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Goal 12 phillips

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Goal 12 phillips

  1. 1. Goal 12:The United States Since Vietnam (1973-present)The learner will identify and analyzetrends in domestic and foreign affairsof the United States during this timeperiod.
  2. 2. Goal 12 Essential Questions12.01: What are the significant events in US foreign policy since Vietnam?12.02: What has been the impact of recent constitutional amendments, court rulings, and federal legislation?12.03: What economic, technological, and environmental changes have taken place in the US and how have they changed American lives?12.04: What social, political, and cultural changes have taken place in the US and how have they changed American lives?12.05: What has been the impact of growing racial and ethnic diversity in American society?12.06: How has terrorist activity altered American society?
  3. 3. Richard Nixon 37th POTUS 1969 – 1974promised “law andorder” to “silentmajority”
  4. 4. Key Nixon Admin Figures:Henry Kissinger, National SecurityAdviser Spiro Agnew, Vice President
  5. 5. Nixon Foreign Policy“Vietnamization”  Nixon Doctrine“ … we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested … But weshall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility ofproviding the manpower for its defense.”
  6. 6. RealpolitikDétente: reduction in Cold War tensionsChina: Feb 1972 - Nixon travels to China tomeet with Mao ZedongUSSR: Strategic Arms Limitations Talks(SALT I)
  7. 7. Nov. 1973: War Powers Act - secret bombing of Cambodia President must report to Congress within 48 hrs of military action;Congress must approve if longer than 60 days
  8. 8. Nixon Domestic PolicyNew Federalism: shift from federal budgeting of socialprograms to state level; “revenue sharing”Family Assistance Plan: welfare reforms; requiresrecipients to work; did not pass
  9. 9. 1973: OPEC Oil Embargo - for US aid to Israel; massive oil shortages;Congress imposes national 55 mph speed limit• Oil embargo  prices rise• Decline of factories/rise of service jobs and foreign competition  9% unemployment and stagnant economyEconomic stagnation + inflation = Stagflation; Nixon used Keynesianeconomics and imposed 90 day price freeze but was ineffective
  10. 10. Burger Court1969: four judges retire; Nixon appoint Warren Burger as ChiefJustice, also appointed William Rehnquist  more conservativecourt1973: Roe v. Wade, pro-choice abortion ruling1974: U.S. v. Nixon, Watergate scandal trial
  11. 11. Election of 1972 – Nixon vs. George McGovern; Nixon paranoid aboutlosingSouthern Strategy: to attract Southern Dems (Wallace supporters)Nixon appeals to “silent majority” (does not like black militants,protestors, youth culture, etc.)Slows school desegregation/opposed busing (required by 1971 Swannv. Charlotte)
  12. 12. Nixon wins every state except Mass! Factors: Foreign policy success(China), George Wallace assassination attempt, and George McGovernvery liberal
  13. 13. Nixon ScandalsIllegal FBI wiretaps of “enemies list” (protest leaders and “radicals”)June 1972: Men hired by Committee to Re-elect the President(CREEP) broke into the Democratic National Headquarters atWatergate Hotel and Office Complex in D.C.FBI Associate Director Mark Felt, aka “Deep Throat”, ledWashington Post reporters Woodward and Bernstein to investigate Senate hearings
  14. 14. White House aide revels all conversations recorded; Nixon refuses toturn over tapes claiming Executive Privilege  US v Nixon  publicshock over Nixon’s profanity and crudeness and missing 18 minutesAlso, Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in 1973 for acceptingbribes when Maryland governor  appointment of Gerald Ford asVP
  15. 15. ResignationHouse votes impeachment for:1. Obstruction of justice2. Abuse of power3. Contempt of CongressAugust 9, 1974: Nixon resigns;Ford = first unelectedpresident; demonstration ofConstitutional strength andstability of American system
  16. 16. Gerald Ford38th POTUS 1974-1977
  17. 17. Ford Domestic PolicyNixon Pardon: After onemonth in office, Fordpardoned Nixon of all crimes;to end the “nationalnightmare”  intensecriticism Carter campaign button, 1976
  18. 18. CIA/FBI ReformRockefeller Commission, Church Committee and Pike Report -investigated illegal CIA and FBI activities “which had no conceivablerational relationship to either national security or violent activity.”• 1953-1974: massive, illegal domestic intelligence investigations of SDS, war protestors, civil rights leaders, and others• Extensive phone tapping, mail opening, bug planting, and home and office burglaries• 26,000+ individuals identified to be arrested in the event of a “national emergency”• Funding of non-consensual human experimentation• Failed attempts to assassinate foreign leaders
  19. 19. CIA/FBI Reform• New CIA Director: George H.W. Bush• CIA ended and FBI reduced domestic spying• FBI could continue warrantless searches and phones taps without probable cause if targeting terrorists, spies, or other enemies of the state and only for counterintelligence; not regular criminal investigations.• Executive Order 11905: banned political assassinations
  20. 20. WIN Buttons (Whip Inflation Now): worst recession in 40 years leadsto failed effort to end inflation and unemployment• Americans asked to cut back on oil/gas use but no incentives• Called for voluntary wage/price freezes• No Immediate Miracles
  21. 21. Ford Foreign PolicyFailure in Southeast Asia:April, 1975: Fall of Saigon1975-1979: Cambodian Genocideby Khmer Rouge; US Marinesrescue 39 crewmen from Mayaguez
  22. 22. Helsinki Accords: 35 states including USSR and US pledge tocooperate economically, respect national boundaries, and promotehuman rights
  23. 23. Jimmy Carter 39th POTUS 1977-1981 • Born Again Evangelical Christian • Georgia peanut farmer • Washington outsider
  24. 24. Election of 1976Carter won by getting 287-241 electoral votes and 97% of theAfrican American vote
  25. 25. Carter Foreign PolicyChampion of Human RightsScheduled return of PanamaCanal to Panama in 1999
  26. 26. Camp David Accords (1979):Between Anwar Sadat of Egypt andMenachem Begin of Israel• Egypt was first Arab nation to recognize Israel• Israel returned Sinai to Egypt• Still most significant progress in Mideast peace process
  27. 27. Iran Hostage Crisis (1979):1953: CIA and British MI6 overthrew democracy infavor of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi1979: Shah travels to US for cancer treatment;Islamic Fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini leadsa revolution in his absence52 Americans hostages held in U.S. embassy untilShah returned; we refuse and Shah dies naturallyHostages held for 444 days until diplomaticagreement reached; release coincides with Reaganinauguration
  28. 28. Cold War: Carter tried tocontinue détente but:1. SALT II not approved by Senate2. 1979: Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan3. US boycott of 1980 Moscow Olympics4. US grain embargo
  29. 29. Carter Domestic PolicyAmnesty for Vietnam draft dodgersInflation: Cut spending, allowed interest rates to riseNational Energy Act: tax on gas guzzlers, tax credits for solarenergy, remove price controls on domestic oil, bailout to Chrysler
  30. 30. Malaise Speech, July 15, 1979:“In a nation that was proud of hardwork, strong families, close-knitcommunities, and our faith in God,too many of us now tend to worshipself-indulgence and consumption.Human identity is no longer definedby what one does, but by what oneowns … Im asking you for yourgood and for your nations securityto take no unnecessary trips, to usecarpools or public transportationwhenever you can, to park your carone extra day per week, to obey thespeed limit, and to set yourthermostats to save fuel…”
  31. 31. Rise of Conservatism1970s: shift from left to right in American politicsReaction against:• Stagflation  economic conservatism• Civil rights advances  political conservatism• Breakdown of traditional family structure  religious fundamentalismNew Right Coalition: business leaders, middle-class voters,disaffected Democrats, and fundamentalist Christians
  32. 32. Cable TV Televangelists Pat Robertson and Jim Bakker drew 100million strong weekly audiencesJerry Falwell’s anti-abortion Moral MajoritySocial agenda: anti-abortion, anti-ERA, anti-busing, anti-affirmativeaction
  33. 33. Reverse DiscriminationRegents of U of CA v Bakke(1978): colleges cannot use racialquotas; race can only be a plusfactor
  34. 34. 1980 Election
  35. 35. Ronald Reagan40 th POTUS 1981-1989 “The GreatCommunicator ”
  36. 36. “Reaganomics”:1) budget cuts from programs for the poor - school lunch programs, nursing homes, disability payments2) 25% tax cut – mainly benefited the rich3) increased defense spending
  37. 37. Supply-side (Trickle-down) economics:lower taxes businesses investments to improve productivity increased supply and lower cost of goods lower consumer prices more spending and economic stimulus“It sounds like Voodoo economics.” – George H.W. Bush
  38. 38. Deregulation of banking, airlines, and telecommunications;mining, forestry, oil drilling increased Did Reaganomics work?1982: Worst recession since Depression, 17,000 businessfailures, 9,000,000 unemployed … but finally beganrecovering in 1983.
  39. 39. But “yuppies” (young urbanprofessionals) thought it worked … (atleast until 1987.)
  40. 40. Election of 1984Jesse Jacksonplaced third inDemocraticPrimaries
  41. 41. Election of 1984Geraldine Ferrarojoined Mondale asfirst female VPcandidate
  42. 42. Social Issues:Supreme Court grows moreconservative:Antonin Scalia andAnthony Kennedy addedSandra Day O‟Connorfirst female Supreme CourtjusticeAlso, Rehnquist promoted toChief
  43. 43. Reagan Foreign Policy• USSR = “evil empire”• Reagan Doctrine – from containment to rollback• Massive defense spending• Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)• Added $2.5 Trillion to National Debt
  44. 44. stations Marines to quell violence in Lebanese Civil War (Christian vs.Muslim)Beirut Bombings:April 1983: Islamic fundamentalist suicide bomb in U.S. embassy kills63October 1983: Islamic fundamentalist suicide bomb kills 241 USMarines
  45. 45. Grenada, October 1983: US invasionof Caribbean island to remove pro-Cuban regime; first major operationsince Vietnam
  46. 46. Iran-Contra Affair• Nicaragua, 1979: Sandanistas (communists) overthrew corrupt US- supported dictator• 1981: Reagan authorizes CIA to fund and train Contras (anti-communists)• 1983: Congress cuts funding to Contras in Boland Amendment• 1985-1986: Reagan Admin secretly sells 2500+ anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles to Iran, uses profits to fund Contras• “Teflon President”, Bush pardons all
  47. 47. Support for Mujahideen in Afghanistan fighting Sovietoccupation
  48. 48. Improved U.S.-Soviet Relations:1985: Mikhail Gorbachev introduced majorreforms in Soviet Union• Glasnost - end political repression• Perestroika - intro free markets in Soviet Union1987: Reagan and Gorbachev sign INFAgreement
  49. 49. Election of 1988 Michael Dukakis vs. George Bush
  50. 50. “And Im the one who will notraise taxes… And theCongress will push me to raisetaxes and Ill say no. Andtheyll push, and Ill sayno, and theyll push again, andIll say, to them, „Read mylips: NO NEW TAXES.‟”
  51. 51. George H.W. Bush41 st POTUS 1989-1993“Read my lips: NO NEW TAXES.”
  52. 52. Bush Foreign Policy/ChallengesApril 1989, Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China: 100,000 pro-democracy students demonstrate against Communist Party ruleJune 4, 1989: PLA tanks crush demonstration; 10,000 killed?
  53. 53. Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe,1989:August 1989, Poland:Pro-democracy party wins electionsOctober 1989:Communist Party rule ends in Hungary; ends inall other Eastern European nations by 1991
  54. 54. November 9, 1989: Fall of the BerlinWallOctober 1990: Germany reunited
  55. 55. Breakup of Soviet Union: Mapping the fall of communismApril 1991: Georgia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania declareindependenceAugust 1991: Communist hardliners fail in attempt to removeGorbachevDecember 8, 1991: Soviet Union dissolves
  56. 56. End of Cold War:1991: Bush and Gorbachev sign START I (Strategic Arms ReductionTreaty)  nuclear warheads to under 10,000; removed 80% of world’snuclear weapons
  57. 57. End of Cold War:1993: Bush and Yeltsin sign START II  nuclear warheads to under3,000
  58. 58. End of Cold War:2010: Obama and Medvedev sign New START  will cut number ofmissile launchers by 50% and reduce to 1550 nuclear warheads by2018
  59. 59. Invasion of PanamaDecember 1989: Bush sends 25,000 troops to Panama toremove General Manuel Noriega for drug trafficking tothe U.S.
  60. 60. Persian Gulf WarAugust 1990:Saddam Hussein ordersIraqi forces to invadeKuwait
  61. 61. Persian Gulf WarJanuary 16, 1991: OperationDesert Storm begins with fiveweek air war
  62. 62. Persian Gulf WarFebruary 23-28, 1991: 543,000 troops from 38 nationsled by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf launch groundattack from Saudi Arabia and liberate Kuwait
  63. 63. Bush Domestic PoliciesClarence Thomas: replacement forThurgood Marshall butconservatism angered minoritiesAmericans with Disabilities Act(1990): “a kinder gentler America”;
  64. 64. Domestic Problems• Iran Contra pardon• Savings and Loan (S&L) Crisis: Reagan banking deregulation  bank failures  $88 billion bailout• “No new taxes.”  Large tax increase• 1990-92 recession  “It‟s the economy, stupid.”
  65. 65. Election of 1992
  66. 66. Bill Clinton 42nd POTUS 1993-2001“I feel your pain …”
  67. 67. “New Democrat” - shift awayfrom traditional Democratic Partyvalues• Need to move people off welfare• Growth in private business as a means to economic progress• Strong national defense• Pro death penalty• Push for a balanced budget
  68. 68. Clinton Domestic PolicyFirst priority: Health Care reformIn charge: Hillary ClintonGoal: universal coverageProblems:• Doctors & insurance industry disagree• Take too much time, fails to pass
  69. 69. Early Accomplishments:• Family and Medical Leave Act (1993)• Brady Handgun Bill (1994)  5-day waiting period before purchasing a handgun• North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)• Minimum Wage increase
  70. 70. Welfare Reform• Worked with Republicans in Congress.• Required work for welfare recipients with school age kids.• Max of 5 years for benefits.• Cut welfare rolls by 50% + internet boom tax revenues = balanced budget
  71. 71. 1994 Republican Revolution• First Republican control of Congress for since 1954• Contract with America: “Era of big government is over.”• Newt Gingrich, Speaker of House
  72. 72. 1995-1996 Government ShutdownsBudget battle between Congress and Executive  governmentshutdowns Clinton 1996 re-election vs. Bob Dole
  73. 73. 1993 World Trade Center BombingFebruary 26, 1993: Al-Qaeda car bomb killed seven, injured 1042Foreshadowed 9/11
  74. 74. Growth of TerrorismApril 19, 1995:Oklahoma City BombingAnti-government militiamembers Timothy McVeighand Terry Nichols kill 168die, wound 800+ "Think about the people as if they were storm troopers in Star Wars. They may be individually innocent, but they are guilty because they work for the Evil Empire.” - Timothy McVeigh on the deaths of bombing
  75. 75. Columbine High School massacreApril 20, 1999: Two students kill 12 students and ateacher, injured 21, then committed suicideMore attention paid to bullying, teen isolation.
  76. 76. Monica Lewinsky AffairPerjury? Impeachment!• Clinton accused of lying under oath  Congress impeaches for perjury• Not guilty, lied in press statements but never in federal courts.
  77. 77. CNN Foreign PolicyUnsure of new role as sole superpower:• Bosnia/Kosovo• Somalia  “Black Hawk Down”• Rwanda
  78. 78. Bosnia 1990 pop. = 4 m.• 44% Bosniak (Muslim)• 31% Serb (Eastern Orthodox Christians)• 17% Croatian (Roman Catholic Christians)
  79. 79. Ethnic Cleansing: By 1995, 200,000 had died including 80% of Bosniaks.
  80. 80. By 1995, 200,000 had died including 80% of Bosniaks.
  81. 81. Somalia –establish cease fireand deliver food and aid
  82. 82. Trade Issues• Permanent trade with China• (NAFTA) North American Free Trade Agreement
  83. 83. 2000 Election: Bush v. GoreGore won the pop. vote by 500,000, but controversy in Florida  Bush v. Gore, Supreme Court ruled for Bush in 5-4
  84. 84. George W. Bush 43nd POTUS 2001-2009“They misunderestimated
  85. 85. Bush Tax Cut:$1.35 trillion tax cut/10 yrs
  86. 86. No Child Left Behind (2003)"Rarely is the question asked: Is our children learning?” --Florence, South Carolina, Jan. 11, 2000As yesterdays positive report card shows, childrens do learn whenstandards are high and results are measured." - on NCLB, Washington, D.C., Sept. 26, 2007
  87. 87. September 11, 2001: Attacks in NYC and DC
  88. 88. War in Afghanistan, 2001-presentGoal: Remove the Taliban, an Islamic fundamentalist party whichhad been harboring Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda forcesresponsible for the 9/11 attacks
  89. 89. War in Iraq, 2003-2011 Goal: Remove Saddam Hussein from power; falsely suspected of having WMD NO CONNECTION TO 9/11!
  90. 90. 2004 Election:Red State, Blue State, or Purple America?
  91. 91. 2008 Election
  92. 92. Goal 12 Objectives12.01: Summarize significant events in foreign policy since the Vietnam War.12.02: Evaluate the impact of recent constitutional amendments, court rulings, and federal legislation on United States citizens.12.03: Identify and assess the impact of economic, technological, and environmental changes in the United States.12.04: Identify and assess the impact of social, political, and cultural changes in the United States.12.05: Assess the impact of growing racial and ethnic diversity in American society.12.06: Assess the impact of twenty-first century terrorist activity on

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