier and one civilian were killed. On the late evening of 15 April and early morning of 16 April 1986, under thecode name El Dorado Canyon, the United States launched a series of militaryair strikes against ground targets inside Libya. It is the purpose behind the mission…a mission fully consistent with Article 51of the U.N. Charter Gadaffi ordering an attack on Americans ―to cause maximum andindiscriminate casualties.‖ Another communications source, an interceptedLibyan message outlined the attack being planned in West Berlin The actual combat commenced at 0200 (local Libyan time), lasted less than12 minutes, and dropped 60 tons of munitions. Resistance outside theimmediate area of attack was nonexistent, and Libyan air defense aircraftnever launched.
THE IRAN-CONTRA IMBROGLIO Two foreign policy problems arose to Reagan: the continuingcaptivity of a number of American hostages seized by Muslimextremist groups in battered Lebanon; and the continuing grip onpower of the left-wing Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Money from the payment for arms to the Iranians was secretlydiverted to the contras, who fought the Sandinista government,although it violated a congressional ban on military aid to theNicaraguan rebels. In November 1986, news of the secret dealings broke and ignited afirestorm of controversy. Reagan claimed he had no idea of the illicit activities. Criminal indictments were brought against Oliver North, AdmiralJohn Poindexter, and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. The Iran-contra affair cast a shadow over the Reagan record inforeign policy, tending to obscure the presidents achievements inestablishing a new relationship with the Soviets.
REAGANS ECONOMIC LEGACY Ronald Reagan had taken officevowing to stimulate the Americaneconomy by rolling back governmentregulations, lowering taxes, andbalancing the budget. Supply-side economic theory hadpromised that lower taxes wouldactually increase government revenuebecause they would stimulate theeconomy as a whole. The combination of tax reduction andhuge increases in military spendingcaused $200 billion in annualdeficits. The large deficits of the Reagan yearsassuredly constituted a greateconomic failure.
REAGANOMICS Reaganomics had foursimple principles: Lowermarginal tax rates, lessregulation, restrainedgovernment spending,noninflationary monetarypolicy. Though Reagan did notachieve all of his goals, hemade good progress Reagan‘s deregulation includedindustries like railroads, banking,and airlines. Governmentspending was cut, though cutswere primarily levied at socialprograms like education andwelfare. Deregulation is still a hotlycontested issue amongeconomists and politicians alike. Some see benefits to Reagan‘spath and advocate for privatizingother industries, while othersbelieve that Reaganomicsremoved safeguards fromindustries which increasedcorporate greed.
By appearing to make new socialspending both practically andpolitically impossible for theforeseeable future, though, theeconomic deficits served theirpurpose.• They achieved Reagans highestpolitical objective: thecontainment of the welfare state.• In the early 1990s, medianhousehold income actuallydeclined.
LIMITING THE ROLE OFGOVERNMENT Environmental regulations relaxed Attempted cuts in Social Security Neglect of interest-group opponents labor hurt in air traffic control firings lack of support for civil rights legislation women ignored in judicial appointments
THE RICH GROW RICHER Gains of Reaganomics inflation reduced to 4% employment grows after 1982 growth in service sector jobs Losses of Reaganomics high-paying manufacturing jobs decline increasing social inequality wealthy benefit poor left in poverty middle class hurt
THE AIDS EPIDEMIC 1981--AIDS first detected apparent confinement to homosexual men results in earlypublic inaction spread to drug users, recipients of blood transfusionsprompts panic Reagan Administration‘s response fund research little funding for education, prevention 1987--appointment of AIDS commissioner
THE AIDS EPIDEMIC (2) 1996--500,000 infected majority homosexuals, drug users 15% heterosexual, non-drug abusers 1996--AIDS death rate begins dropping new drugs safer sexual practices
THE WAR ON DRUGS Mid-1980s--crack cocaine introduced addiction spread through all classes exploding crime rate Reagan attempts interdiction of supply Bush, Clinton continue Reagan policy At the end of the century there seemed to be no end to the waron drugs
THE RELIGIOUS RIGHT In 1979, Reverend JerryFalwell founded a politicalorganization called the MoralMajority. He preached with greatsuccess against sexualpermissiveness, abortion,feminism, and the spread ofgay rights. Collecting millions of dollarsand members, theorganization became anaggressive political advocateof conservative causes.
The Moral Majority.Television evangelistand religious leader theReverand Jerry Falwellmobilized his nationalMoral Majorityorganization in supportof Ronald Reagan‘spresidential campaign in1980 and a conservativeagenda.
SANDRA DAY O‘CONNOR The Supreme Court hadbecome Reagans principalinstrument in the "culturalwars." By the time he had left office,Reagan had appointed 3conservative-mindedjudges, including SandraDay OConnor, (September21, 1981 – January 31, 2006)the first women to become aSupreme Court Justice.
The Justice Is aLady, 1981.Herblock hailsSandra DayO‘Connor‘sappointment to theSupreme Court.
CONSERVATISM IN THE COURTS Reaganism rejected two icons of the liberal political culture: affirmativeaction and abortion. Affirmative Action - In two cases in 1989 (Wards Cove Packing v.Antonia and Martin v. Wilks), the Court made it more difficult to provethat an employer practiced racial discrimination in hiring. Abortion - In Roe v. Wade (1973), the Court had prohibited states frommaking laws that interfered with a womans right to an abortion during theearly months of pregnancy. In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989), the Supreme Courtapproved a Missouri law that imposed certain restrictions on abortion,signaling that a state could legislate in an area in which Roe hadpreviously forbidden them to legislate. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), the Court ruled that statescould restrict access to abortion as long they did not place an "undueburden" on the woman.
REFERENDUM ON REAGANSIM IN 1988 Corruption in the government gave Democrats politicalopportunities. Signs of economic trouble seemed to open morepolitical opportunities for Democrats as the "twin towers" ofdeficits-the federal budget deficit and international trade deficit-continued to mount. On "Black Monday," October 19, 1987, the stock marketplunged 508 points-the largest one-day decline in history.
REAGAN AND THE COLD WAR Reagans role in bringing about the fall of the Berlin Wall and thepeaceful end of the Cold War remains exaggerated, manipulated andmisunderstood. To many of his conservative admirers, the challenge to Gorbachev inBerlin epitomized the toughness that made Reagan great: byrefusing to compromise his core principles, he defeated communismand won the Cold War. Truth: is that Reagan was more adaptable, politically shrewd andopen to compromise than either his champions or his critics prefer toadmit. He may have called the Soviet Union an "evil empire," but hewas not above negotiating with it. While others saw the enmity between the superpowers asimmutable, he insisted that change was possible. And though todayhe is revered by foreign policy hawks, Reagans greatest successeswere achieved not through the use of force but by persuasion,dialogue and diplomacy.
Launching the "Peaceful Revolution" of 1989From: Leipzig, Germany"We had planned everything. We were preparedfor everything. But not for candles and prayers."Horst Sindermann, former GDR officialSource: The Events in Fall 1989, Nikolaikirche LeipzigWhat really brought down theWall…ABOVE: A news photo from the Montagsdemonstration of October 9, 1989.
THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL If Gorbachev took down the Wall,"Reagan told an aide after returningfrom Berlin, "hed win the NobelPrize." Reagan was right. (In 1990,Gorbachev not only won the Nobelbut was named TIMEs Man of theDecade.) Neither Gorbachev nor Reaganwas directly responsible for the fallof the Wall; rather, it collapsed fromits own weight. Allowing democracy to spreadthrough Eastern Europe in 1989was Gorbachevs greatestaccomplishment
SUMMARIZER Create a diagram to explore to effects of ―Reaganomics‖ Include: Definition of Reaganomics Short-Term Effects Long-Term Effects
THE ELECTION OF 1988 The Republicans nominated GeorgeBush for the election of 1988. Black candidate Jesse Jackson, arousing speech-maker who hoped toforge a "rainbow collation" of minoritiesand the disadvantaged, campaignedenergetically, but the Democrats choseMichael Dukakis. Despite Reagans recent problems inoffice, George Bush won the election. Dan Quayle served as the 44th VicePresident of the United States, servingwith President George H. W. Bush(1989–1993). He served as a U.S.Representative and U.S. Senator fromthe state of Indiana.
QUAYLISMS "If we dont succeed, we run the risk of failure.‖ "Republicans understand the importance of bondage between amother and child.‖ "What a waste it is to lose ones mind. Or not to have a mind isbeing very wasteful. How true that is.‖ "One word sums up probably the responsibility of any vicepresident, and that one word is to be prepared.‖ "The future will be better tomorrow.‖ "Quite frankly, teachers are the only profession that teach ourchildren.‖ "It isnt pollution thats harming the environment. Its the impuritiesin our air and water that are doing it."
WHO IS GEORGE H.W. BUSH? After receiving an education atYale and serving in World War II,George Bush had gained afortune in the oil business inTexas. He left the business, though, toserve in public service. He served as a congressmanand then held various posts inseveral Republicanadministrations, includingambassador to China,ambassador to the UnitedNations, director of the CIA, andvice president.
THE EXPLOSION OF CHINA In 1989, thousands ofprodemocracy demonstratorsprotested in TiananmenSquare in China. In June of that year, Chinasautocratic rulers grew angry andbrutally crushed the movement. Tanks and machine gunnerskilled hundreds ofprotestors. World opinioncondemned the bloodysuppression of theprodemocracy demonstrators.
COMMUNISM TOPPLES In early 1989, the Solidaritymovement in Polandtoppled the communistregime. Communistregimes also collapsed inHungary, Czechoslovakia,East Germany, andRomania. In December 1989, theBerlin Wall came down, andthe two Germanies werereunited in October 1990. The end of Communism inEurope was partly the resultof the ‗glasnost‘ and‗perestroika‘ reforms whichGorbachev had introduced tothe USSR from 1985onwards The Eastern European statesrealized that Gorbachev hadscrapped the BrezhnevDoctrine: they could do asthey pleased Poland was the 1st to seizeits opportunity
Fallen Idol. Romanians toppled this statue ofVladimir Lenin in 1990, symbolically marking thecollapse of the Marxian dream that had agitatedthe world for more than a century.
THE BREZHNEV DOCTRINE the policy meant that limited independence of communist parties was allowed.However, no country would be allowed to leave the Warsaw Pact, disturb anations communist partys monopoly on power, or in any way compromise thecohesiveness of the Eastern bloc. Implicit in this doctrine was that the leadership of the Soviet Union reserved,for itself, the right to define "socialism" and "capitalism". Following the announcement of the Brezhnev Doctrine, numerous treatieswere signed between the Soviet Union and its satellite states to reassert thesepoints and to further ensure inter-state cooperation. The principles of the doctrine were so broad that the Soviets even used it tojustify their military intervention in the non-Warsaw Pact nation of Afghanistanin 1979. The Brezhnev Doctrine stayed in effect until it was finally ended with theSoviet non-invasion of Poland during the 1980-1981 crisis and later refusal ofMikhail Gorbachev to use military force when Poland held free elections in1989 and Solidarity defeated the Communist Party
THE SOVIET UNION FALLS In August 1991, a military coup attempted to preserve thecommunist system by trying to dislodge Gorbachev frompower. With support of Boris Yelstin, the president of the RussianRepublic (one of the several republics that composed the Union ofSoviet Socialist Republics, or USSR), Gorbachev foiled theplotters. In December 1991, Gorbachev resigned as Soviet president. He had become a leader without a country as the Soviet Uniondissolved into its component parts, 15 republics looselyconfederated in the Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS), with Russia the most powerful state and Yelstin thedominant leader. The demise of the Soviet Union finished the Cold War.
TERROR IN FORMER SOVIETLANDS Throughout the former Soviet Union,waves of nationalistic fervor and long-suppressed ethnic and racial hatredswere exposed. In 1991, the Chechnyan minority triedto declare its independence fromRussia. Boris Yelstin was forced to send inRussian troops. Ethnic warfare in other communistcountries took place as vicious "ethniccleaning" campaigns against minoritiesarose. Western Europe was now threatenedby the social and economic weaknessof the former communist lands.
A REVERSE OF FORTUNE Now that the Soviet Union haddissolved and there was nolonger a Cold War, Americaseconomy suffered. During the Cold War, the U.S.economy had been dependentupon defense spending. Bush raised taxes as a way toreduce the national budgetdeficit. Bush refused many times butwas making no progress with aSenate and House that wascontrolled by Democrats. Bush eventually agreed to acompromise withCongressional Democrats toraise several taxes as part of a1990 budget agreement.
DEMOCRACY SPREADS In 1990, the white regime inSouth Africa freed Africanleader Nelson Mandela, whohad served 27 years in prisonfor conspiring for overthrow thegovernment. Four years later, he was electedas South Africas president. In 1990, free elections removedthe leftist Sandinistas inNicaragua from power. In 1992, peace came to ElSalvador.
KEY TERMS: APARTHEID Laws in South Africa that physicallyseparated different races into differentgeographic areas. system of racial segregation enforcedthrough legislation by the National Party(NP) governments, who were the rulingparty from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa,under which the rights of the majority blackinhabitants of South Africa were curtailedand white supremacy and Afrikaner minorityrule was maintained. n 1990 President FrederikWillem de Klerk begannegotiations to endapartheid, culminating inmulti-racial democraticelections in 1994, whichwere won by the AfricanNational Congress underNelson Mandela.
ISRAELI ANALOGIES Critics of Israeli policy say that "a system of control" in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, including Jewish-only settlements, separateroads for Israeli and Palestinian citizens, military checkpoints,discriminatory marriage law, the West Bank barrier, use ofPalestinians as cheap labour, Palestinian West Bank enclaves,inequities in infrastructure, legal rights, and access to land andresources between Palestinians and Israeli residents in theIsraeli-occupied territories resembles some aspects of the SouthAfrican apartheid regime
THE PERSIAN GULF CRISIS On August 2, 1990, Iraqileader Saddam Husseininvaded Kuwait, seeking oil. The United Nations SecurityCouncil condemned theinvasion and on August 3,demanded the immediatewithdrawal of Iraqs troops. After Hussein refused tocomply by the mandatory dateof January 15, 1991, theUnited States spearheaded amassive international militarydeployment, sending 539,000troops to the Persian Gulfregion.
FIGHTING "OPERATION DESERTSTORM" On January 16, 1991, the U.S.and the U.N. launched a 37-dayair war against Iraq. Allied commander, Americangeneral Norman Schwarzkopf,planned to soften the Iraqis withrelentless bombing and thensend in waves of ground troopsand armor. On February 23, the land war,"Operation Desert Storm,"began. Lasting only 4 days, SaddamHussein was forced to sign acease-fire on February 27. The war had failed to dislodgeSaddam Hussein from power
The Highway of Death. The allied coalitionwreaked gruesome destruction on Iraqiforces, fleeing back to Iraq after their defeatin Kuwait in 1991.
BUSH ON THE HOME FRONT President Bush signed theAmericans with DisabilitiesAct (ADA) in 1990, prohibitingdiscrimination against citizenswith physical or mentaldisabilities. In 1992, he signed a majorwater projects bill thatreformed the distribution ofsubsidized federal water in theWest. In 1990, Bushs Department ofEducation challenged thelegality of college scholarshipstargeted for racial minorities.
President George H.W. BushSigns the Americans withDisabilities Act on the SouthLawn of the White House,July 26th, 1990.
CLARENCE THOMAS & SEXUALHARASSMENT In 1991, Bush proposedClarence Thomas (a Blackman) to fill in the vacant seatleft by retiring ThurgoodMarshall (the first BlackSupreme Court justice), butthis choice was opposed bythe NAACP since Thomaswas a conservative and bythe National Organization forWomen (NOW), sinceThomas was supposedlypro-life.
SEX, LIES AND POLITICS In early October 1991, AnitaHill charged Thomas withsexual harassment, and eventhough Thomas was stillselected to be on the Court,Hill‘s case publicized sexualharassment and tightenedtolerance of it (Oregon‘sSenator Robert Packwoodhad to step down in 1995after a case of sexualharassment).
BUSH AND THE ECONOMY In 1992, the economy stalled, and Bush was forced to break anexplicit campaign promise (―Read my lips, no new taxes‖) and add$133 billion worth of new taxes to try to curb the $250 billionannual budget. When it was revealed that many House members had written badchecks from a private House ―bank,‖ public confidence lessenedeven more. By 1992, the unemployment rate had exceeded 7%,and the federal budget deficit continued to grow.
SUMMARIZER Why did President Reagan and President Bush think it wasimportant to appoint conservative justices to the Supreme Court? What factors caused the end of the Cold War?