THE CRISIS OF AUTHORITYKristin Rivas, Isai Argueta, Chris Manners, Ian KytlicaCHAPTER 30
The Youth CultureProtest focuses:1. Political Left- strived to create a community of "the people" who would:- break up powers that elites had- end the war-pursue racial and economic justice-WANTED TO CHANGE POLITICAL LIFE2. Liberation- spoke for and through groups, so that these particulargroups would gain recognition from society.-African Americans-Native Americans-Hispanics- Women- Gays and lesbians
The New LeftThe largest generation of youth in American history dominates morethan half of the population.New Left: was formed by college and university students in the1960s.-Students for Democratic Society (SDS) in 1962.Free Speech Movement:- University of California Berkeley, Columbia University, HarvardUniversity-1969 Peoples Park at UC Berkeley-The Weathermen- bombed school campuses and killed people inthe process.-Students did everything possible to make war efforts difficult.ex. March on the Pentagon, attack corporations that madeweapons.
The CountercultureA group of young people who openly expressed their disposition to middleclass values and lifestyles.HIPPIES- Sexual Revolution:contraceptive, birth controlpill, abortion legalized in 73-Haight-Ashbury- Rock n Roll: became famousin the the 1950s but begantransitioning to mimic thelifestyles displayed by therebellious generation.ex. Woodstock in 1969
The Mobilization of MinoritiesMany of the protests displayed by African Americansinspired other groups and minorities to protest for theirrecognition and rights as well.
The IndiansJohn Collier, the Commissioner of IndianAffairs retired in 1946.- 1953 "termination".1. Removes all federal recognition oftribes.2. Encouraged Indians to assimilatethemselves to American ways so thatthey will lose their culturaldistinctiveness.- 1958, the Eisenhower administrationhalts the termination policies.- 1961 The Indian Civil Rights Movementbegins after the Declaration of IndianPurpose is signed.
The Indians Continued-1968, the American Indian Movement (AIM) was formed byyoung Indian militants.-1968, Indian Civilian Rights Act is passed by Congress-1970, President Nixon promised increased tribal self-determination and an increase in federal aid.-1972, Indian demonstrators occupied the Bureau of IndianAffairs in Washington D.C. for six days.-1973, Wounded Knee, South Dakota-1978, United States v. Wheeler- 1985, County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation"right to choose our own way of life"
Latino Activism- 1952, Operation Wetback- AFL-CIO American Federation of Laborand Congress of IndustrialOrganizations.- Chicanos: Mexican American activists- United Farm Workers (UFW)- 1974, right of non-English speakingstudents to schooling in their nativelanguage.- Muliculturalism
Gay Liberation- Homosexuals tried to gainequality and social acceptance-Stonewall Riot June 27, 1969-liberation movement helpedhomosexuals "come out" openly
The Rebirth of Feminism-Equal Pay Act- pay women the same amountof money as men- 1966, National Organization for Womencreated; helped women gain equality- NOW denounced exclusion of women fromprofessions, politics, etc.
Achievements of Women-all male schools began to enroll women;"two-career" family became normal- women began serving in Congress; competingagainst men
The Abortion Controversy- Abortion had once been legal in the U.S., butwas banned until the 1960s- In 1973, the Supreme Court invalidated alllaws prohibiting abortion during the firsttrimester
The New Science of Ecology- Ecology is the Science of theinterrelatedness of the natural world.- widespread belief of "land ethic"- the findings of ecology including things likeecosystems, food chains, etc.
Environmentalism- Many organizations predated the rise ofmodern ecological science, including agenciesnot related to environmentalism- American Civil Liberties Union, The Leagueof Womens Voters, AFL-CIO, etc.- pollution was a huge problem; water, air,acid rain
Environmental Degradation● Water Pollutionex. Cuyahoga Riverwould catch on firebecause of the petroleumthat was dumped into it.● Air Pollution fromfactories and cars.● Smog levels● Acid rain● Global WarmingCuyahoga River, Cleveland, Ohio 1969
Earth Day and Beyond● Earth day was originally supposedto be a series of teach-ins oncollege campuses.○ earth day however grew to more thanthat● Earth day popularized environmentalism and helpedcreate movements with more controversial topics.● 1970 congress passed and Nixon signed the NationalEnvironmental Protection Act-- created theEnvironmental Protection Agency
Vietnamization● Henry Kissinger: nationalsecurity advisor.● Lottery system- destroys Selective ServiceSystem.● Vietnamization-train South Vietnamesemilitary.
Escalation- Nixon orders bombing of Cambodia territory.- Establish a pro-American regime underGeneral Lon Nol.-May 4, Kent State University, Ohio-Pentagon Papers-My Lai Massacre-Black Mail-Easter Offensive
"Peace and Honor"- Kissinger discusses peace with Le Duc Tho:North Vietnamese foreign secretary.- December 16, talk of peace ends- December 17, American B-52s began airraids.- December 30, Nixon terminates Christmasbombing-January 27, 1973 a peace agreement is signed
Defeat in Indochina● March 1975, the North Vietnamese launched afull-scale offensive against the forces of thesouth.● April 1975, communist forces marched intoSaigon.● Thieu regime and the staff ofthe American embassy hadfled the country● Communist forces occupiedthe capital. Renamed it HoChi Minh City
Defeat in Indochina cont.● The Lon Noi Regime inCambodia fell to communistsat the same time.● This was the end of Americaninvolvement in Vietnam.● 1.2 million Vietnamesesoldiers had died.● The war cost the nation $150billion in direct costs.● 55,000 deaths and 300,000injured.
China and the Soviet Union● 1949 Current U.S.Relations with China● Nixons visit toChina○ July 1971-HenryKissinger○ February 1972-Nixonhimself● SALT 1 (1972)○ ICBMsChinese RelationsWith Soviets
The Problems of Multipolarity● Nixon Doctrine○ "Participate in the defense and development ofallies and friends," but leave the "basicresponsibility."○ Military Junta-Govt run by military officers● "Six-Day War"○ Middle East (1967)○ King Hussein threatened by influx of Palestinians● Arab Oil Embargo○ Yom Kippur War○ Embargo (1973)-Arab Govt to supp. of Israel
Domestic Initiatives● Nixons DomesticPolicies○ Dismantled theprograms of theGreat Society andthe New Frontier○ EX: The Office ofEconomicOpportunity
From the Warren Court to the NixonCourt● Supreme Court Rulings disrupted traditionalsocial patterns and, in the opinion of manyAmericans, contributed to an increase incrime, disorder, and moral decay.● Baker v. Carr○ Warren Court (1962)○ All citizens votes would have equal weight● Bakke v. Board of Regents of California○ 1978○ Affirmative Action (Nixon court)● New Court Fell Short of many conservativesexpectations!
The Election of 1972- Nixon entered reelection with a strong politicalcampaign- Democrats nominated George McGovern, but hiscampaign was unappealing to the public-Nixon won by a landslide: 60.7% of the popular vote
The Troubled Economy● Inflation began to take off at an alarmingrate○ Disturbing economic problem of the 1970s○ Most likely caused by federal deficit spending(1960s)○ No longer able to get cheap raw minerals■ Cost of energy went up (Dependency ofautomobiles and fossil fuels)● OPEC○ Arab members stating the closure of oil imports tonations that supported Israel○ Nations agreed to rais oil prices by 400%!
The Troubles Economy (CONT.)● Deindustrialization○ Factories closed across the country■ Workers lost jobs● Many more knowledge based jobs (i.e.technology, information systems)● Industrial workers could not get work at the"knowledge based" jobs● Result: Growing pool of unemployed andunderemployed workers○ Industry never went back to the way it was in the1950s and 1960s
The Nixon Response● Nixon decided to focus on inflation inresponse to the economic decline○ Cost of living rose to 15 percent (First 2 1/2 years)● "Stagflation"-(Slow economic growth)○ Summer of 1971 Freeze!○ November-Phase II of Nixon economic plan○ Afraid of recession being more damaging duringelection year, the administration reversed itself○ Largest budget deficit since WWII● Substantial increase in inflation throughoutthese events