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VERBS
Regular and Irregular Verbs
 Verbs can be regular or irregular.
 Regular verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed.
 Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
 Walk -- walked -- walked
 laugh -- laughed -- laughed
 paint -- painted -- painted
What Are Regular Verbs?
 A regular verb is one that conforms to the usual rule for forming
its simple past tense and its past participle.
 In English, the "usual" rule is to add "-ed" or "-d" to the base
form of the verb to create the past forms.
For example,
 "bake" is a regular verb because the past tense is "baked" and the
future tense is "will bake.“
 However, a word such as "write" is an irregular verb, because the
past tense form is not "writed," but is rather "wrote.“
Spelling Rules for Creating the Past
Forms of Regular Verbs
 For regular verbs, the "simple past tense" and "past particle" are
formed like this: Add "ed" to most verbs:
jump > jumped paint > painted
 If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant], double
the final consonant and add "ed":
chat > chatted stop > stopped
 If the final consonant is "w," "x," or "y," don't double it:
sew > sewed play > played fix > fixed
-----Spelling Rules
 If the last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-vowel-
consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed":
incur > incurred prefer > preferred
 If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends [consonant-
vowel-consonant], just add "ed":open > opened
enter > entered swallow > swallowed
 If the verb ends "e," just add "d": thrive > thrived
guzzle > guzzled
 If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and add "ed":
cry > cried fry > fried
Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs form their past tense and past participle in a
different way from adding ed.
 Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle
 Sit -- sat – sat
 Ring -- rang -- rung
 Come -- came – come
 Cut -- cut -- cut
What is difference between tense and
participle?
 A verb tense indicates when the action is taking place—in
the past, present or future.
 A verb participle does not indicate the time frame of an
action. In fact, participle verbs don't focus on action at all.
 When a verb is put in its participle form, it actually functions
as an adjective that describes a noun.
Types of Irregular Verbs
 We distinguish three types of irregular verbs:
(1) Verbs in which all three forms are the same (e.g. cut -
cut - cut)
(2) Verbs in which two of the three forms are the same (e.g.
sit - sat - sat)
(3) Verbs in which all three forms are different (e.g. ring -
rang - rung)
Type (1) - All three forms are the same-
--
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Bet bet Bet burst burst burst
Cost cost cost Cut cut cut
Hit hit hit Hurt hurt hurt
Let let let put put put
Read read read Set set set
Shut shut shut Split split split
Spread spread spread
Type(2) - Two of the forms are the
same
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Beat Beat beaten Become became become
Bend bent bent Bleed bled bled
Breed bred bred Bring brought brought
Build built built Burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
Buy bought bought Catch caught caught
Come came come Creep crept crept
Deal dealt dealt Dream dreamt/
dreamed
dreamt/
dreamed
Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Feed fed fed Feel felt felt
Fight fought fought Find found found
Get got got Hang hung hung
Have had -- had Hear heard heard
Hold held held Lay laid laid
Lead led led Lean lent/leaned lent/leaned
Learn learnt/learned learnt/learned Leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Leave left left Lend lent lent
Light lit lit Lose lost lost
Make made made Mean meant meant
Meet met met Pay paid paid
Run ran run Say said said
Sell sold sold Send sent sent
Shine shone shone Shoot shot shot
Sit sat sat Sleep slept slept
Smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled Speed sped sped
Spell spelt spelt Spend spent spent
Spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled Speed sped sped
Type 3: All three forms are different
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Begin began begun Bite -- bit -- bitten
Drive drove driven Eat -- ate eaten
Fall fell fallen Fly flew flown
Forbid forbade forbidden Forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven freeze -- froze frozen
give gave given go -- went gone
grow grew grown hide -- hid – hidden
know knew known lie -- lay – lain
mistake mistook mistaken ride -- rode ridden
swim swam swum take -- took -- taken
tear tore torn throw threw -- thrown
-----Type 3
Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle
Be was/were been shake shook shaken
Blow blew blown show showed shown
Break broke broken shrink shrank shrunk
Choose chose chosen sing sang sung
Do did done sink sank sunk
Draw drew drawn speak spoke spoken
Drink drank drunk spring sprang sprung
ring rang rung steal stole stolen
see saw seen stink stank stunk
rise rose risen swear swore sworn
 The following verbs have an alternative past participle form (ending in
en), which can only be used adjectivally.
 Verb -- Usual Past Participle -- Adjectival Past Participle
 Drink -- drunk -- drunken
 Melt -- melted -- molten
 Prove -- proved – proven
 Shave -- shaved -- shaven
 Shear -- sheared – shorn
 Shrink -- shrunk – shrunken
 Sink -- sunk -- sunken
 Strike -- struck -- stricken
Practice: Compare the following:
A B
The iron has melted. A molten iron
He has proved it. A proven fact
He has shaved off his beard. A clean-shaved face
They have sheared the sheep. a shorn sheep
The cloth has shrunk. a shrunken head
The ship has sunk. a sunken ship
The clock has struck five. a grief-stricken widow
Practice Exercise:
Fill in the Past Tense or Past Participle of verb given:-
1- See -- It is years since I --- him. He has --- his best days.
2- Fall -- Of late the custom has --- into disuse. The lot --- upon him.
3- Drink -- The toast was --- with great enthusiasm.
4- Speak -- He --- freely when he was drunk. Punjabi is ---- in Punjab.
5- Wear -- My patience --- out at last. The inscription has --- away in several places.
6- Tear -- In a fit of rage she --- up the letter. The country is --- by factions.
7- Sting -- He has been --- by a scorpion. The remark --- him.
8- Run -- You look as if you had --- all the way home. He --- for his life.
9- Forget -- Once Sydney Smith, being asked his name by the servant, found to his
dismay that he had --- his own name.
10- Come -- Computer technology has --- a long way since the 1970s.
11- Bite -- The old beggar was --- by a mad dog. A mad dog --- him.
12- Write -- I think he should have --- and told us. Honesty is --- on his face.

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verbs, regular irregular.pptx

  • 2. Regular and Irregular Verbs  Verbs can be regular or irregular.  Regular verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed.  Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle  Walk -- walked -- walked  laugh -- laughed -- laughed  paint -- painted -- painted
  • 3. What Are Regular Verbs?  A regular verb is one that conforms to the usual rule for forming its simple past tense and its past participle.  In English, the "usual" rule is to add "-ed" or "-d" to the base form of the verb to create the past forms. For example,  "bake" is a regular verb because the past tense is "baked" and the future tense is "will bake.“  However, a word such as "write" is an irregular verb, because the past tense form is not "writed," but is rather "wrote.“
  • 4. Spelling Rules for Creating the Past Forms of Regular Verbs  For regular verbs, the "simple past tense" and "past particle" are formed like this: Add "ed" to most verbs: jump > jumped paint > painted  If a verb of one syllable ends [consonant-vowel-consonant], double the final consonant and add "ed": chat > chatted stop > stopped  If the final consonant is "w," "x," or "y," don't double it: sew > sewed play > played fix > fixed
  • 5. -----Spelling Rules  If the last syllable of a longer verb is stressed and ends [consonant-vowel- consonant], double the last consonant and add "ed": incur > incurred prefer > preferred  If the first syllable of a longer verb is stressed and the verb ends [consonant- vowel-consonant], just add "ed":open > opened enter > entered swallow > swallowed  If the verb ends "e," just add "d": thrive > thrived guzzle > guzzled  If the verb ends [consonant + "y"], change the "y" to an "i" and add "ed": cry > cried fry > fried
  • 6. Irregular Verbs Irregular verbs form their past tense and past participle in a different way from adding ed.  Base Form -- Past Tense -- Past Participle  Sit -- sat – sat  Ring -- rang -- rung  Come -- came – come  Cut -- cut -- cut
  • 7. What is difference between tense and participle?  A verb tense indicates when the action is taking place—in the past, present or future.  A verb participle does not indicate the time frame of an action. In fact, participle verbs don't focus on action at all.  When a verb is put in its participle form, it actually functions as an adjective that describes a noun.
  • 8. Types of Irregular Verbs  We distinguish three types of irregular verbs: (1) Verbs in which all three forms are the same (e.g. cut - cut - cut) (2) Verbs in which two of the three forms are the same (e.g. sit - sat - sat) (3) Verbs in which all three forms are different (e.g. ring - rang - rung)
  • 9. Type (1) - All three forms are the same- -- Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Bet bet Bet burst burst burst Cost cost cost Cut cut cut Hit hit hit Hurt hurt hurt Let let let put put put Read read read Set set set Shut shut shut Split split split Spread spread spread
  • 10. Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Beat Beat beaten Become became become Bend bent bent Bleed bled bled Breed bred bred Bring brought brought Build built built Burn burnt/burned burnt/burned Buy bought bought Catch caught caught Come came come Creep crept crept Deal dealt dealt Dream dreamt/ dreamed dreamt/ dreamed
  • 11. Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Feed fed fed Feel felt felt Fight fought fought Find found found Get got got Hang hung hung Have had -- had Hear heard heard Hold held held Lay laid laid Lead led led Lean lent/leaned lent/leaned Learn learnt/learned learnt/learned Leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
  • 12. Type(2) - Two of the forms are the same Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Leave left left Lend lent lent Light lit lit Lose lost lost Make made made Mean meant meant Meet met met Pay paid paid Run ran run Say said said Sell sold sold Send sent sent Shine shone shone Shoot shot shot Sit sat sat Sleep slept slept Smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled Speed sped sped Spell spelt spelt Spend spent spent Spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled Speed sped sped
  • 13. Type 3: All three forms are different Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Begin began begun Bite -- bit -- bitten Drive drove driven Eat -- ate eaten Fall fell fallen Fly flew flown Forbid forbade forbidden Forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven freeze -- froze frozen give gave given go -- went gone grow grew grown hide -- hid – hidden know knew known lie -- lay – lain mistake mistook mistaken ride -- rode ridden swim swam swum take -- took -- taken tear tore torn throw threw -- thrown
  • 14. -----Type 3 Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Be was/were been shake shook shaken Blow blew blown show showed shown Break broke broken shrink shrank shrunk Choose chose chosen sing sang sung Do did done sink sank sunk Draw drew drawn speak spoke spoken Drink drank drunk spring sprang sprung ring rang rung steal stole stolen see saw seen stink stank stunk rise rose risen swear swore sworn
  • 15.  The following verbs have an alternative past participle form (ending in en), which can only be used adjectivally.  Verb -- Usual Past Participle -- Adjectival Past Participle  Drink -- drunk -- drunken  Melt -- melted -- molten  Prove -- proved – proven  Shave -- shaved -- shaven  Shear -- sheared – shorn  Shrink -- shrunk – shrunken  Sink -- sunk -- sunken  Strike -- struck -- stricken
  • 16. Practice: Compare the following: A B The iron has melted. A molten iron He has proved it. A proven fact He has shaved off his beard. A clean-shaved face They have sheared the sheep. a shorn sheep The cloth has shrunk. a shrunken head The ship has sunk. a sunken ship The clock has struck five. a grief-stricken widow
  • 17. Practice Exercise: Fill in the Past Tense or Past Participle of verb given:- 1- See -- It is years since I --- him. He has --- his best days. 2- Fall -- Of late the custom has --- into disuse. The lot --- upon him. 3- Drink -- The toast was --- with great enthusiasm. 4- Speak -- He --- freely when he was drunk. Punjabi is ---- in Punjab. 5- Wear -- My patience --- out at last. The inscription has --- away in several places. 6- Tear -- In a fit of rage she --- up the letter. The country is --- by factions. 7- Sting -- He has been --- by a scorpion. The remark --- him. 8- Run -- You look as if you had --- all the way home. He --- for his life. 9- Forget -- Once Sydney Smith, being asked his name by the servant, found to his dismay that he had --- his own name. 10- Come -- Computer technology has --- a long way since the 1970s. 11- Bite -- The old beggar was --- by a mad dog. A mad dog --- him. 12- Write -- I think he should have --- and told us. Honesty is --- on his face.