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WEATHER DATA
VIRTUAL, IN-FIELD, OR REGIONAL
NETWORK—DOES IT MATTER?
Dave Brown, PhD
METER Group, Inc. USA
DOES IT MATTER?
WHAT USE? WHAT CROP?
3
Integrated Pest Management
Crop Models
Irrigation
Frost
Pesticide Drift
Labor Management
WEATHER DATA
SOURCES
GLOBAL MODELS
NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION
5
Mathematical modeling of atmospheric physics
• Forecast models @ time zero
Multiple governmental models
• Fundamentally NOT site-specific
Derivative commercial grid products
• Ensemble methods (combining models)
• Statistical/Interpolation methods
“Virtual”
Weather Stations
WEATHER STATION NETWORKS
MESONETS+
6
Monitor regional weather
• Open, level, unobstructed area with grass cover
Long-term record
• Standard configuration, high-quality measurements
Not intended to monitor microclimate!
SITE-SPECIFIC STATION
MICROCLIMATE + MANAGEMENT
7
ORCHARD EFFECTS
Zagrodnik, Brown, Kalcsits, & Khot (2020-2023)
8
4 high-density
apple orchards
Average paired
in-out difference
SITE-SPECIFIC STATION
OUTSIDE CANOPY?
9
Key outside measurements
• Wind – drift regulations
• Evapotranspiration
Wear and tear
Reference for management effects
Train site-specific forecast!
GDD COMPARISON
10
0 days
5 days
8 days
15 days
VIRTUAL WEATHER DATA
EVALUATION
VIRTUAL VS. REAL STATION
AgWeatherNet COMPARISON
12
156 Weather Stations, 2012-2020
• Duplicate air temperature sensors
Daily high and low air temperature comparison
• N = 445,102 daily comparisons
Zagrodnik and Brown, 2020
https://extension.wsu.edu/wam/can-virtual-weather-stations-replace-real-weather-stations
VIRTUAL VS. REAL STATION
DAILY HIGH/LOW COMPARISON
13
Virtual station not good if accurate real-time air temperature is required
• e.g., frost, pollen tube, etc.
VIRTUAL VS. REAL STATION
SYSTEMATIC SITE BIAS
14
Individual sites can be systematically off by a substantial amount
VIRTUAL VS. REAL STATION
SITE BIAS STABILITY
15
Virtual biases
can change from
year to year
VIRTUAL VS. REAL STATION
GDD BASE 50°F
16
1248 Station-Years
74% of sites had a 5+ day miss at least once in 8 years
VIRTUAL WEATHER DATA
17
How do growers “correct”
weather data?
VIRTUAL + WEATHER STATIONS
18
QUESTIONS?
Dave Brown
Director of Pomology
METER Group, Inc.
2365 NE Hopkins Ct, Pullman, WA 99163
T 509.332.5984
E sales.environment@metergroup.com
W www.metergroup.com
Weather Data: Virtual, In-Field, or Regional Network—Does It Matter?

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