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Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?




    Steve Portigal
1   @steveportigal
Click to edit Master title style




Introduction




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   2   Portigal
Today
Click to edit Master title style

           Introduction                             15:00 – 15:10
           Observation Exercise                     15:10 – 15:40
           Synthesis                                15:40 – 16:30
           Break                                    16:30 – 17:00
           Synthesis                                17:00 – 17:10
           Ideation                                 17:10 – 17:50
           Share                                    17:50 – 18:15
           Prioritization time permitting           18:15 – 18:20
           Q&A + Wrap-up                            18:20 – 18:30




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   3                   Portigal
Click to edit Master title style



              Portigal
              We help companies discover and
              act on new insights about their
              customers and themselves




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   4   Portigal
Use to edit Master title style
Clickfieldwork throughout the development cycle


                    Take a fresh
                    look at people                            Use existing ideas
                                                              as hypotheses




                                       What to             Refine &
                                                                           Launch
                                      make or do           prototype




                                                Iterate & improve



                                                        Explore new
                                                        ideas


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?          5                            Portigal
Synthesis & ideation process
Click to edit Master title style




   Fieldwork


                                    Synthesis

                                                    Ideation


                                                               Development




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   6                            Portigal
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Homework/Observation Exercise




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   7   Portigal
Homework Master title style
Click to editCheck-in

Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and
observing people in your neighborhood




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   8                Portigal
Homework Master title style
Click to editCheck-in

Who was able to do the assignment?

Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational
fieldwork?

Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research
in the field?




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   9                 Portigal
Observing
Click to edit Master title style

Notice what… people,
places

Notice how… processes,
sequences, interactions

Suspend your point of view

Avoid conclusions

Allow confusion
                                                     Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell
Do it “out loud”                                     because he looks like he may be a little
                                                     confused.



Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   10                                                    Portigal
Cultural context
Click to edit Master title style

You’re observing people within
their culture. Notice how cultural
artifacts reflect and define the
environment; and reveal what is
“normal”

Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s
the set of background rules that
define much of what people
choose or ignore
                                                     What are they selling?
       Media
       Products
       Advertisements
       Street Culture
       Trends/ Fads




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   11                            Portigal
Cultural context
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   12   Portigal
Cultural context
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   13   Portigal
Cultural context
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   14   Portigal
Exercise: Explore!
Click to edit Master title style

Your mission: Imagine you are
working on a project for
Gentrific8, looking for inspiration
for neighborhood redevelopment
from the Lisbon Eastern
Business District.

Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up
• Wander and observe people,
  interactions and environments
• Do it out loud!
• Capture (photos, notes)
       • What, who, where, when?
          • Why, how?

This is not a design audit of
signage or merchandise displays
Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   15   Portigal
Neighborhood observations:
Click to edit Master title style Noe Valley, San Fran




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   16   Portigal
Neighborhood observations:
Click to edit Master title style Noe Valley, San Fran




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   17   Portigal
Neighborhood observations:
Click to edit Master title style Montara, California




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   18   Portigal
Exercise: Explore!
Click to edit Master title style




                                    We resume
                                     at 15:40!


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   19   Portigal
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Synthesis: From data to insights




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   20   Portigal
Synthesis & ideation process
     Click to edit Master title style




Analysis
                                 Synthesis

                            Insights        Opportunities

                                                                       Ideation

                                                                 Strategies   Solutions




                                                                                             Detailed
                                                                                            solutions




    Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?           21                            Portigal
Why to edit Master title style
Click a process?




   Fieldwork


                                    Synthesis

                                                     Ideation


                                                                Development




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   22                            Portigal
Avoid jumping to conclusions
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   23   Portigal
DTDT: edit Master title style
Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis




  Analysis
  Break large piece(s) into smaller
  ones in order to make sense
  e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   24        Portigal
DTDT: edit Master title style
Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis




                                         Combining multiple pieces into something new
                                          e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
                                                                                 Synthesis



  Analysis
  Break large piece(s) into smaller
  ones in order to make sense
  e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?         25                                  Portigal
DTDT: edit Master title style
Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis

The process gradually moves from one to the other


                                         Combining multiple pieces into something new
                                          e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
                                                                                 Synthesis



  Analysis
  Break large piece(s) into smaller
  ones in order to make sense
  e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?         26                                  Portigal
Analthesis????
Click to edit Master title style




                                         Combining multiple pieces into something new
                                          e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
                                                                                 Synthesis



  Analysis
  Break large piece(s) into smaller
  ones in order to make sense
  e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?         27                                  Portigal
More narratively, what is synthesis?
Click to edit Master title style

Sense-making through an iterative
process of refining gathered data

Early, Informal data in your head
First, process the experience you
had collecting data
• Refer to debriefs and conversations
• Articulate and identify themes
• Outcome: Topline Report

Process-based, Formal heavy lifting
                                                     Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat
Then, process the data itself
• Individual and group analysis
• Pattern-identification, clustering,
  models, frameworks
• Outcome: Opportunities

Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   28                                   Portigal
In-field edit Master
Click todebriefing title style

Synthesis naturally begins in
the field
 • Resist meaning (for now)
 • Focus on observations
 • Get the detail

Create time to talk after each
fieldwork experience
  • Worksheet to facilitate the
    debrief

Write up real-time summaries for                     Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild.
the team, ASAP




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   29                                                Portigal
Early, informal synthesis (data
Click to edit Master title style in your head)

After fieldwork, collate reflections
and quickly externalize a starter set
of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on
       • Pre-identified areas of inquiry
       • Refer to debriefs and
         conversations from the field
       • New patterns that we observed

Identify interesting areas;
acknowledge that you don’t
understand details yet, identify
questions
Outcome: Topline Report


                                                     All right researchers… what did you see?




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   30                                       Portigal
The to edit Report
ClickTopline Master title style

This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and
brings focus to the next stage of synthesis




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   31               Portigal
Process-based, formal style
Click to edit Master titlesynthesis (heavy lifting)

Go back through your raw data
very closely to move beyond the
Topline Report

Individually (heads-down) and
collaboratively (heads-up)




                                                     i.e.: What did other public announcements in
                                                     the study look like? What are the layers of
                                                     information and cultural context? What form
                                                     factors are favored? Why?


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   32                                        Portigal
Individual analysis title style
Click to edit Master(not today)

Heads down!
 • Video
 • Photos, field artifacts
 • Transcripts
          • DV→MP3→FTP→.docx

Transcript analysis
  • Make marginal notes on
    patterns, quotes, or what
    seems interesting
  • Ask yourself questions; give
    labels; propose solutions
  • Don’t worry about
    implications, be descriptive
    and reactive



Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   33   Portigal
Individual analysis title style
Click to edit Master(not today)

If you can’t get transcripts, watch
video/listen to audio (even sped-
up) and in near real-time jot
down the rough narrative of the
session
   • When you make an observation
     in your own voice, do something
     typographic to call it out (ALL
     CAPS, highlight, etc.)




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   34   Portigal
Collaborative analysis
Click to edit Master title style

Heads up!
Present each interview (etc.) as
a case study. Introduce each,
and pick out the provocative
highlights.

Voice and document reactions,
a-has, support and questions
  • Clustering with stickies
  • White-board notes

Develop a new shared point-of-
view, beyond “findings”




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   35   Portigal
More individual analysis (not
Click to edit Master title style today)

Spreadsheet analysis enables immersive refinement of data
Play with data by generating alternate views of the dataset
  • Rewrite each sticky in a cell (adding commentary, explanation, context, quote)
  • Processing each entry allows further synthesis and thought


           Tag each comment with                Categories of     Comment
           person, segment, market etc.         columns will      comes from
           to allow you to manipulate data      vary by project   rewritten sticky




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?     36                                 Portigal
Developing Master title style
Click to edit opportunities

Opportunities are not
 • A reporting of “interesting findings”
 • A list of solutions                                     Keep the human touch in
                                                           communication
                                                           Allow people to move
Opportunities are                                          seamlessly between places
                                                           Allow people to integrate
 • Change we can envision based on                         seamlessly across different
   what we heard and observed                              devices and systems

 • About people
 • In the context of, but reframing the              What should we do?
   business questions
 • Generative, inviting many
   solutions




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   37                                       Portigal
Summary of analthesis style
Click to edit Master title activities


Topline                  Individual             Collaborative          Individual             Opportunities
                         Analysis               Analysis               Analysis

                                                                                                Keep the human touch in
                                                                                                communication
                                                                                                Allow people to move
                                                                                                seamlessly between places
                                                                                                Allow people to integrate
                                                                                                seamlessly across different
                                                                                                devices and systems




Externalize the data     The heavy lifting      Play with individual   Play with the entire   Determine generative
in your head                                    data elements          data set               directions




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?             38                                                            Portigal
Exercise: Develop topline (10
Click to edit Masteratitle style minutes)

Get in groups of 4
Quickly review what happened (today
and from your homework) and what
you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the
urge to move too far towards
conclusions
 • Don’t refer to notes or photos yet
 • Keep your own experiences, existing
   hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the
   background

Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline
Report” sketching out the big
takeaways, leading into further
synthesis
 • Don’t fuss over exact wording                     All right researchers… what did you see?




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   39                                       Portigal
Exercise: Develop title style
Click to edit Masterfindings (10 minutes)

Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out
and enrich themes
  • Write your themes and put them up
       • Leave space for new ones
  • Now (!) tell stories from the field
    (from your neighborhood and today),
    using photos, notes and memory

Rethink the relationships between the
themes, pick your strongest themes
and write a sentence with a point of
view
  • Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and
    “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public
    spaces in the neighborhood are used to
    communicate identity and
    belongingness”


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   40   Portigal
Break!
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   41   Portigal
Exercise: Identify opportunities
Click to edit Master title style (10 minutes)

Build on your findings
   • Start each opportunity with a verb
                                                     Keep the human touch in
                                                     communication
Opportunities are not                                Allow people to move
   • A reporting of “interesting findings”           seamlessly between places
   • A list of solutions                             Allow people to integrate
                                                     seamlessly across different
                                                     devices and systems

Opportunities are
   • Change we can envision based on what            What should we do?
     we heard and observe
   • About people
   • In the context of but reframing the
     business questions
   • Generative, inviting many solutions



Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   42                                 Portigal
Click to edit Master title style




Ideation: From insights to solutions




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   43   Portigal
Ideation questions
Click to edit Master title style

A simple step moves you from
Opportunities to Ideation
Questions, reframing them                            How can we keep the human touch in
into actionable language                                        communication
                                                     How can we allow people to move
                                                                seamlessly between places
                                                     How can we allow people to integrate
                                                                seamlessly across different
                                                                devices and systems



                                                                         Ideate!




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   44                                            Portigal
Scope edit Master
Click toof solutions title style

Solutions exist across many
different business areas
              Functionality
              Visual design
              Marketing
              Architecture
              Public Services
              Partnerships
              Events
              Software
              Form factor
              Packaging
              Policy
              Retail design


Even if you are unlikely to impact
                                                     How many business and civic areas to impact
certain business areas, it’s crucial                 can you spot in this picture?
that you set that constraint aside
for ideation
Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   45                                        Portigal
Developing Master title
Click to edit strategies style

Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions

Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students
who smoke?


   Support underlying needs                          Question needs and
   and behavior by embracing                         behavior, seek change by
   the finding                                       challenging the finding



   Create a protected                                Eliminate smoking
   environment for smoking


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   46                              Portigal
Strategies can inspire solutions
Click to edit Master title style

Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students who
smoke?



                                                     Strategies

   Create a protected
                                                              Eliminate smoking
   environment for smoking


                                                     Solutions
   Facilities         Admin             Partners              Online      Admin     Partners
   Build a            Allocate          Align with            Smoking     Ban       Stop
   pavilion           interior          nearby                cessation   smoking   smoking
                      room              cafe                  games                 coaches

Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?           47                                 Portigal
Solutions can suggest strategies
Click to edit Master title style

Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students who
smoke?


                                                Strategies

   Create a protected
                                                         Eliminate smoking
   environment for smoking


                                                Solutions
                      Admin                                       Admin
                      Allocate                                    Ban
                      interior                                    smoking
                      room

Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?      48                        Portigal
Collaborative generation
Click to edit Master title style

This is a collective, out-loud activity!
Talk, listen, build on each other’s
ideas
  • Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it
    may lead to a “good” idea

Don’t correct; generate alternatives
  • “Yes, and…”

This is a visual activity! Sketch,
draw…
  • Quantity over quality; go quickly

Individual ideas matter less than
                                                     How can a sour lemon help keep things working
what the collective produces overall                 smoothly?




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   49                                             Portigal
Stuck?
Click to edit Master title style

Come up with bad ideas
 • Immoral
 • Dangerous
 • Bad for business




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   50   Portigal
Don’t forget your second wind
   Click to edit Master title style


Pace of idea
generation




                                   Obvious but
                                   necessary,
                                   problem-solving,
                                   need-filling, low-
                                   hanging fruit



                                                             Time



   Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?        51          Portigal
Don’t forget your second wind
   Click to edit Master title style


Pace of idea
generation




                                   Obvious but               Wacky,
                                   necessary,                transgressive,
                                   problem-solving,          innovative,
                                   need-filling, low-        breakthrough,
                                   hanging fruit             weird



                                                                              Time



   Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?        52                           Portigal
Summary of ideation exercises
 Click to edit Master title style


   Questions                          Business Areas          Ideation and Sharing
How can we keep the human touch
           in communication
How can we allow people to move
           seamlessly between
           places
How can we allow people to
           integrate seamlessly
           across different devices
           and systems


                    Ideate!

       Shift to “How can              Figure out where        Remember, “Yes, and…”
       we…?”                          we can play




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?            53                           Portigal
Exercise: Ideation questions
Click to edit Master title style (2 minutes)

Apply How can we…?
to each of your Opportunities
                                                 How can we keep the human touch in
                                                            communication
                                                 How can we allow people to move
                                                            seamlessly between places
                                                 How can we allow people to integrate
                                                            seamlessly across different
                                                            devices and systems



                                                                     Ideate!




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   54                                        Portigal
Exercise: Business title style
Click to edit Master areas (3 minutes)

Let’s collectively list possible
business areas to design for
  • Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do
    or affect

Use this list as a starting point
              Functionality
              Visual design
              Marketing
              Architecture
              Public Services
              Partnerships
              Events
              Software
              Form factor
              Packaging
              Policy
                                                     How many business and civic areas to impact
              Retail design                          can you spot in this picture?
              Incentives


Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   55                                         Portigal
Exercise: Ideation (35 minutes)
Click to edit Master title style

Use your ideation questions to
generate strategies and solutions
  • Out loud
  • Visual
  • Collaborative

Consider the range of possible
business areas
                                                     Apply lemon as needed.
Bounce back and forth between
generating strategies and
solutions

Most ideas will not turn out to be
winners; the goal is to practice
                                                     Don’t forget your second wind
connecting research data to
solutions
Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   56                                   Portigal
Exercise: Share (25 minutes)
Click to edit Master title style

Quickly align on your team’s best
ideas and message

Choose a messenger




                                                     The wise team will choose a bold, expressive
                                                     spokesperson




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   57                                                  Portigal
Prioritization
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   58   Portigal
Big group voting
Click to edit Master title style




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   59   Portigal
Small group ranking…and reconciliation
  Click to edit Master title style



Color indicates voting winner                          Ranking factors may even
                                                       include how clear the idea is




  Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   60                                   Portigal
Click to edit Master title style




Wrap Up




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   61   Portigal
How to edit use frameworks
Click expertsMaster title style




   Fieldwork


                                    Synthesis

                                                     Ideation


                                                                Development




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   62                            Portigal
Coming up!
Click to edit Master title style



        A book by Steve Portigal
        The Art and Craft of User Research Interviewing
        http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/user-interviews/




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   63         Portigal
Click to edit Master title style
                                   I’ve got a tip
                                     (that you
                                   didn’t cover)
                                    that works           Yeah, I’ve
                                   well for me…             got a
                                                         question
                                                          for ya…




                            One new
                             thing I
                            learned
                           today is…




Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?       64         Portigal
Click to edit Master title style


Thank you!




Portigal Consulting                                    @steveportigal
www.portigal.com                                       steve@portigal.com
  Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What?   65   +1-415-894-2001
                                                                  Portigal

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Well, We've Done All This Research, Now What?

  • 1. Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? Steve Portigal 1 @steveportigal
  • 2. Click to edit Master title style Introduction Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 2 Portigal
  • 3. Today Click to edit Master title style Introduction 15:00 – 15:10 Observation Exercise 15:10 – 15:40 Synthesis 15:40 – 16:30 Break 16:30 – 17:00 Synthesis 17:00 – 17:10 Ideation 17:10 – 17:50 Share 17:50 – 18:15 Prioritization time permitting 18:15 – 18:20 Q&A + Wrap-up 18:20 – 18:30 Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 3 Portigal
  • 4. Click to edit Master title style Portigal We help companies discover and act on new insights about their customers and themselves Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 4 Portigal
  • 5. Use to edit Master title style Clickfieldwork throughout the development cycle Take a fresh look at people Use existing ideas as hypotheses What to Refine & Launch make or do prototype Iterate & improve Explore new ideas Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 5 Portigal
  • 6. Synthesis & ideation process Click to edit Master title style Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 6 Portigal
  • 7. Click to edit Master title style Homework/Observation Exercise Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 7 Portigal
  • 8. Homework Master title style Click to editCheck-in Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and observing people in your neighborhood Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 8 Portigal
  • 9. Homework Master title style Click to editCheck-in Who was able to do the assignment? Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational fieldwork? Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research in the field? Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 9 Portigal
  • 10. Observing Click to edit Master title style Notice what… people, places Notice how… processes, sequences, interactions Suspend your point of view Avoid conclusions Allow confusion Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell Do it “out loud” because he looks like he may be a little confused. Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 10 Portigal
  • 11. Cultural context Click to edit Master title style You’re observing people within their culture. Notice how cultural artifacts reflect and define the environment; and reveal what is “normal” Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s the set of background rules that define much of what people choose or ignore What are they selling? Media Products Advertisements Street Culture Trends/ Fads Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 11 Portigal
  • 12. Cultural context Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 12 Portigal
  • 13. Cultural context Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 13 Portigal
  • 14. Cultural context Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 14 Portigal
  • 15. Exercise: Explore! Click to edit Master title style Your mission: Imagine you are working on a project for Gentrific8, looking for inspiration for neighborhood redevelopment from the Lisbon Eastern Business District. Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up • Wander and observe people, interactions and environments • Do it out loud! • Capture (photos, notes) • What, who, where, when? • Why, how? This is not a design audit of signage or merchandise displays Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 15 Portigal
  • 16. Neighborhood observations: Click to edit Master title style Noe Valley, San Fran Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 16 Portigal
  • 17. Neighborhood observations: Click to edit Master title style Noe Valley, San Fran Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 17 Portigal
  • 18. Neighborhood observations: Click to edit Master title style Montara, California Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 18 Portigal
  • 19. Exercise: Explore! Click to edit Master title style We resume at 15:40! Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 19 Portigal
  • 20. Click to edit Master title style Synthesis: From data to insights Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 20 Portigal
  • 21. Synthesis & ideation process Click to edit Master title style Analysis Synthesis Insights Opportunities Ideation Strategies Solutions Detailed solutions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 21 Portigal
  • 22. Why to edit Master title style Click a process? Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 22 Portigal
  • 23. Avoid jumping to conclusions Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 23 Portigal
  • 24. DTDT: edit Master title style Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 24 Portigal
  • 25. DTDT: edit Master title style Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis Combining multiple pieces into something new e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 25 Portigal
  • 26. DTDT: edit Master title style Click toAnalysis vs. Synthesis The process gradually moves from one to the other Combining multiple pieces into something new e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 26 Portigal
  • 27. Analthesis???? Click to edit Master title style Combining multiple pieces into something new e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 27 Portigal
  • 28. More narratively, what is synthesis? Click to edit Master title style Sense-making through an iterative process of refining gathered data Early, Informal data in your head First, process the experience you had collecting data • Refer to debriefs and conversations • Articulate and identify themes • Outcome: Topline Report Process-based, Formal heavy lifting Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat Then, process the data itself • Individual and group analysis • Pattern-identification, clustering, models, frameworks • Outcome: Opportunities Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 28 Portigal
  • 29. In-field edit Master Click todebriefing title style Synthesis naturally begins in the field • Resist meaning (for now) • Focus on observations • Get the detail Create time to talk after each fieldwork experience • Worksheet to facilitate the debrief Write up real-time summaries for Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild. the team, ASAP Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 29 Portigal
  • 30. Early, informal synthesis (data Click to edit Master title style in your head) After fieldwork, collate reflections and quickly externalize a starter set of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on • Pre-identified areas of inquiry • Refer to debriefs and conversations from the field • New patterns that we observed Identify interesting areas; acknowledge that you don’t understand details yet, identify questions Outcome: Topline Report All right researchers… what did you see? Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 30 Portigal
  • 31. The to edit Report ClickTopline Master title style This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and brings focus to the next stage of synthesis Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 31 Portigal
  • 32. Process-based, formal style Click to edit Master titlesynthesis (heavy lifting) Go back through your raw data very closely to move beyond the Topline Report Individually (heads-down) and collaboratively (heads-up) i.e.: What did other public announcements in the study look like? What are the layers of information and cultural context? What form factors are favored? Why? Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 32 Portigal
  • 33. Individual analysis title style Click to edit Master(not today) Heads down! • Video • Photos, field artifacts • Transcripts • DV→MP3→FTP→.docx Transcript analysis • Make marginal notes on patterns, quotes, or what seems interesting • Ask yourself questions; give labels; propose solutions • Don’t worry about implications, be descriptive and reactive Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 33 Portigal
  • 34. Individual analysis title style Click to edit Master(not today) If you can’t get transcripts, watch video/listen to audio (even sped- up) and in near real-time jot down the rough narrative of the session • When you make an observation in your own voice, do something typographic to call it out (ALL CAPS, highlight, etc.) Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 34 Portigal
  • 35. Collaborative analysis Click to edit Master title style Heads up! Present each interview (etc.) as a case study. Introduce each, and pick out the provocative highlights. Voice and document reactions, a-has, support and questions • Clustering with stickies • White-board notes Develop a new shared point-of- view, beyond “findings” Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 35 Portigal
  • 36. More individual analysis (not Click to edit Master title style today) Spreadsheet analysis enables immersive refinement of data Play with data by generating alternate views of the dataset • Rewrite each sticky in a cell (adding commentary, explanation, context, quote) • Processing each entry allows further synthesis and thought Tag each comment with Categories of Comment person, segment, market etc. columns will comes from to allow you to manipulate data vary by project rewritten sticky Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 36 Portigal
  • 37. Developing Master title style Click to edit opportunities Opportunities are not • A reporting of “interesting findings” • A list of solutions Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move Opportunities are seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate • Change we can envision based on seamlessly across different what we heard and observed devices and systems • About people • In the context of, but reframing the What should we do? business questions • Generative, inviting many solutions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 37 Portigal
  • 38. Summary of analthesis style Click to edit Master title activities Topline Individual Collaborative Individual Opportunities Analysis Analysis Analysis Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Externalize the data The heavy lifting Play with individual Play with the entire Determine generative in your head data elements data set directions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 38 Portigal
  • 39. Exercise: Develop topline (10 Click to edit Masteratitle style minutes) Get in groups of 4 Quickly review what happened (today and from your homework) and what you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the urge to move too far towards conclusions • Don’t refer to notes or photos yet • Keep your own experiences, existing hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the background Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline Report” sketching out the big takeaways, leading into further synthesis • Don’t fuss over exact wording All right researchers… what did you see? Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 39 Portigal
  • 40. Exercise: Develop title style Click to edit Masterfindings (10 minutes) Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out and enrich themes • Write your themes and put them up • Leave space for new ones • Now (!) tell stories from the field (from your neighborhood and today), using photos, notes and memory Rethink the relationships between the themes, pick your strongest themes and write a sentence with a point of view • Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public spaces in the neighborhood are used to communicate identity and belongingness” Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 40 Portigal
  • 41. Break! Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 41 Portigal
  • 42. Exercise: Identify opportunities Click to edit Master title style (10 minutes) Build on your findings • Start each opportunity with a verb Keep the human touch in communication Opportunities are not Allow people to move • A reporting of “interesting findings” seamlessly between places • A list of solutions Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Opportunities are • Change we can envision based on what What should we do? we heard and observe • About people • In the context of but reframing the business questions • Generative, inviting many solutions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 42 Portigal
  • 43. Click to edit Master title style Ideation: From insights to solutions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 43 Portigal
  • 44. Ideation questions Click to edit Master title style A simple step moves you from Opportunities to Ideation Questions, reframing them How can we keep the human touch in into actionable language communication How can we allow people to move seamlessly between places How can we allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Ideate! Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 44 Portigal
  • 45. Scope edit Master Click toof solutions title style Solutions exist across many different business areas Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy Retail design Even if you are unlikely to impact How many business and civic areas to impact certain business areas, it’s crucial can you spot in this picture? that you set that constraint aside for ideation Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 45 Portigal
  • 46. Developing Master title Click to edit strategies style Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Support underlying needs Question needs and and behavior by embracing behavior, seek change by the finding challenging the finding Create a protected Eliminate smoking environment for smoking Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 46 Portigal
  • 47. Strategies can inspire solutions Click to edit Master title style Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected Eliminate smoking environment for smoking Solutions Facilities Admin Partners Online Admin Partners Build a Allocate Align with Smoking Ban Stop pavilion interior nearby cessation smoking smoking room cafe games coaches Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 47 Portigal
  • 48. Solutions can suggest strategies Click to edit Master title style Finding: Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question: How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected Eliminate smoking environment for smoking Solutions Admin Admin Allocate Ban interior smoking room Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 48 Portigal
  • 49. Collaborative generation Click to edit Master title style This is a collective, out-loud activity! Talk, listen, build on each other’s ideas • Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it may lead to a “good” idea Don’t correct; generate alternatives • “Yes, and…” This is a visual activity! Sketch, draw… • Quantity over quality; go quickly Individual ideas matter less than How can a sour lemon help keep things working what the collective produces overall smoothly? Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 49 Portigal
  • 50. Stuck? Click to edit Master title style Come up with bad ideas • Immoral • Dangerous • Bad for business Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 50 Portigal
  • 51. Don’t forget your second wind Click to edit Master title style Pace of idea generation Obvious but necessary, problem-solving, need-filling, low- hanging fruit Time Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 51 Portigal
  • 52. Don’t forget your second wind Click to edit Master title style Pace of idea generation Obvious but Wacky, necessary, transgressive, problem-solving, innovative, need-filling, low- breakthrough, hanging fruit weird Time Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 52 Portigal
  • 53. Summary of ideation exercises Click to edit Master title style Questions Business Areas Ideation and Sharing How can we keep the human touch in communication How can we allow people to move seamlessly between places How can we allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Ideate! Shift to “How can Figure out where Remember, “Yes, and…” we…?” we can play Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 53 Portigal
  • 54. Exercise: Ideation questions Click to edit Master title style (2 minutes) Apply How can we…? to each of your Opportunities How can we keep the human touch in communication How can we allow people to move seamlessly between places How can we allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Ideate! Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 54 Portigal
  • 55. Exercise: Business title style Click to edit Master areas (3 minutes) Let’s collectively list possible business areas to design for • Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do or affect Use this list as a starting point Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy How many business and civic areas to impact Retail design can you spot in this picture? Incentives Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 55 Portigal
  • 56. Exercise: Ideation (35 minutes) Click to edit Master title style Use your ideation questions to generate strategies and solutions • Out loud • Visual • Collaborative Consider the range of possible business areas Apply lemon as needed. Bounce back and forth between generating strategies and solutions Most ideas will not turn out to be winners; the goal is to practice Don’t forget your second wind connecting research data to solutions Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 56 Portigal
  • 57. Exercise: Share (25 minutes) Click to edit Master title style Quickly align on your team’s best ideas and message Choose a messenger The wise team will choose a bold, expressive spokesperson Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 57 Portigal
  • 58. Prioritization Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 58 Portigal
  • 59. Big group voting Click to edit Master title style Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 59 Portigal
  • 60. Small group ranking…and reconciliation Click to edit Master title style Color indicates voting winner Ranking factors may even include how clear the idea is Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 60 Portigal
  • 61. Click to edit Master title style Wrap Up Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 61 Portigal
  • 62. How to edit use frameworks Click expertsMaster title style Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 62 Portigal
  • 63. Coming up! Click to edit Master title style A book by Steve Portigal The Art and Craft of User Research Interviewing http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/user-interviews/ Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 63 Portigal
  • 64. Click to edit Master title style I’ve got a tip (that you didn’t cover) that works Yeah, I’ve well for me… got a question for ya… One new thing I learned today is… Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 64 Portigal
  • 65. Click to edit Master title style Thank you! Portigal Consulting @steveportigal www.portigal.com steve@portigal.com Well, We’ve Done All This Research, Now What? 65 +1-415-894-2001 Portigal