Chapter 30: TheCrisis OfAuthorityDominick Argana, AdrianAscencio, Arnold Ortega, EduardoSorto
I. The Youth Culture• The New Left: Formed in the 1960s by young whitepeople who emphasized the black and minority cause.• Students for a Democratic Society: Formed in 1962 byintelligent students who were DISILLUSIONED withsociety and DETERMINED with politics.• Free Speech Movement: Began in 1964 at UC Berkeleythrough a strike for students to politically work oncampus.• People’s Park: The main purpose of another strike in1969 at UC Berkeley was to establish a “People’s Park”on one of its vacant lots.- About 85% of the student population supported it.- Made the students aware of their oppressiveadministration.
The Counterculture• “Hippies”: Young people who expressed theirrebelliousness through physical features andthe use of illegal drugs.• Haight-Ashbury: A refuge for hippies to self-cultivate in a corrupt society.• Rock ‘n’ Roll: Expressed social and politicalunrest in the late 1960s.- The Woodstock music festival was acountercultural gathering.
II. The Mobilization Of Minorities• Native American Grievances: Constituted 1% of thepopulation; little education and low-life expectancy.• Termination: Enacted in 1953, this made Indiansaffiliated with the government and local jurisdictions inorder to be assimilated.- Failure: So many tribes were against “termination” thatthe Eisenhower administration had to bar it.- The struggle led to a new generation of Indian militantsthe establishment of the National Congress ofAmerican Indians (1944).- Population doubled in size between 1950-1970.
The Indian Civil Rights Movement• American Indian Movement: Established in 1968 by a groupof young militant Indians who strived for more liberties.- Most notable liberty by the AIM was the occupation ofAlcatraz.• Wounded Knee: A reservation in South Dakota where theAIM occupied in an effort to make the governmentpromote radical changes and honor its “long forgotten”treaties.- Notable victories in the courts: United States v. Wheeler(1978); County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation• Achievements: The Civil Rights Movement won more legalrights and protections that gave Indians a better standing inthe nation than they were before.
Latino Activism• Largest group out of all the minorities.- 1960 census: 3 million Latinos (mainly Mexican Americans) occupied theUS.- 2006 census: 44 million Latinos occupied the US.• “Chicanos”: A reference of Mexican-American activists who wanted toadvocate some sort of nationalism.- La Raza Unida: A Chicano political party that wanted to establish aMexican-American state within a state.• Cesar Chavez: Leader of the United Farms Workers who began a hungerstrike in order to receive recognition of his union and increase wages.- With the support of Robert F. Kennedy, Chavez won when the growers ofhalf of California’s table grapes signed contracts with the union.• Bilingualism: A controversy in the 1970s in which non-English-speakingstudents should be taught in their own native language.- Legitimized in 1974.
Challenging the “Melting Pot” Ideal“Melting Pot”• “Melting” (assimilating) inthe “Pot” (country).• Many European immigrantsfelt that they had advancedin the nation throughassimilation.Challenges• African Americans, Indians,and Latinos refuted the“melting pot” ideal andsupported a “culturallypluralistic society.”- “Multiculturalism”: Acontroversy in the 1980s inwhich ethnic groupsattempted to makeAmerican education equalto all races.
Gay Liberation• Homosexuals trying to fight for their rights was very surprising tothe country. (Ignored)• “Stonewall Riot”: On June 27, 1969, the police raided a gaynightclub, the Stonewall Inn, in New York’s Greenwich Village toexpress resentment toward homosexuals and led to riot betweenthe two groups.- The “Stonewall Riot” sparked the Gay Liberation movement.• Impact: Made the nation change the outlook of homosexuals andknew that they not stop for anything until they receive liberation.- Significances: Some openly gay politicians won election to publicoffice; “Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy in 1993.- Problems: During the 2004 election, same-sex marriage was animportant problem. In an effort, President George W. Bush decidedto ban it with a constitutional amendment and soon led to manystates supporting the amendment through a referenda.
The New Feminism• Women had become a weak force for more thanforty years after the womens suffrageamendment.• Books such as The Feminine Mystique (1963) byBetty Friedan and other works of literature byfeminists raised awareness as well as spreadideas of the current issues.• Transformed from an “invisible remnant” into“one of the most powerful movements inAmerican History.”
The Feminine Mystique (1963)• Written by Betty Friedan, a magazine journalist andgraduate from Smith College.• Compared the women’s lives in the suburbs to“comfortable concentration camps.”• Kennedys administration, by the time this book hadappeared, made a number of actions such as theestablishment of the Presidents Commission on the Statusof Women, Equal Pay Act, and incorporation of protectionof women in the Civil Rights Act of 1964.• Friedan joined with other feminists to create the NationalOrganization for Women (NOW) which responded to thecomplaints of women in Friedans book.
The New Feminists• These new feminists were much for younger,radical as shown in their literature.• The new idea argued with what Friedan hadproposed and claimed a different idea.• The women saw themselves an exploitedgroup organizing against oppression anddeveloping a culture of their own.
Achievements• Major education institutions started tobecome co-educational.• Two-career families were beginning tobecome a norm.• Women were beginning to become formidablecompetition towards men in politics.• The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) lostsupport due to the fear that it would disruptcurrent social patterns.
Women in Politics• First Female Supreme Court Justice (1981)Sandra Day O’Connor• Second Female Supreme Court Justice (1993)• Ruth Bader• Female Representative for vice presidency inthe Democratic party, Geraldine Ferraro(1984)• Presidential Candidate for the DemocraticParty, Hillary Clinton (2008)
Abortion• Women wanted to gain control of theirreproductive lives.• Used to be legal, but was banned in thebeginning of the 20th century• Roe v. Wade(1973), a court decision based ona relatively new theory, a constitutional “rightto privacy.”• All laws prohibiting abortion during the “firsttrimester” were invalidated.
Environmentalism• Similar to feminism, started with littlesupport, but grew into a big movement.• The growth of the science of ecology helpedprovide new and powerful arguments.• These arguments would reject industry andwould have a calling to return to a morenatural lifestyle.
Ecology• The science of the interrelatedness of the naturalworld.• The Sand County Almanac (1949) written by AldoLeopold in which it is argued that humans have aresponsibility to understand and maintain the balanceof nature. Humans should behave according to a “landethic.”• Silent Spring (1962) by Rachel Carson projectedeloquently the setting of a “silent spring” in whichbirds would no longer sing and death as well assickness threatened large animals, and possibly people.
Major Organizations• Wilderness Society, the Sierra Club, the NationalAudubon Society, the Nature Conservancy, theNational Wildlife Federation, and the NationalParks and Conservation Association.• All were committed to the new concepts ofenvironmentalism.• Found allies with non-profit organizations whomhave never even experienced environmentalism.• Ex: AFL-CIO
Environmental Problems• Water pollution was a problem in some parts ofthe country and mostly in in major cities.• The air itself was becoming unhealthy due tofactories, cars, and power plants. So much soweather forecasts began referring to "smog"levels.• The rapid depletion of irreplaceable fossil fuelswas brought attention to as well as acid rain.• Global warming, a well-known issue today wasalso brought awareness to.
Earth Day and Beyond• Over 20 million gathered all over the United States forthe first Earth Day on April 22, 1970.• Important event in the development of theenvironmental movement. Developed by Wisconsinsenator Gaylord Nelson.• Environmentalism was not just about demonstrationsand protests.• 1970- Congress passed and President Nixon signed theNational Environmental Protection Act• The Clean Air Act (1970) and Clean Water Act (1972)were passed to further stop environmentaldegradation.
Vietnamization• Nixon appointed Henry Kissinger as his nationalsecurity advisor.• The administration devised a new “lottery” system- 19yr. olds with low lottery numbers would be subject toconscription. President later wanted the creation of anall-volunteer army.• 1973-Selective Service System was on its way toextinction.• New policy of “Vietnamization” of the war.• Nixon announced reducing the troops in Vietnam to60,000. Reductions continued for the next three years.
Escalation• Nixon and Kissinger wanted to destroy the bases inCambodia. US military believed that the NorthVietnamese were launching most of their attacks there.• Nixon told air force to start the bombing in Cambodianterritory, destroying enemy sanctuaries. Kept the raidsa secret to Congress and the public.• May 4-Everything was escalated when four collegestudents were killed and nine were injured.• The trial and conviction in 1971 of Lieutenant WilliamCalley.
“Peace with Honor”• Henry Kissinger was meeting up privately inParis with the North Vietnamese foreignsecretary, Le Duc Tho, to work out terms for acease-fire.• December 17-American B-52s began theheaviest and most destructive air raids of theentire war.• December 30- Nixon terminated the“Christmas bombing”
Defeat in Indochina• Contending Vietnamese armies suffered greaterbattle losses than the Americans had absorbedduring ten years of fighting.• March 1975-North launched a full-scale offensiveagainst the south.• Late in April 1975, communist forces marchedinto Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieuregime and the staff of the American embassyhad fled the country in humiliating disarray.• Communist forces occupied the capital andrenamed it Ho Chi Minh City.
China and the Soviet Union• Nixon and Kissinger wanted to forge a newrelationship with the Chinese communists- in partto strengthen them as a counterbalance to theSoviet Union.• July 1971-Nixon sent Kissinger on a secret missionto Beijing.• 1972-US and China began low-level diplomaticrelations.• 1969- talks in Helsinki, Finland, about limitingnuclear weapons.
Problems of Multipolarity• In 1969 and 1970, the president described whatbecame known as the Nixon Doctrine• -1973, a military junta seized power fromAllende, who was subsequently murdered.• -October 1973, on the Jewish High Holy day ofYom Kippur, Egyptian and Syrian forces attackedIsrael.• -The imposed settlement of the Yom Kippur Wardemonstrated the growing dependence of theUnited States and its allies on Arab oil.
Politics and Economics Under Nixon• The Nixon Administration attempted to restore balancebetween the needs of the poor, desires of the middle-class, and the power of the federal government.• -How? __________• - Forbade the Dept. of Health, Education, and, Welfareto cut off federal funds to schools that failed tointegrate( segregate)• - He reduced many social programs of the GreatSociety and the New Frontier
Domestic Policy• He wanted to replace the existing welfare system withthe Family Assistance Plan (FAP), however, it was killedin the Senate.• It “killed” because it was attacked by welfarerecipients, members of the welfare bureaucracy, andconservatives.
The Warren Court• The Warren Court evoked anger and bitterness.• Its rulings on racial matters disrupted traditionalsocial patterns.• Many people believed that its staunch defense ofcivil liberties contributed to the increase in crime,disorder, and moral decay.• Believed that these rulings weakened the powerof law enforcement officials to do their job.
Continued…• By 1968 the Warren Court had become a thetarget of Americans of all kinds who felt thebalance of power in the United States hadshifted too far toward the poor anddispossessed.
The Nixon Court• Chief Justice Earl Warrenresigned early in 1969.Nixon replaced him withWarren Burger.• Associate Justice AbeFortas resigned. Nixontried to replace him withClement Haynsworth butthe Senate rejected him.• Nixon then chose G.Harold Carswell but theSenate rejected him also.
Continued...• He then appointed three other members ofthe Supreme Court: Associate Justices HarryBlackmun, Lewis Powell, and WilliamRehnquist ( the Nixon Court).• The new court became more committed tosocial reform.
The Election of 1972• George Wallace returnsto the presidential frayand concerned Nixon. Hefeared Wallace was goingto launch a third partycampaign.• Wallace is shot inAlabama and is unable tocontinue campaigning.• Democrats nominateGeorge McGovern.
Continued…• On election day, Nixon won re-election by oneof the largest margins in history: 60.7% of thepopular vote to 37.5%• Electoral margin: 520 to 17!
The Troubled Economy• What contributed to the troubled economy?• More foreign competition and they no longer hadeasy access to raw materials in the Third World.• Inflation, its most visible cause was a significantincrease in federal deficit spending that beganwhen the Johnson administration tried to fundthe Vietnam war without raising taxes.
Continued…• An increase of the cost of energy - The U.S.depended on foreign nations for cheap plentifulfossil fuels.• In 1973 the Organization of Petroleum ExportingCountries (OPEC) announced that they would nolonger ship petroleum supporting Israel.• The OPEC nations also agreed to raise their pricesby 400%!• U.S. suffered first its fuel shortage since WWII.
Continued…• Decline of the nation’s manufacturing sector.• The 1970s marked the beginning of theprocess of deindustrialization.• Many people lost their jobs, factories closed.
Nixon’s response• Nixon began to ensure higher interest rates and acontraction (limit) of the money supply.• Plan = To control the currency and inflation.• His plan did not do much. Economic growthdeclined.• The U.S. faces Stagflation!• In 1971, Nixon imposed a 90 day freeze on allwages and prices at their existing levels.• Attempt to keep inflation in check.
Continued…• Then he launched Phase II of his economicplan: mandatory guidelines for wage and priceincreases, to be administered by a federalagency• 2 Boards formed : The Pay Board- said wageshad to be held at a maximum 5.5% rise a year.The Price Board - said most items could nothave a price rise of more that 2.5% every year.
Continued…• Because of the fear that the recession wouldbe more damaging than inflation theadministration reversed itself in 1971.• Interest rates were now allowed to drop andgovernment spending increased• In 1973, prices rose 9%.• In 1974, (after the Arab oil Embargo andOPEC) prices rose 12%.
Result of the Arab Oil embargo andOPEC’s increase in Prices
Continued...• The value of the dollar dropped.• The nations international trade continued todrop.• Inflation did not drop until 1985 to an averageof 4%.