Analog Layout design

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Analog Design, Layout rules

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Analog Layout design

  1. 1. Introduction to Analog Layout Design Dr. S. L. Pinjare Workshop on Advanced VLSI Laboratory Cambridge Institute of Technology, Bangalore 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 1
  2. 2. Analog VLSI Design • Implementation of analog circuits and systems using integrated circuit technology. • Unique Features of Analog IC Design – Geometry • an important part of the design – Usually implemented as a mixed analog-digital circuit • Typically Analog is 20% and digital 80% of the chip area – Designed at the circuit level – Customized design – Analog requires 80% of the design time – Passes for success: 2-3 for analog, 1 for digital. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 2
  3. 3. Analog Design Flow • • • • Electrical Design Physical Design Fabrication and Testing Product 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 3
  4. 4. Analog Design Flow Electrical Design Idea Concept Define the Design Comparison with the Design Specification Redesign Implementation Simulation Physical Design Fabrication Testing and Product Development 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 4
  5. 5. Analog Design Flow Electrical Design Idea Concept Define the Design Comparison with the Design Specification Redesign Implementation Simulation Physical Design Physical Implementation-Layout Physical Verification-DRC,ERC,LVS,Antenna Parasitic Extraction and Back Annotation Fabrication Testing and Product Development 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 5
  6. 6. Analog Design Flow Electrical Design Idea Concept Define the Design Comparison with the Design Specification Redesign Implementation Simulation Physical Design Physical Implementation-Layout Physical Verification-DRC,ERC,LVS,Antenna Parasitic Extraction and Back Annotation Fabrication Testing and Product Development 30 April 2011 Fabrication Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 6
  7. 7. Analog Design Flow Electrical Design Idea Concept Define the Design Comparison with the Design Specification Redesign Implementation Simulation Physical Design Physical Implementation-Layout Physical Verification-DRC,ERC,LVS,Antenna Parasitic Extraction and Back Annotation Fabrication Testing and Product Development 30 April 2011 Fabrication Testing Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology PRODUCT 7
  8. 8. Skills Required for Analog IC Design • In general, analog circuits are more complex than digital. – Requires an ability to use multiple concepts simultaneously. – Be able to make appropriate simplifications and assumptions. – Need to have good knowledge of both modeling and technology. – Be able to use simulation correctly. • (Usage of a simulator)x(Common sense)=Constant • Simulators are only as good as the models and the knowledge of those models. – “all models are wrong, some are useful“ • Be able to learn from failure. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 8
  9. 9. Analog layout Issues • Issues that are important in digital circuits are still important in analog layout. – Eg. Parasitic aware layout. • Minimize series resistance – slows down switching speed plus introduces unwanted noise. • Minimize parasitic capacitance – slows down switching speed – Increases power dissipation(Capacitance switching) • Extra load capacitance – Need to increase bias current to maintain bandwidth and/or slew rate. – Can lead to instability in high gain feedback systems. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 9
  10. 10. Analog layout Issues • Noise is important in all analog circuits because it limits dynamic range. • In general there are two types of noise, – Random noise and – Environmental noise. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 10
  11. 11. Analog layout Issues • Random noise refers to noise generated by resistors and active devices in an integrated circuit; • MULTI-GATE FINGER LAYOUT – reduces the gate resistance of the poly-silicon and the neutral body region, which are both random noise sources. • Generous use of SUBSTRATE PLUGS – will help to reduce the resistance of the neutral body region, and thus will minimize the noise contributed by this resistance. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 11
  12. 12. Analog layout Issues • Environmental noise – Crosstalk; Ground bounce etc. – Generally appears as a common-mode signal. • Use ‘fully-differential’ circuit design, – Substrate noise occurs when a large amount digital circuits are present on a chip. The switching of a large number of circuits discharges large dynamic currents to the substrate, which cause the substrate voltage to ‘bounce’. • The modulation of the substrate voltage can then couple into analog circuits via the body effect or parasitic capacitances. • SUBSTRATE PLUGGING – minimizes substrate noise because it provides a low impedance path to ground for the noise current. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 12
  13. 13. Analog layout Issues • Matching components • In analog electronics it is often necessary to have matched pairs of devices with identical electrical properties, e.g. input transistors of a differential stage, and current mirror – In theory two device with the same size have the same electrical properties. • In reality there is always process variations • Matching: – Layout techniques to minimize the errors introduced by process variations. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 13
  14. 14. Analog Design components • Active devices – Transistors • N-mos and P-mos • Passives – Resistors – Capacitors – Inductors • Implemented using existing layers and masks – Possibly adding a few extra layers 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 14
  15. 15. Analog Design Layout considerations • Design rules – Allowance Errors in patterning and etching • Minimum width • Minimum spacing • Minimum enclosure • Minimum extension • Process variability – Parameter variation across the chip 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 15
  16. 16. Design rules • Minimum width – The minimum width of polygon defines the limits of a fabrication process. – A violation of the minimum width rules potentially results in an open circuit in the offending layer. • An open circuit may be created during fabrication. • A narrow path may be created during fabrication – large currents passing through a narrow path cause the path to act like a fuse. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 16
  17. 17. Design rules • Minimum spacing: – To avoid an unwanted short circuit between two polygons during fabrication, • S1 > Smin, where Smin is set by process. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 17
  18. 18. Design rules • Minimum enclosure: – Apply to polygons on different layers. – Misalignment between polygons may result in either unwanted open or short circuit connections. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 18
  19. 19. Design rules • Minimum extension: – Some geometries must extend beyond the edge of others by a minimum value. • Eg. Gate poly must have a minimum extension beyond the active area to ensure proper transistor action at the edge. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 19
  20. 20. Design Rules • Example of the design rules applying to the POLY layer C3.4 POLY: Gate Structures and resistors are defined by the poly layer. Minimum design rules are used for the polylayer. i.e. this is the minimum feature size for this process. • A ≥ 1.5 µm,(minimum polywidth /Length). • B ≥ 1.5 µm,(minimum poly to poly distance). • C ≥ 1.5 µm,(minimum poly-over-oxide overlap). 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 20
  21. 21. Unit Matching • Two electrically equivalent components. • Draw them identically – – – – Both item and surrounding A and B have same shape in area and perimeter Identical item? Do they have the same surrounding? 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 21
  22. 22. Unit Matching • Two electrically equivalent components. • Draw them identically – – – – Both item and surrounding A and B have same shape in area and perimeter Identical item? Do they have the same surrounding? • No – Use Dummies to have identical surroundings 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 22
  23. 23. Common-centroid layout • Process variations can locally be approximated with a linear gradient. (a): A1 + A2 < B1 + B2 (b): A1 + A2 = B1 + B2 (common-centroid) 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 23
  24. 24. Resistors • All materials have a resistivity • Typical resistivities – – – – Metal layer : 0.1 Ohm/square n/p-plus contacts and polysilicon: 10-100 Ohm/square n-well: 1000 Ohm/square low doped poly silicon: 10 k Ohm/square • more well defined than n-well, i.e. higher accuracy 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 24
  25. 25. Poly-Resistors • Poly Resistors – Silicidated poly resistors: 1 − 10 Ohm/sq. • ≈±30% – Non-silicidated poly resistors: 50-1000 Ohms per unit area . • Small parasitic capacitances to substrate. • Superior linearity. • High cost due to the extra mask needed to block silicide layer. • ≈±20% 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 25
  26. 26. Diffusion Resistors • 1k Ohm/sq – N-well • Large parasitic capacitance between n-well and substrate. • Resistance is strongly terminal voltage-dependent and highly nonlinear. – Depletion width varies with terminal voltages.The cross-section area varies with terminal voltages • Large error : ≈±40% • noisy as all disturbances/noise from substrate can be coupled directly onto the resistors 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 26
  27. 27. Resistor Layout • Standard Resistors: Avoid 90 degree angle. 45 degree is recommended 1. Resistance at the corners cannot be estimated accurately Recommended resistor layout 2. Current flow at the corner is not uniform 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 27
  28. 28. Resistor Layout • Dummy resistors are added to minimizes the effect of process variation 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 28
  29. 29. Shielded Resistors • Shielding resistors – Connected to a constant voltage source • Prevent self-coupling of the resistor R/inter-coupling with others. Layout of shielded resistors (S = shielding resistors) • Widely used in analog/RF design. • Caution – a mutual capacitance between the resistor and its shield exist. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 29
  30. 30. Layout of Large Resistors • Use n-well resistors – have a large sheet resistance. • Enclosed by a substrate shielding ring, also known as guard ring, to isolate the resistors from neighboring devices. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 30
  31. 31. Layout of Matched Resistors • Inter-Digitized Layout – minimizes the effect of process variation in x-direction. • Dummy resistors are added to ensure both resistors have the exactly same environment. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 31
  32. 32. Matched Resistors with Temperature Consideration • Keep away from power devices 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 32
  33. 33. Resistor layout guidelines-Matched resistors • • • • • • • Use same material Identical geometry, same orientation Close proximity, interdigitate arrayed resistors Use dummy elements Place resistors in Low stress area Place resistors away from power devices Use electrostatic shielding 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 33
  34. 34. Capacitors • There are naturally capacitors between each layer of metal, poly silicon or silicon • Dielectrics between different metal layers have a thickness of 0.5-1 micron, which gives a rather large area for a given capacitance. • Key Parameters – – – – Linearity Parasitic capacitance to substrate Series resistance - resistance of capacitor plates Capacitance per unit area • Larger specific capacitance (capacitance per unit area) gives smaller area 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 34
  35. 35. Types of IC Capacitors • Poly-diffusion capacitors – Nonlinear bottom-plate parasitic capacitance.≈20% of inter-plate capacitance. – .6-.8 fF/µm2(≈±5%). Matching 0.2% • MOS capacitors – Stable capacitance in strong inversion – Non-negligible channel resistance lowers the quality factor (Q) of the capacitor – 0.6 - 0.8 fF/µm2; (≈±5%). Matching 0.5% 30 April 2011 • Poly-poly capacitors – Not available in standard CMOS processes – 0.3 - 0.5 fF/µm2; (≈±10%). Matching 0.5% • Metal-poly capacitors – Capacitance is small, area consuming. – 0.03-0.05 fF/µm2. (≈±25%). Matching 0.5% • Metal-metal capacitors – Capacitance is small, area consuming – 0.02-0.04 fF/µm2; (≈±25%). Matching 0.1% Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 35
  36. 36. NON-IDEAL EFFECTS- UNDER-CUT • Non-uniform undercut &/or edge fringing field effects change the value of designed capacitors. • The area and perimeter ratio is preserved if we use layout using unit capacitors. Ideal case: no undercut Case 1 Case 2 Area 1:4 Perimeter Case 1 1:4 1:2 1:4 Typical case: 0.05 undercut Case 1 Case 2 Area 1:4.46 1:4 P erimeter 1:2.1 1:4 Case 2 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 36
  37. 37. NON-IDEAL EFFECTS-Corner Rounding • Etching always causes corner rounding to some extent. • This means that – 90° corners will be eroded and – 270° corners will be have incomplete removal of material • In order to overcome this effect use an equal number of 90° & 270° corners 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 37
  38. 38. Layout of MOS Capacitors • Single finger structure – Large source/substrate & drain/substrate capacitances – Large gate series resistance Minimize Gate Series Resistance & Channel Resistance 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 38
  39. 39. Layout of MOS Capacitors • Minimize Gate Series Resistance & Channel Resistance • Use Multi-Finger Structure Multi-finger structure minimizes source/substrate & drain/substrate parasitic capacitances. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 39
  40. 40. Layout of Matched Capacitors • Minimize the Effect of Oxide Thickness in both x and y-directions. – Common Centroid Structure. – Dummy capacitors are needed to ensure the same environment for C1 and C2. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 40
  41. 41. Layout of Matched Capacitors • C1 and C2 are 2-poly capacitors. • n-well is employed as a charge collector to shield the interaction between the bottom plate and substrate. • n-well is biased at multiple points and connected to a constant voltage source. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 41
  42. 42. Layout of MOS Transistors • Criteria for MOS Transistor Layout – Minimize gate series resistance. – Minimize source/drain resistances. – Minimize source/substrate & drain/substrate parasitic capacitances. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 42
  43. 43. Layout of MOS Transistors • Large gate series resistance Most of the current will be – 7.8±2.5Ohm/sq for typical 0.18μ shrunk to this side CMOS processes. • Large distributed resistance of source/drain – 6.8±2.5Ohm/sq for n+ and 7.2±2.5Ohm/sq for p+ in typical 0.18μ CMOS processes. • Large source/substrate and drain/substrate parasitic capacitances. • Non-uniform gate/source/drain voltages. • Non-uniform current flow – M1 carries the most current and Mn carries the least current). 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 43
  44. 44. Layout of MOS Transistors • Minimize Source/Drain Resistances – Multiple contacts at source/drain • Better contact at source/drain → high reliability & smaller contact resistance (R = Rc/N, where N=number of contacts). – Smaller source/drain resistances (series resistance is negligible but lateral resistance still exists). – Large source/substrate and drain/substrate parasitic capacitances. – Large gate series resistance- Gate is too long. • Contacts are not allowed on the gate above the channel (high temperature required to form contacts may destroy the thin gate oxide). Current is spread 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 44
  45. 45. Layout of MOS Transistors Poly contact at both ends Folding reduces gate resistance No of fingers: Gate resistance < 0.1 to .5(1/gm) Results in increase of parasitic capacitance 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 45
  46. 46. Layout of MOS Transistors • Minimize Source/Substrate and Drain/Substrate Parasitic Capacitances – Shared sources/drains. – Reduced silicon area. Another layout 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 46
  47. 47. Antenna Effect There will be charge accumulation on Metal1 during plasma etching (of metal1) causing damage to thin gate oxide (Large metal area) Avoids antenna effect 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 47
  48. 48. Layout of a Cascode circuit a. b. 30 April 2011 c. Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 48
  49. 49. Layout of Wide transistors • • • • Wide transistors need to be split Parallel connection of n elements (n = 4 for this example) Contact space is shared among transistors Parasitic capacitances are reduced (important for high speed ) Note that parasitic capacitors are lesser at the drain 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 49
  50. 50. Effect of wiring resistance 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 50
  51. 51. Layout of Matched Transistors • Matched transistors are used extensively in both analog and digital CMOS circuits. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 51
  52. 52. Photo-lithographic invariance (PLI) • Lithography effects different in different direction • C and D are better 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 52
  53. 53. Photo-lithographic invariance (PLI) • Effect of shadowing – S/D implant often has an angle. – Drain/Source can be mirrored 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 53
  54. 54. Photo-lithographic invariance (PLI) • Effect of shadowing : – Gate aligned – Parallel gate: • Two drains have different surroundings • Two sources have different surroundings 30 April 2011 Orientation is important in analog circuits for matching purposes Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 54
  55. 55. Layout of Matched Transistors • Add dummy transistors to improve symmetry • Presence of Metal line over M2 destroys symmetry 30 April 2011 • Replicate Metal line over M1 improves symmetry Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 55
  56. 56. Layout of Matched Transistors • Gradient along x-axis destroys symmetry 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 56
  57. 57. Matching - Summary • To achieve both common-centroid and PLI matched transistors has to be split into 4 fingers. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 57
  58. 58. Matched Transistors • Matched transistors require elaborated layout techniques • Use inter-digitized layout style • Averages the process variations among transistors • Common terminal is like a serpentine • Uneven total drain area between M1 and M2. – This is undesirable for ac conditions: capacitors and other parameters may not be equal • A more robust approach is needed (Use dummies if needed) 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 58
  59. 59. Common Centroid Layouts 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 59
  60. 60. Common Centroid Layouts • Split into parallel connections of even parts • Half of them will have the drain at the right side and half at the left • Be careful how you route the common terminal 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 60
  61. 61. Differential Amplifier 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 61
  62. 62. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 62
  63. 63. Summary • Use large area to reduce random error • Common Centroid layout to reduce linear gradient errors • Use unit element arrays • Interdigitize for matching • Use of symmetry (photolithographic invariance) • Dummy device for similar vicinity • Guard rings for isolation 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 63
  64. 64. References • A. Hastings, The Art of Analog Layout, PrenticeHall,2002. • B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw-Hill, 2001. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 64
  65. 65. Thank You 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 65
  66. 66. Simulation • To fully describe the function of a MOS transistor the fundamental electro-magnetic equations are set up in 2D/3D. • Coupled non-linear partial deferential equations take long time to solve. • Compact models are desired. – Simple mathematical relations that describes the relation between currents and voltages. • There are 3 main types of models (for electrical devices and in general). – Physical model parameters have physical meaning – Empirical parameters have no physical meaning (fitting parameters) – Table based measured data + interpolation functions 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 66
  67. 67. Simulation • Devices are characterized for a parameter window where the model becomes valid. • Validity outside defined parameter window: – Physical: Good validity. – Empirical: Have difficulties outside the window and can in some cases give preposterous results. – Table based Same or worse than empirical models. • Physical models with empirical fitting parameters are common (semi-empirical). 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 67
  68. 68. SPICE • Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis • There are two sides of SPICE: – The simulator – The models • The simulator – A circuit is described with nodes and elements between nodes. – For linear circuits the matrix is solved using nodal admittance analysis. – Non-linear circuits are solved using iterative methods. – The basic simulation types are OP, DC, AC and transient 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 68
  69. 69. SPICE simulations • OP Operating Point analysis. – Solves the currents and voltages in a circuit at one bias condition. • DC – Same as OP but does it for one or more swept parameters, e.g. IDS vs. VDS • AC – Linearizes all elements at the bias point. Then a sinusodial signal is applied on one or more inputs and the frequency is swept. • Note: since the circuit is linearized no saturation effects will occur using AC. • Transient – One or more time varying signals (e.g. sinusodial, pulses, square waves) are applied and the time is swept. This simulation does not linearize the circuit so here saturation effects are present. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 69
  70. 70. Latchup Latchup may begin when Vout drops below GND due to a noise spike or an improper circuit hookup (Vout is the base of the lateral NPN Q2). If sufficient current flows through Rsub to turn on Q2 (I Rsub > 0.7 V ), this will draw current through Rwell. If the voltage drop across Rwell is high enough, Q1 will also turn on, and a self-sustaining low resistance path between the power rails is formed. If the gains are such that b1 x b2 > 1, latchup may occur. Once latchup has begun, the only way to stop it is to reduce the current below a critical level, usually by removing power from the circuit. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 70
  71. 71. SPICE netlist *** Top Level Netlist *** M1 5 5 2 2 CMOSNB L=5u W=15u M2 6 5 2 2 CMOSNB L=5u W=15u R1 4 5 380k VDD 3 0 DC 2.5v AC 0 0 Vout 1 0 DC 0 VSS 2 0 DC -2.5v AC 0 0 *** Control Statements *** .DC VOUT -2.4 2.5 .1 .PRINT DC ALL **** Spice models and macro models **** .MODEL CMOSNB NMOS LEVEL=4 VFB=-9.73E-01 +LVFB=3.67E-01, WVFB=-4.72E-02, PHI=7.46E-01 +LPHI=-1.92E-24, WPHI=8.064E-24 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 71
  72. 72. SPICE models • The first MOS-models came in the begining of the 70's. – – – – The first model was called Level 1 MOS model. The model had 10 parameters (4 process and 6 electrical) (TPG), TOX, NSUB and XJ from process UO, VTO and LAMBDA , CGSO, CGDO, CGBO from electrical – With a few minor differences the model is described by the equations .model Name_model NMOS Level=1 +TPG=1 TOX=10-7 NSUB=1E16 XJ=1E-6 + UO=600 VTO=1.5 LAMBDA=0.01 +CGSO=1E-16 CGDO=1E-16 CGBO=1E-17 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 72
  73. 73. Level 1 MOS model 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 73
  74. 74. SPICE models history • Level 1, L ~> 5 micron, 1970 • Level 2, L ~> 2 micron, 1980 • Level 3, L ~> 1micron, 1981 – Many empirical parameters, numerically better, – better short channel description. – Difficulties in finding parameter sets that cover a large window of lengths. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 74
  75. 75. SPICE models history • 2nd generation – BSIM1, L ~> 0.8 micron, 1987 – Berkeley Short Channel IGFET Model 1 – New knowledge about short channel effects. Many fitting parameters for improved scaling – BSIM2, L ~> 0.35 micron, 1990 – Improved model continuity, specifically output conductance and sub-threshold current. Scaling still a problem. Binning introduced. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 75
  76. 76. SPICE models history • 3rd generation – BSIM3, L ~> 0.1 micron, 1994 – Total re-write. The idea was to have a simple model with few physical parameters. – Result: Many versions. Many empirical parameters. – Difficult to extract parameters. • Philips MOS Model 9 and 11 – Industry approach, With few empirical parameters. • EKV (Enz-Krummenacher-Vittoz) – With few empirical parameters, more physical than MM9 and MM11. • 4th Generation Model – BSIM4 • PSP (Penn State University and Philips) • The latest and most advanced model developed by merging the best features of the two surface potential-based models: SP and MM11. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 76
  77. 77. Sources of Power-Supply Noise • The fast rising voltage results in current drawn from the power supply leading to frequency-dependent IR (voltage) drops in the VDD and VSS traces of the printed circuit board (PCB) or metal interconnect. This phenomenon is called ground bounce on the VSS side. • The ground bounce is related to the parasitic inductance of the package pins of the integrated circuit (IC), device ground, and system ground. • The dynamic current can transform into noise by contributing an amount of voltage equal to V between the system ground and device ground 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 77
  78. 78. Sources of Power-Supply Noise • Since various components may share the VDD and VSS planes or busses as a source of power, any large voltage fluctuations on the PCB may violate the voltage noise rating of these components. • Such noise, if not reduced, can produce logical errors and other undesirable effects. • The problem is more pronounced if the noise is coupled to the analog portion of a mixed-signal integrated circuit as it can lead to jitter, distortion, and reduced performance of the analog components. • It is important to properly separate the digital and analog powers supplies to minimize the noise levels as much as possible in a mixed-signal environment. 30 April 2011 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology 78

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