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When the Internet Bleeded
Anant Shrivastava
(@anantshri)
for
RootConf 2014
Topic of Discussion
• Various SSL/TLS related issues in public
– Heartbleed
– GNUTLS Bug
– Apple Bug
– Lucky13
– BEAST
– CRIME
• What it means for Developers /
Administrators.
Ref : Pixabay.com
GIST of Security
“Most of the Security protocols
are broken“
• SSL == inSecure Socket Layer
1000 Feet view of TLS / SSL Bugs
HeartBleed (Openssl Bug)
Ref : XKCD.com
HeartBleed (Openssl Bug)
Ref : XKCD.com
GOTO FAIL : GNU TLS / Apple
● Functions which verifies x509 certificates. Invalid certificates can be passed off as
genuine, even though they're invalid.
● GNUTLS Details : http://blog.existentialize.com/the-story-of-the-gnutls-bug.html
● Apple : https://www.imperialviolet.org/2014/02/22/applebug.html
● Test yourself : https://gotofail.com/
BEAST’s LUCKY13 CRIME
• BEAST (CBC Ciphers)
– Allows retrial of encrypted data by key
guess based on block based ciphers.
• CRIME (compressed connection / SPDY)
– Exploit compression to extract data
●
LUCKY13
– cryptographic timing attack
• RC4
– (http://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2013/03/attack-of-
week-rc4-is-kind-of-broken-in.html)
Status Quo
• SSL 3.0 / TLS 1.0 is broken at nearly
all algorithm / protection level either
reasonable exploits or conceptual
exploitation available.
• Catch 22 : If you protect against
BEAST you are vulnerable to
LUCKY13 and vice-versa
Lets Understand Heartbleed
• Massive Effect over INTERNET but
limited to OpenSSL
• Effective Marketing and promotion
• Known not just in Information
Security Community but to the world
• In short a lucky draw worth 64KB
max of data (data =! information)
Twitter Reactions
Ref : Twitter.com
Reactions
Ref : Twitter.com
DIY
• Server : heartbleed.anantshri.info
Test Scripts :
• http://heartbleed.anantshri.info/test.txt (Shell)
• http://heartbleed.anantshri.info/hbtest.txt (Python)
• Login Page :
https://heartbleed.anantshri.info/login_post.html
• https://heartbleed.anantshri.info/login.html
• Video Demo
Trivia Facts
• First well thought out exploit release where public
presentation had prime focus (domain registered 2 days
before announcement).
• 3 different sources found same issue within a gap of a week.
• Multiple exploits came out based on initial script which only
looked at TLS 1.1 and not of 1.2 and 1.0 hence a lot of the
servers were marked safe even when they were not
• Hugely undervalued exploit even by author. Original founder
didn't expected the private key disclosure.
• Akamai opensourced its solution for key safety and same was
hacked left right center within few hours.
Trivia Facts
• Not a protocol fault rather implementation flaw and hence
GNUTLS, Mozilla NSS or Microsoft SSL is not effected.
• 75 of Cisco Products found effected
• Tor among effected products
• OpenSSL 1.0.1 through 1.0.1f
• LibreSSL (stripped down OpenBSD implementation)
• OpenSSL Bugbounty
• According to CloudFlare, GlobalSign’s CRL grew from 22KB
before Heartbleed to 4.9MB afterward.
• The number of revoked certificates on the CRL increased
from 1,492 to 133,243. And that was just GlobalSign’s CRL
Reverse Heartbleed : Client Attack
• Script
– https://github.com/Lekensteyn/pacemaker
So What?
●
Administrators
– Patch meticulously
– Monitor religiously
– Co-relate, cross-ref, leverage bigdata identify anomoly and act
on it.
●
Developers
– Not just a admin task
– Start caring about older version of libraries.
– Do not bundle dependencies or maintain updates
– OpenSource MORE EYES != LESS SECURITY BUGS
Technical solutions
• Enable TLS 1.1 and 1.2
• Enable forward secrecy
• Change SSL certificate (I know there
is a revocation cost)
• Going forward you are secure till no
one finds a flaw in newer
algorithms
Perfect Forward Secrecy
• random public keys per session for
the purposes of key agreement with
generation using non deterministic
algorithm.
• Even if connection is compromised it
makes sure compromise affects only
one connection.
Policy based solution
• Fail hard, Fail early : Setup exigency
process in place :Inform customers if you
suspect foul play. Keep them updated.
Block login if required.
• Force password reset : Don’t inform and
ask them to change : force it.
• Don't forget API Keys and other secrets
• Keep hardware support subscriptions
relevant or get lifetime support : it helps
Grave scenario
Ref : http://www.edrawsoft.com/images/network/Cisco%20Network%20Diagram_Full.png
Questions?
Ref : XKCD.com
Thanks for Listening
Anant Shrivastava
http://www.anantshri.info
Freelance Consultant / Trainer
RHCE, SANS GWAPT, CEH
Web, Mobile and Linux

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When the internet bleeded : RootConf 2014

  • 1. When the Internet Bleeded Anant Shrivastava (@anantshri) for RootConf 2014
  • 2. Topic of Discussion • Various SSL/TLS related issues in public – Heartbleed – GNUTLS Bug – Apple Bug – Lucky13 – BEAST – CRIME • What it means for Developers / Administrators. Ref : Pixabay.com
  • 3. GIST of Security “Most of the Security protocols are broken“ • SSL == inSecure Socket Layer
  • 4. 1000 Feet view of TLS / SSL Bugs
  • 7. GOTO FAIL : GNU TLS / Apple ● Functions which verifies x509 certificates. Invalid certificates can be passed off as genuine, even though they're invalid. ● GNUTLS Details : http://blog.existentialize.com/the-story-of-the-gnutls-bug.html ● Apple : https://www.imperialviolet.org/2014/02/22/applebug.html ● Test yourself : https://gotofail.com/
  • 8. BEAST’s LUCKY13 CRIME • BEAST (CBC Ciphers) – Allows retrial of encrypted data by key guess based on block based ciphers. • CRIME (compressed connection / SPDY) – Exploit compression to extract data ● LUCKY13 – cryptographic timing attack • RC4 – (http://blog.cryptographyengineering.com/2013/03/attack-of- week-rc4-is-kind-of-broken-in.html)
  • 9. Status Quo • SSL 3.0 / TLS 1.0 is broken at nearly all algorithm / protection level either reasonable exploits or conceptual exploitation available. • Catch 22 : If you protect against BEAST you are vulnerable to LUCKY13 and vice-versa
  • 10. Lets Understand Heartbleed • Massive Effect over INTERNET but limited to OpenSSL • Effective Marketing and promotion • Known not just in Information Security Community but to the world • In short a lucky draw worth 64KB max of data (data =! information)
  • 11. Twitter Reactions Ref : Twitter.com
  • 13. DIY • Server : heartbleed.anantshri.info Test Scripts : • http://heartbleed.anantshri.info/test.txt (Shell) • http://heartbleed.anantshri.info/hbtest.txt (Python) • Login Page : https://heartbleed.anantshri.info/login_post.html • https://heartbleed.anantshri.info/login.html • Video Demo
  • 14. Trivia Facts • First well thought out exploit release where public presentation had prime focus (domain registered 2 days before announcement). • 3 different sources found same issue within a gap of a week. • Multiple exploits came out based on initial script which only looked at TLS 1.1 and not of 1.2 and 1.0 hence a lot of the servers were marked safe even when they were not • Hugely undervalued exploit even by author. Original founder didn't expected the private key disclosure. • Akamai opensourced its solution for key safety and same was hacked left right center within few hours.
  • 15. Trivia Facts • Not a protocol fault rather implementation flaw and hence GNUTLS, Mozilla NSS or Microsoft SSL is not effected. • 75 of Cisco Products found effected • Tor among effected products • OpenSSL 1.0.1 through 1.0.1f • LibreSSL (stripped down OpenBSD implementation) • OpenSSL Bugbounty • According to CloudFlare, GlobalSign’s CRL grew from 22KB before Heartbleed to 4.9MB afterward. • The number of revoked certificates on the CRL increased from 1,492 to 133,243. And that was just GlobalSign’s CRL
  • 16. Reverse Heartbleed : Client Attack • Script – https://github.com/Lekensteyn/pacemaker
  • 17. So What? ● Administrators – Patch meticulously – Monitor religiously – Co-relate, cross-ref, leverage bigdata identify anomoly and act on it. ● Developers – Not just a admin task – Start caring about older version of libraries. – Do not bundle dependencies or maintain updates – OpenSource MORE EYES != LESS SECURITY BUGS
  • 18. Technical solutions • Enable TLS 1.1 and 1.2 • Enable forward secrecy • Change SSL certificate (I know there is a revocation cost) • Going forward you are secure till no one finds a flaw in newer algorithms
  • 19. Perfect Forward Secrecy • random public keys per session for the purposes of key agreement with generation using non deterministic algorithm. • Even if connection is compromised it makes sure compromise affects only one connection.
  • 20. Policy based solution • Fail hard, Fail early : Setup exigency process in place :Inform customers if you suspect foul play. Keep them updated. Block login if required. • Force password reset : Don’t inform and ask them to change : force it. • Don't forget API Keys and other secrets • Keep hardware support subscriptions relevant or get lifetime support : it helps
  • 21. Grave scenario Ref : http://www.edrawsoft.com/images/network/Cisco%20Network%20Diagram_Full.png
  • 23. Thanks for Listening Anant Shrivastava http://www.anantshri.info Freelance Consultant / Trainer RHCE, SANS GWAPT, CEH Web, Mobile and Linux