Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold

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Interviewing is undeniably one of the most valuable and commonly used user research tools. Yet it's often not used well, because
* It’s based on skills we think we have (talking or even listening)
* It's not taught or reflected on, and
* People tend to "wing it" rather than develop their skills.

Results may be inaccurate or reveal nothing new, suggesting the wrong design or business responses, or they may miss the crucial nuance that points to innovative breakthrough opportunities.

In this day-long session, we'll focus on the importance of rapport-building and listening and look at techniques for both. We will review different types of questions, and why you need to have a range of question types. This session will explore other contextual research methods that can be built on top of interviewing in a seamless way. We'll also suggest practice exercises for improving your own interviewing skills and how to engage others in your organization successfully in the interviewing experience.

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  • At each point in the development process, the questions you have are different, and so the ways you utilize research are different. But get out there and talk to customers regularly!
  • This came up for us in a project where we looked at infant formula – the bottle technology was all about systems, innovation, solving problems. The formula was just power-in-a-can and needed to get out of that frame on their business.
  • You might pick users that aren’t typical but can speak to the issues you want to address
  • Accumulate a set of recruiting methods that you can deploy based on the constraints of your project
  • Try multiple viewpoints (i.e., customer vs. worker)Give it timeAllow yourself to be confused for a whileIdentify what you want to know more aboutWhy?
  • Avoid: Grouping by solutions to problems.
  • Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold

    1. Brought to you by<br />
    2. Introduction<br />
    3. Today<br />Introduction 9:00 – 9:10<br />Best Practices Overview 9:10 – 10:00<br />Methods10:00 – 10:30<br />Break10:30 – 10:45<br />Interviewing 10:45 – 11:30<br />Interviewing Exercise11:30 – 12:15<br />Lunch!<br />Observation Exercise 1:15 – 2:00<br />Synthesis 2:00 – 2:45<br />Break2:45 – 3:00<br />Ideation3:00 – 4:00<br />Share4:00 – 4:30<br />Q&A + Wrap-up 4:30 – 5:00<br />
    4. Take a fresh look at people<br />Use existing ideas as hypotheses<br />What to make or do<br />Refine & prototype<br />Launch<br />Iterate & improve<br />Use fieldwork throughout the development cycle<br />Explore new ideas<br />
    5. Synthesis & ideation process<br />Fieldwork<br />Synthesis<br />Ideation<br />Development<br />
    6. Cultural data from fieldwork<br />Case study: iPod accessories<br />
    7. Case study: iPod accessories<br />Portigal<br />Interviewing Users: Spinning Data into Gold<br />8<br />
    8. Research Project – Best Practices Overview<br />
    9. What do I mean by “research?”<br />Ethnography<br />Ethnographic interviews <br />Video ethnography<br />Depth-interviews<br />Contextual research<br />Home visits<br />Site visits<br />Experience modeling<br />Design research<br />User research<br />User-centered design<br />One-on-ones<br />Camera studies <br />User safaris <br />
    10. What do I mean by “research?”<br />Ethnography<br />Ethnographic interviews <br />Video ethnography<br />Depth-interviews<br />Contextual research<br />Home visits<br />Site visits<br />Experience modeling<br />Design research<br />User research<br />User-centered design<br />One-on-ones<br />Camera studies <br />User safaris <br />What-ever!<br />
    11. Beyond our terminology, what are we doing?<br />Examine people in their own context<br /><ul><li>What are they doing?
    12. What does it mean?</li></ul>Infer (interpret/synthesize/etc.)<br /><ul><li>Find the connections
    13. The researcher is the “apparatus”</li></ul>Apply to business or design problems<br /><ul><li>Use products, services, packaging, design to tell the right story
    14. More possible types of solutions than we started out with</li></li></ul><li>Identifying the problem<br />
    15. The Business Question<br />What new products and services can you offer to help partners increase social network stickiness (and thus revenues)?<br />What entertainment activities should you support to tap into a growing middle-class in China?<br />
    16. The Research Question<br />What are the motivations, successes, and frustrations for current and prospective users of our partners’ social media sites?<br />How is family life changing in middle-class China? What are the critical digital and analog technologies that are being embraced?<br />
    17. Pain points: default research/business question?!<br />While we always uncover so-called pain points, the bigger opportunity may come from understanding why– how did we get here?<br />
    18. It may not really be that painful<br />Satisficing(coined by Herbert Simon in 1956) refers to our acceptance of good-enough solutions<br />These can drive engineers and designers crazy…but the real problem isn’t always what it appears to be<br />
    19. Finding the right participants (aka recruiting)<br />Often an afterthought in project planning<br /><ul><li>But the right customers are crucial to get the right insights
    20. This takes time to plan and to execute</li></ul>Pointless interviews waste time and challenge the credibility of the work<br /><ul><li>Person doesn’t really want to talk to you
    21. They don’t have the desired relationship with the product/brand</li></ul>Epic FAILS will happen anyway<br />Identify<br /><ul><li>What type of people you want to find (criteria, screener)
    22. How you will find those people</li></li></ul><li>Recruiting criteria: Relationship to category<br />What is their relationship to the product/service/brand/activity? <br /><ul><li>Typical user
    23. Non-user
    24. Extreme user
    25. Peripheral user
    26. Expert user
    27. Subject-matter expert
    28. Wannabe user
    29. Should-be user
    30. Future user
    31. Past user
    32. Hater
    33. Loyal to competitor</li></ul>Triangulate through multiple perspectives<br />By creating contrast, you reveal key influencing factorsthat you wouldn’t otherwise see<br />
    34. Recruiting criteria: Type of user<br />There may be more – or different – “users”<br />Think about the whole system: the chooser, the influencer, the user, and anyone who is impacted by those roles<br />Challenge assumptions about who the organization is implicitly/explicitly designing for<br /><ul><li>Is that everyone?
    35. Do they even exist?</li></ul>Surface a broader sense – even prior to research – about who is affected by the product and who is being designed for<br />Is your “typical customer” real or aspirational?<br />
    36. Recruiting criteria: Demographics<br />Gender<br />Age<br />Life stage/lifestyle<br /><ul><li>Married
    37. Stage of family
    38. Retirement
    39. Not in the middle of a major life-change (unless that’s of interest)</li></ul>Dwelling<br /><ul><li>Suburban/urban/rural
    40. Apartment/living alone/ roommates/single family home</li></ul>Race<br /><ul><li>Reflect the population
    41. Reflect the user base</li></ul>Occupation<br /><ul><li>From outside the industries in question</li></ul>Income<br /><ul><li>Can afford the product in question</li></ul>Demographic factors are typically secondarywhen defining the sample<br />
    42. The screener<br />Screeners are very formal, linear documents<br /><ul><li>Typically used by market research recruiting agencies</li></ul>Screeners havetwo purposes…<br /><ul><li>Does the person fits your criteria?
    43. Convince them to participate</li></ul>…and three main sections<br /><ul><li>Introduction
    44. Checking off criteria
    45. Invitation to participate</li></li></ul><li>Recruiting criteria: The softer side<br />Whatever their relationship with the product/brand/service, you want the person to be engaged, have a point of view, care about the thing, and be articulate<br />
    46. Creative recruiting<br />Outside of the traditional method of working with a recruiting agency, there are other approaches<br /><ul><li>Friends and family/Social networks
    47. Snowball recruiting (participants find more participants)
    48. Craigslist
    49. Intercepts
    50. Etc.</li></ul>Pros and cons<br /><ul><li>Cheap but time-consuming
    51. Quick but harder to control and manage
    52. Likely to find “pure” participants but they might be too close to you</li></li></ul><li>Incentive<br />Enthusiastic thank-you rather than compensation<br /><ul><li>Recruiter will advise on best amount, depending on what you are asking for
    53. For a fee, they will handle sending a check, but I prefer the immediate gratification of an envelope of cash
    54. Include a thank-you note and even swag</li></ul>In B2B settings, be creative about who and how to incent<br /><ul><li>You may negotiate this on a per-site basis</li></li></ul><li>The interview guide (or field guide)<br />A detailed plan of what will happen in the interview<br /><ul><li>Questions, timing, activities, tasks, logistics, etc.</li></ul>Transforms questions-we-want-answers-to into questions-we-will-ask<br />Share with team to align on issues of concern<br /><ul><li>Especially with multiple teams in the field</li></ul>Helps you previsualizethe flow of the session<br /><ul><li>Include questions as well as other methods that you’ll use</li></ul>Prepping an interview guide means that you may not need to use the interview guide<br /><ul><li>This is counter-intuitive
    55. It does come in handy during freeze-up moments – scan it over to see what else you want to cover</li></li></ul><li>Four sections to the field guide<br />Introduction and Participant Background<br />Logistics, timing, objectives<br />The Main Body<br />Subsections for each area you plan to explore (e.g., configuration, learning about new features, etc.)<br />Projection/Dream Questions<br />Be audacious and ask about predictions for the future or ideal experiences<br />Wrap Up<br />Logistics, ask about anything they want to tell you that you didn’t ask about<br />
    56. Minimalist field guide<br />
    57. Detailed field guide<br />
    58. Include other methods<br />
    59. Documentation: photos<br />Plan to take lots of photos<br />They will reveal things you don’t remember noticing<br />Essential for storytelling<br />Make sure you have permission before you start snapping<br />
    60. Documentation: audio, video, notes<br />Essential to capture exactly what is said<br />Difficult (impossible) to maintain eye contact, manage interview, and write down everything<br /><ul><li>Potentially a role for a second interviewer</li></ul>Taking notes – not as the definitive record – can help you process, notice, think about follow-ups, etc.<br /><ul><li>I strongly recommend privileging being in-the-moment (e.g., eye contact, listening) over trying to capture everything yourself</li></li></ul><li>A release is a good idea<br />It clarifies the rights of the interviewee and your organization <br /><ul><li>Consent – participation is voluntary
    61. Incentive – what the participant gets but they are not an employee
    62. Model release – how images and video will be used
    63. Non-disclosure – in case you disclose anything in-progress</li></ul>These are legal documents<br /><ul><li>Will your legal department help you prepare it?
    64. Can you influence them to create consumer-friendly, light-weight versions
    65. Give participants their own copy at the outset of the interview</li></li></ul><li>Methods<br />
    66. Ask people how they would solve a problem<br />Participatory design<br />Doesn’t mean we implement the requested solution literally<br />“I wish it had a handle”<br />Many ways to solve the underlying need (“I need to move it around”)<br />Designers work with this data to generate alternatives<br />Engage people in the non-literal through games and role-playing<br />Uncover underlying principles and explore areas of opportunity that don’t yet exist<br />
    67. Show people a solution<br />Consider the difference betweentestingandexploring<br />Avoid “Do you like this?”<br />Don’t show your best guess at a solution; instead identify provocative examples to surface hidden desires and expectations<br />Make sure you are asking the right questions<br />What does this solution enable? What problems does it solve?<br />Especially for new products, needed before getting into specifics of your implementation<br />Image from Roberto and Worth1000.com <br />
    68. Use a range of methods<br />
    69. Workbook: Instructions<br />
    70. Workbook: Question and answer<br />
    71. Workbook: Text stimuli<br />
    72. Workbook: Visual stimuli<br />
    73. Workbook: Responses<br />
    74. Mapping<br />
    75. Storyboards<br />
    76. Mockups<br />
    77. Prototypes<br />
    78. Casual Card Sort<br />
    79. Methods can be a playground<br />We choose, mash-up, or create methods based on the problem, project constraints, and a desire to experiment<br /><ul><li>Build up a library of approaches and artifacts</li></ul>Portigal<br />Interviewing Users: Spinning Data into Gold<br />49<br />
    80. Break!<br />
    81. Interviewing<br />
    82. Principles inform tactics<br />I don't skate to where the puck is, I skate to where the puck is going to be – Wayne Gretzky<br />
    83. Fieldwork principles<br />Check your worldview at the door<br />Embrace how other people see the world<br />Build rapport<br />Listen<br />
    84. Check your worldview at the door<br />Before you start doing interviews, do a team-wide brain dump of all your assumptions and expectations<br /><ul><li>Get closely-held beliefs out of your heads
    85. You needn’t go back to verify your assumptions; goal is to make assumptions explicit</li></ul>Make the interview about the interview<br /><ul><li>As a transitional ritual, agree explicitly that you are going to Learn about Paul rather than Identify NextGen Opportunities for Roadmap</li></li></ul><li>Embrace how other people see the world<br />Go to where your users are rather than asking them to come to you<br />Nip distractions in the bud<br /><ul><li>Eat!
    86. Leave plenty of time so you aren’t rushed when you arrive
    87. Find a bathroom beforehand</li></ul>Be ready to ask questions you (think you) know the answers to<br /><ul><li>Think about: “When are your taxes due?”
    88. What do you know? What are you afraid they’ll say? What might you learn?</li></li></ul><li>Build rapport<br />Be selective about social graces<br /><ul><li>Just enough small talk
    89. Accept what you’re offered</li></ul>Be selective about talking about yourself<br /><ul><li>Reveal personal information to give them permission to share
    90. Otherwise, think “OMG! Me too!” without saying it</li></ul>Work towards the tipping point<br /><ul><li>From question-answer to question-story
    91. You won’t know when it’s coming; be patient</li></ul>Acknowledge the interview as something…unusual<br /><ul><li>“What I want to learn today…” over friendly chat</li></li></ul><li>Listen<br />You can demonstrate that you are listening by asking questions!<br /><ul><li>Follow-up, follow-up, follow-up
    92. “Earlier, you told us that…”
    93. “I want to go back to something else you said…”</li></ul>Signal your transitions: “Great, now I’d like to move onto a totally different topic”<br />This level of listening is not how we normally talk to each other<br /><ul><li>Remember that you are interviewing, not having a conversation
    94. This is really hard</li></li></ul><li>Listening body language<br />Yes!<br />Not so much.<br />
    95. Silence defeats awkwardness<br />After you ask your question, be silent<br /><ul><li>Don’t put the answers in the question</li></ul>After they’ve answered you, be silent<br />
    96. Use natural language<br />Talk like your subject talks!<br />
    97. Don’t make questions pass/fail (1/2)<br />Client: So the concept of transferring, burning, and syncing, can you talk a little about those three concepts? So transfer, burn, and sync. Just do you understand the difference?<br />Interviewee: Transfer, burn, sync. Burn is when I’m actually putting it onto some kind of disc.<br />Okay…<br />Transferring is I guess when I transfer the files from one place to the other.<br />Mm-hmm…<br />Whether it’s to a device or to a different drive or whatever or into the program I guess. And syncing, well, I know the phone always comes up and says it’s syncing, when it’s syncing up to the files or syncing up to the computer or stuff like that. That’s the only time I think I’ve ever really heard that.<br />(cont’d)<br />
    98. Don’t make questions pass/fail (2/2)<br />Client: So the only other question I have left in this area is: Would you expect to manually decide what music goes on your devices or would you rather that the machine does it for you?<br />Interviewee: Decide what I want on my…?<br />Let’s say your library is here on this machine, and you have a device, would you want it to put as much as it could put on from the library from the device when it’s connected to your computer?<br />If I could hold it… if the device itself could actually hold all the files, I would love that, if it automatically…<br />Just knew.<br />Just knew that it wasn’t on there, the same thing when…what do you call it - when I have to go into the program and actually have it… downl…uhh, now I’m confused in what I should call it.<br />No, no, don’t worry about it!<br />
    99. Don’t presume they accept your world view<br />Client: So, really interesting the sort of things that you as old Derek used to value, such as efficiency of time, and some of those things have now influenced the new Derek.<br />Derek: Right.<br />Steve: Maybe that sort of begs a larger question…We’ve offered you this idea of old versus new you, but how do you think about this transition?<br />Derek:Yeah, I don’t really see it.<br />
    100. If you want to fix something, wait until the end<br />Frustrating to watch users struggle with your product<br /><ul><li>Remember, you are there to learn from them</li></ul>You will lose the interview if you start taking their questions<br />When it’s time to go, show or tell them only what will help them<br />
    101. Find your personal style<br />The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator<br />
    102. Questions to gather context and collect details<br />
    103. Questions to probe on what’s unsaid<br />
    104. Questions to probe on what’s unsaid<br />
    105. Questions to uncover mental models<br />
    106. Why so many types of questions?<br />Real interviews aren’t as simple as asking a question, getting an answer, and then moving onto the next question in your list. <br />You are unlikely to get to the actual answer without asking a few different questions a few different ways. <br />You need a range of tools and techniques. And you need to feel when you haven’t got to the real answer yet so you can keep going<br />.<br />
    107. Prepare for exploding questions<br />Well, my cousin never tells me when she has an updated bank balance so I figured I would handle it myself. That’s why I signed up for the PayPal service, I think it’s them but maybe not.<br />Coping techniques<br />Wait until these issues come up organically, without you having to ask<br />Make notes on your field guide about what you want to loop back to so you don’t forget<br />Triage based on what’s most pressing for your topic<br />Triage based on what makes the best follow-up, to demonstrate listening<br />Why does this matter?<br />Let’s find out what service this is?!<br />Okay.<br />I decided I had to spend the money I had from last month in order to save month’s money and this service was going to help me do that. Even if it’s not the same password that my cousin would be using<br />I don’t understand her financial model…<br />Why does she expect that it would be the same?<br />
    108. Exploding questions can lead to a flow state<br />
    109. Managing others in the field<br />We lead a thirty-minute training session for everyone who will join us in the field<br />Field teams are ideally 2, at most 3<br />Ensure one person leads the interview and clarify the role of the “second interviewer”<br /><ul><li>They should ask questions, but stay in the “chapter” that we’re in</li></ul>During our debriefs, we offer feedback and coaching about the process, if possible<br />
    110. Getting better at interviewing<br />Practice with hallway or other serendipitous micro-interviews<br />Write surveys and participant screeners to practice crafting questions out of the moment <br />How do you get to Carnegie Hall?<br />Practice, man, practice!<br />
    111. Participant screeners as asking practice<br />A good way to practice both framing a question and the empathic exercise of thinking through the respondent’s user experience with that question<br />
    112. Write and take surveys<br />Develop your own critical eye (and interviewer’s voice) by looking for bad examples and identifying just what’s wrong with them<br />
    113. We learn from mistakes and mishaps<br />Collect and share war stories with other interviewers<br />THANX 4 NOTHING KITTEH<br />
    114. Interviewing Exercise<br />Get in groups of 3<br />You are in a startup looking for opportunities in…<br />Music – purpose/role/interests, technology, devices <br />Food, groceries, meals, nutrition<br />News – media, information, sources, purpose<br />Review sample interview guides<br /><ul><li>Imagine the flow
    115. Background, depth, reflection</li></ul>Three rounds of interviews, 10-12 minutes each <br /><ul><li>One interviewer, one interviewee, one observer
    116. Each person plays each role once
    117. Stay in the exercise!</li></ul>Group debrief<br />
    118. Giveaway #1<br />Everyone gets a license for TechSmith’s screen capture tool Snagit<br />Expect it by email in a couple of weeks<br />Everyone gets 3 tests from UserTesting.com<br />Use code uxworkshop; expires in 2 weeks<br />Draw<br />2 licenses for TechSmith’sCamtasia (Mac/PC)<br />1 license for Techsmith’sMorae (PC)<br />
    119. Lunch<br />
    120. (The rest of) today<br />Introduction 9:00 – 9:10<br />Best Practices Overview 9:10 – 10:00<br />Methods10:00 – 10:30<br />Break10:30 – 10:45<br />Interviewing 10:45 – 11:30<br />Interviewing Exercise11:30 – 12:15<br />Lunch!<br />Observation Exercise 1:15 – 2:00<br />Synthesis 2:00 – 2:45<br />Break2:45 – 3:00<br />Ideation3:00 – 4:00<br />Share4:00 – 4:30<br />Q&A + Wrap-up 4:30 – 5:00<br />
    121. Homework/Observation Exercise<br />
    122. Homework Check-in<br />Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and observing people in your neighborhood<br />Props to Dylan, Caroline, and David!<br />
    123. Homework Check-in<br />Who was able to do the assignment?<br />Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational fieldwork?<br />Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research in the field?<br />
    124. Observing<br />Notice what… people, places<br />Notice how… processes, sequences, interactions<br />Suspend your point of view<br />Avoid conclusions<br />Allow confusion<br />Do it “out loud”<br />Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell because he looks like he may be a little confused.<br />
    125. You’re observing people within their culture. Notice how cultural artifacts reflect and define the environment; and reveal what is “normal”<br />Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s the set of background rules that define much of what people choose or ignore<br />Media<br />Products<br />Advertisements<br />Street Culture<br />Trends/Fads<br />Cultural context<br />What are they selling?<br />
    126. Cultural context<br />
    127. Cultural context<br />
    128. Cultural context<br />
    129. Your mission: Imagine you are working on a project for Gentrific8, looking for ideas to redevelop parts Seattle around downtown and the Central Library.<br />Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up<br />Wander and observe people, interactions and environments<br />Do it out loud!<br />Capture (photos, notes)<br />What, who, where, when?<br />Why, how?<br />This is not a design audit of signage or merchandise displays<br />Exercise: Explore! <br />
    130. Neighborhood observations: Noe Valley, San Fran<br />
    131. Neighborhood observations: Noe Valley, San Fran<br />
    132. Neighborhood observations: Montara, California<br />
    133. Be back by 2:25!<br />Exercise: Explore! <br />
    134. Synthesis: From data to insights<br />
    135. Analysis<br />Synthesis<br />Ideation<br />Solutions<br />Strategies<br />Opportunities<br />Detailed solutions<br />Insights<br />Synthesis & ideation process<br />
    136. Fieldwork<br />Synthesis<br />Ideation<br />Development<br />Why a process?<br />
    137. Avoid jumping to conclusions<br />
    138. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense<br />e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories<br />
    139. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis<br />Combining multiple pieces into something new <br />e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities<br />Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense<br />e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories<br />
    140. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis<br />The process gradually moves from one to the other<br />Combining multiple pieces into something new <br />e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities<br />Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense<br />e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories<br />
    141. Analthesis????<br />Combining multiple pieces into something new <br />e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities<br />Synthesis<br />Analysis<br />Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense<br />e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories<br />
    142. Sense-makingthrough an iterativeprocess of refining gathered data<br />Early, Informaldata in your head<br />First, process the experience you had collecting data<br />Refer to debriefs and conversations<br />Articulate and identify themes<br />Outcome: Topline Report<br />Process-based, Formalheavy lifting<br />Then, process the data itself<br />Individual and group analysis<br />Pattern-identification, clustering, models, frameworks<br />Outcome: Opportunities<br />More narratively, what is synthesis?<br />Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat<br />
    143. Synthesis naturally begins inthe field<br />Resist meaning (for now)<br />Focus on observations<br />Get the detail<br />Create time to talk after each fieldwork experience<br />Worksheet to facilitate the debrief<br />Write up real-timesummaries for the team, ASAP<br />In-field debriefing<br />Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild.<br />
    144. After fieldwork, collate reflections and quickly externalize a starter set of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on<br />Pre-identified areas of inquiry<br />Refer to debriefs and conversations from the field<br />New patterns that we observed<br />Identify interesting areas; acknowledge that you don’t understand details yet, identify questions<br />Outcome: Topline Report<br />All right researchers… what did you see?<br />Early, informal synthesis (data in your head)<br />
    145. This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and brings focus to the next stage of synthesis<br />The Topline Report<br />
    146. Go back through your raw data very closely to move beyond the Topline Report <br />Individually (heads-down) and collaboratively (heads-up) develop clusters, identify patterns, collate and refine findings<br />Process maps, eco-systems<br />Frameworks, models<br />Design implications<br />i.e.: What did other public announcements in the study look like? What are the layers of information and cultural context? What form factors are favored? Why?<br />Process-based, formal synthesis (heavy lifting)<br />
    147. Heads down!<br /><ul><li>Video
    148. Photos, field artifacts
    149. Transcripts
    150. DV->MP3->FTP->.docx
    151. We use Chromolume</li></ul>Transcript analysis<br /><ul><li>Make marginal notes on patterns, quotes, or what seems interesting
    152. Ask yourself questions; give labels; propose solutions
    153. Don’t worry about implications, be descriptive and reactive</li></ul>Individual analysis (not today…)<br />
    154. If you can’t get transcripts, watch video/listen to audio (even sped-up) and in near real-time jot down the rough narrative of the session<br /><ul><li>When you make an observation in your own voice, do something typographic to call it out (ALL CAPS, highlight, etc.)</li></ul>Individual analysis (not today…)<br />
    155. Heads up! <br />Present each interview (etc.) as a case study. Introduce each, and pick out the provocative highlights.<br />Voice and document reactions, a-has, support and questions<br />Clustering with stickies<br />White-board notes<br />Develop a new shared point-of-view, beyond “findings”<br />Collaborative analysis<br />
    156. Easy to scan for patterns and relationships<br />Play with data by rearranging individual elements<br />Lo-fi way to makes data tangible, visible, and sharable<br />Sticky work<br />
    157. As you are telling stories, quickly get the key points (notes, themes, observations, quotes) up<br />Code with the source (interview name, etc.)<br />Separate what was observed from what you think it means<br />Write big and try to code visually (e.g. colored dots, colored post-its, symbols)<br />Sticky work<br />
    158. Group stuff<br />Be opportunistic, using whatever makes sense at first<br />You may want to re-use your topline headings or you may want to be fresh <br />Initial groupings may be “All things related to shopping” or “what people are doing” or “what people are feeling” or “pain points”<br />Sticky work<br />
    159. Sticky work<br />Re-group stuff<br />Now, go back and re-group at a higher level<br />What it means<br />What people are trying to accomplish (i.e., needs/motivations/goals)<br />
    160. Sticky work<br />Name your groups<br />These themes are the points of view you will carry forward<br /><ul><li>Individual stickies are supporting evidence you can return to</li></li></ul><li>Play with possible models and frameworks<br />Relationship to other data<br />Frequency<br />Timeline<br />The 2 x 2<br />
    161. Spreadsheet analysis enables immersive refinement of data<br />Play with data by generating alternate views of the dataset<br />Rewrite each sticky in a cell (adding commentary, explanation, context, quote)<br />Processing each entry allows further synthesis and thought<br />More individual analysis<br />Categories of columns will vary by project<br />Comment comes from rewritten sticky<br />Tag each comment with person, segment, market etc. to allow you to manipulate data<br />
    162. Uncover patterns through additional layers of keywords<br />Prioritize and better understand themes and relationships<br />Search for quotes and evidence as you transition to writing presentation<br />Go back to your data in search of more insights or further inspiration<br />More individual analysis<br />Coding entries with keywords builds a taxonomy for future reference<br />Spreadsheet tools let you see data in different ways<br />Use themes from sticky work and/or presentation sections to reveal relationships and shore up shaky thinking<br />
    163. Opportunities are not <br />A reporting of “interesting findings” <br />A list of solutions<br />Opportunities are<br />Change we can envision based on what we heard and observed<br />About people<br />In the context of, but reframing the business questions<br />Generative, inviting many solutions<br />Keep the human touch in communication<br />Allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />Developing opportunities<br />What should we do?<br />
    164. Topline <br />Summary of analthesis activities<br />Opportunities<br />Collaborative Analysis<br />Individual Analysis<br />Individual Analysis<br />Keep the human touch in communication<br />Allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />Externalize the data in your head<br />The heavy lifting<br />Determine generative directions<br />Play with the entire data set<br />Play with individual data elements<br />
    165. Get in groups of 4<br />Quickly review what happened (today and from your homework) and what you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the urge to move too far towards conclusions<br />Don’t refer to notes or photos yet<br />Keep your own experiences, existing hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the background<br />Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline Report” sketching out the big takeaways, leading into further synthesis<br />Don’t fuss over exact wording<br />Exercise: Develop a topline (7 minutes)<br />All right researchers… what did you see?<br />
    166. Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out and enrich themes<br />Write your themes and put them up<br />Leave space for new ones<br />Now (!) tell stories from the field (from your neighborhood and today), using photos, notes and memory<br />Rethink the relationships between the themes, pick your strongest themes and write a sentence with a point of view<br />Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public spaces in the neighborhood are used to communicate identity and belongingness”<br />Exercise: Develop findings (7 minutes)<br />
    167. Build on your findings<br />Start each opportunity with a verb<br />Opportunities are not <br />A reporting of “interesting findings” <br />A list of solutions<br />Opportunities are<br />Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe<br />About people<br />In the context of but reframing the business questions<br />Generative, inviting many solutions<br />Exercise: Identify opportunities (7 minutes)<br />Keep the human touch in communication<br />Allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />Keep the human touch in communication<br />Allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />What should we do?<br />What should we do?<br />
    168. Break!<br />
    169. Ideation: From insights to solutions<br />
    170. A simple step moves you from Opportunities to Ideation Questions, reframing them into actionable language <br />How can we<br />keep the human touch in communication<br />allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />How can we<br />How can we<br />Ideate!<br />Ideation questions<br />
    171. Scope of solutions<br />Solutions exist across many different business areas <br />Functionality<br />Visual design<br />Marketing<br />Architecture<br />Public Services<br />Partnerships<br />Events<br />Software<br />Form factor<br />Packaging<br />Policy<br />Retail design<br />Even if you are unlikely to impact certain business areas, it’s crucial that you set that constraint aside for ideation<br />How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?<br />
    172. Developing strategies<br />Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions<br />Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet <br />Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke<br />Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?<br />Support underlying needs and behavior by embracing the finding<br />Question needs and behavior, seek change by challenging the finding<br />Create a protected environment for smoking<br />Eliminate smoking<br />
    173. Strategies can inspire solutions<br />Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet <br />Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke<br />Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?<br />Strategies<br />Create a protected environment for smoking<br />Eliminate smoking<br />Solutions<br />FacilitiesBuild a pavilion<br />AdminAllocate interior room<br />PartnersAlign with nearby cafe<br />OnlineSmoking cessation games<br />AdminBan smoking<br />PartnersStop smoking coaches<br />
    174. Solutions can suggest strategies<br />Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet <br />Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke<br />Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?<br />Strategies<br />Create a protected environment for smoking<br />Eliminate smoking<br />Solutions<br />AdminAllocate interior room<br />AdminBan smoking<br />
    175. Collaborative generation<br />This is a collective, out-loud activity! Talk, listen, build on each other’s ideas<br />Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it may lead to a “good” idea<br />Don’t correct; generate alternatives<br />“Yes, and…”<br />This is a visual activity! Sketch, draw…<br />Quantity over quality; go quickly<br />Individual ideas matter less than what the collective produces overall<br />How can a sour lemon help keep things working smoothly?<br />
    176. Stuck?<br />Come up with bad ideas<br />Immoral<br />Dangerous<br />Bad for business<br />
    177. Don’t forget your second wind<br />Pace of idea generation<br />Obvious but necessary, problem-solving, need-filling, low-hanging fruit<br />Time<br />
    178. Don’t forget your second wind<br />Pace of idea generation<br />Obvious but necessary, problem-solving, need-filling, low-hanging fruit<br />Wacky, transgressive, innovative, breakthrough, weird<br />Time<br />
    179. Summary of ideation exercises<br />Questions Business Areas Ideation and Sharing<br /> 2 minutes 3 minutes 40 minutes 30 minutes<br />How can we<br />keep the human touch in communication<br />allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />How can we<br />How can we<br />Ideate!<br />Shift to “How can we…?”<br />Figure out where we can play<br />Remember, “Yes, and…”<br />
    180. Exercise: Ideation questions (2 minutes)<br />Apply How can we…? to each of your Opportunities<br />How can we<br />keep the human touch in communication<br />allow people to move seamlessly between places<br />allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems<br />How can we<br />How can we<br />Ideate!<br />
    181. Exercise: Business areas (3 minutes)<br />Let’s collectively list possible business areas to design for<br />Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do or affect<br />Use this list as a starting point<br />Functionality<br />Visual design<br />Marketing<br />Architecture<br />Public Services<br />Partnerships<br />Events<br />Software<br />Form factor<br />Packaging<br />Policy<br />Retail design<br />Incentives<br />How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?<br />
    182. Exercise: Ideation (40 minutes)<br />Use your ideation questions to generate strategies and solutions<br />Out loud<br />Visual<br />Collaborative<br />Consider the range of possible business areas<br />Bounce back and forth between generating strategies and solutions<br />Most ideas will not turn out to be winners; the goal is to practice connecting research data to solutions<br />Apply lemon as needed.<br />Don’t forget your second wind<br />
    183. Exercise: Prepare to share (2 minutes)<br />Rapidly align on your team’s best ideas and message<br />Choose a messenger<br />The wise team will choose a bold, expressive spokesperson<br />
    184. Exercise: Pitch it back! <br />
    185. Prioritization<br />
    186. Big group voting<br />
    187. Small group ranking…and reconciliation<br />Ranking factors may even include how clear the idea is<br />Color indicates voting winner<br />
    188. Wrap Up<br />
    189. How experts use frameworks<br />Fieldwork<br />Synthesis<br />Ideation<br />Development<br />
    190. 2-3 weeks<br />2-3 weeks<br />2-3 weeks<br />Who do you want to talk to?<br />What do you want to do with them?<br />Do something with the data!<br />Typical timelines<br />Fieldwork<br />Screening criteria, recruiting<br />Methodology, field guide, stimuli<br />Analysis, synthesis, design<br />Interviews, self-reporting, debriefs<br />When working in tighter timeframes, consider where you want to cut back. Be mindful of the tradeoffs!<br />
    191. Going rogue<br />1 day?!<br />1 day?!<br />2 days?!!<br />Who do you want to talk to?<br />What do you want to do with them?<br />Do something with the data!<br />Fieldwork<br />Who can you get? Co-workers, intercepts on the street or in the mall, etc. <br />Wide-eyed observation, winging it<br />Debrief<br />Small sample, massively parallel data gathering<br />
    192. Coming in 2012!<br />A book by Steve Portigal<br />The Art and Craft of User Research Interviewing<br />http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/user-interviews/ <br />
    193. I’ve got a tip (that you didn’t cover) that works well for me…<br />Yeah, I’ve got a question for ya…<br />One new thing I learned today is…<br />
    194. Brought to you by<br />
    195. Giveaway #2<br />Draw<br />8 Rosenfeld Media titles<br />Steve Krug’s Rocket Surgery Made Easy<br />UserTesting t-shirt(s) etc.<br />
    196. Thank you!<br />Portigal Consulting<br />www.portigal.com<br />@steveportigal<br />steve@portigal.com<br />415-894-2001<br />

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