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JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY , JAIPUR

  Name :           Rajneesh
   Roll No. :      5EE42
   Subject :       Practical
 Training
                   Seminar - 1
   Session :       2011-12
TRACTION
     MOTOR
INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL SHED RATLAM
             Diesel Shed Ratlam(M.P.) is established on 1
   may 1967. It is awarded with ISO 9001-2000 and ISO
   14001-1996 certificate firstly in western railway. It is
   located on main line between Delhi and Mumbai. Shed
   is a place where maintenance and repair of locomotive
   is done. As on today ,the shed has holding of 140
   diesel locos.
             The entire diesel shed is divided into mainly
   two sections :
(1) Mechanical Section

(2) Electrical Section
LOCOMOTIVE AND ITS TYPE

                Locomotive is an automatic device
   which kept on steel frame having ability to run on
   rails and has power to pull passenger as well as
   goods trains.
                Locomotives are of three types :
(1) Steam Locomotive

(2) Diesel Electric Locomotive

(3) Electric Locomotive
(1) STEAM LOCOMOTIVE
             Steam locomotive played a key role
 during development and golden age of railroading.
 Steam locomotive is a self contained power unit
 consisting of a steam engine , a boiler with fuel and
 water supplies. Superheated steam is admitted to
 the cyllinders by a suitable valve arrangement and
 the pressure on the pistons being transmitted
 through main rod to the driving wheels. The
 superheated steam is controlled by a throttle.
Steam locomotive has been replaced in developed
   nations by electric locomotives and diesel- electric
   locomotives because of following disadvantages of
   steam locomotive :
(a) It has strictly limited overload capacity.

(b) It has very low thermal efficiency of about 6-8%
     because installation of a condenser on locomotive is
     very difficult.
(c) It is available for hauling work for about 60% of its
     working days, remaining 40% being spent in preparing
     for service, in maintence and overhaul.
(2) DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
          Diesel electric locomotives were introduced firstly
 in united states in 1924 and have become the most
 widely used type of locomotive. It was introduced for
 first time in India in 1958.
         Diesel electric locomotive has electric drive in
 form of traction motors driving the axles and controlled
 with electronic controls. It differs from electric
 locomotives principally in that it has its own generating
 station instead of being connected to a remote
 generating station through overhead wires. The
 generating station consists of a large diesel engine
 coupled to dc generator that provides power to traction
 motors. These motors drive the driving wheels.
TRAIN WITH DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
Advantages: (a) It provides high starting
  acceleration in comparison to steam locomotive.
(b) It is more efficient than a steam locomotive.
Disadvantages: (a) It is costlier than either steam or
  electric locomotive for same power.
(b) Life of diesel engine is shorter comparatively.
(c) Regenerative braking cannot be employed though
  rheostatic can be.
(d) Overload capacity is limited because diesel
  engine is a constant output prime mover.
(3) ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
            Electric locomotives generally have two or
   more dc or ac motors. In these locomotives , power
   is collected from an electric trolley which is running
   on an overhead wire. The overhead wire can carry
   both types of supply ac as well as dc. Indian railway
   also uses both types of supply systems :
(a) AC system- 25 kv single phase 50 hz ac supply
(b) DC system- 1500 V dc supply
            Only western zone and central zone of
     railway
 uses dc system.
TRAIN WITH ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
Advantages: (a) It does not produce any smoke and
  flue gases, so it is most suited for undergrounds
  trains.
(b) The maintenance cost of electric locomotive is
  lower than steam locomotive.
(c) Traction motors used in it have very high starting
  torqe.
(d) Regenerative braking is used for ac systems.
(e) An electric locomotive can be started in a moment
  but a steam locomotive takes about 2 hours to
  heat.
Disadvantages: (a) Electric traction has high initial
  cost of laying out overhead electric supply system.
(b) Power failure for few minutes can cause traffic
  dislocation for hours.
(c) Communication lines which usually run parallel to
  the power supply lines suffer from electrical
  interference.
(d) Electric locomotive can be use only on those
  routes which have been electrified.
DC SYSTEM OF RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION
        In dc system with overhead catenary, dc
 traction motors are supplied 1500 V DC by
 catenary. In overhead electrification systems,
 electricity is supplied through an overhead system
 of suspended cable which is known as catenary.
 Indian Railway uses catenaries of constant tension
 type. At one end of each section of catenary the
 cable connects to a pulley by going over this ,is
 terminated by hanging a weight. Catenary wires are
 usually made of copper alloys such as cadmium-
 copper which has high tensile strength of 63 kg per
 sequare mm.
For transmission of 1500 V DC by overhead
wire, substations are made and they are located 40
km apart with each other. These substations
receive power from 132 kv ,3-phase network. At
these substations, this high-voltage 3-phase supply
is converted into low-voltage 1-phase supply with
help of Scott-connected 3-phase transformers. Next
this low voltage ac is converted into 1500 V DC by
using suitable rectifiers. The dc supply so obtained
is fed to dc traction motors via suitable contact.
Advantages of dc system over 1-φ ac system:
(a) DC system does not cause electrical interference with
    overhead communication lines.
(b) DC motors are better suited for frequent and rapid
    acceleration of heavy trains than ac motors.
(c) DC train equipment is lighter, less costly and more
    efficient than similar ac equipment.
(d) When operating under similar conditions, dc trains
    consumes less energy than 1-φ ac train.
Disadvantage: Only one disadvantage is the necessity
    of locating ac/dc conversion substations at short
    distance apart.
TRACTION MOTOR

(1) Description: The traction motor is a four pole
  DC series motor in which field winding is connected
  in series with armature. It is a forced ventilated
  machine arranged for axle mounting on sleeve
  bearing. Transverse movement is limited by the
  flanges of axle suspension bearing. An electric
  locomotive as well as diesel-electric locomotive in
  indian railway contain six dc traction motors at
  once.
(2) Construction: The armature core is made from
  high permeability silicon steel stampings and these
  stampings are separated by thin coating of varnish
  as insulation with each other. The armature is lap
  wounded with 100% equalization.
             The commutator is built up with hard
  drawn silver bearing copper segment which are
  insulated with micanite segment. After the
  commutator is statically and dynamically seasoned
  to insure stability ,the complete armature is
  dynamically balanced.
The high permeability cast steel magnet
frame is machined to insure alignment of the end
shields, pole bores & axle way bores. The main
poles are built from steel laminations.
         There are four brush holder per motor, each
carrying 3 split carbon brushes. Each brush holder
is carried on two insulated support pins.
        The armature is supported on grease
lubricated roller bearing. Bearing assemblies are
sealed type, so necessity of lubrication in about 2
or 3 years.
(3) Rating: A traction motor has following
  ratings:
            Voltage      -       285 volts
            Current      -       980 ampere
            Speed         -      360 rpm
            Power         -      248 kw
(4) Principle: When a current carrying conductor is
  placed in a magnetic field, a force is exerted on it
  and direction of force is determined by fleming’s left
  hand rule. In a dc motor, dc supply is provided to
  field winding. As a result, unidirectional magnetic
  field is produced and magnetic field lines cut the
  rotor conductors which carry current equal to field
  current. Since the conductors are on circumference
  of rotor, force acts in tangential direction to the
  rotor. Thus a torque is developed on the rotor and it
  starts to rotate.
(5) Operation: To understand the operation of a
  traction motor, three transition panels are studied.
  Transition panels perform transition events. These
  events correspond to field weaking and changing
  the connections of traction motor. Three transition
  panels are performed at three different speeds –
   First transition at 30 km/hr speed
   Second transition at 50 km/hr speed
   Third transition at 80 km/hr speed
When 1500 V dc supply is provided to circuit
of traction motors, a large current flows through
armature of motor as it is connected in series with
field. As a result armature, armature begins to
rotate and a back emf is generated which opposes
the main supply voltage. ( back emf Eb =
PφNZ/60A
                                 Eb α N       )
          As speed increases, back emf also
increases and it offers resistance to flow of
generated current to traction motors. Hence for
increasing the speed , the supply voltage must
increase but it is not
possible to increase supply above 1500 V.
Therefore, when speed is reached at 30 km/hr, first
transition panel is switched on. Now a parallel
combination of two series connected traction
motors is under operation and resistance is
connected in parallel with the field of motors to
refuse back emf.
            Now speed increases beyond 40 km/hr
and back emf again starts increasing rapidly. So
second transition panel is switched on at speed of
50km/hr. After second transition, all six motors run
in parallel
without resistance parallel to field of motors.
            No longer back emf is controlled by
second transition panel as speed increases beyond
70 km/hr, so third transition panel is switched on at
speed of 80 km/hr. By this transition, resistances
are connected parallel with field of motors in circuit
of second transition to reduce back emf.
(6) Speed-Torque characteristic:
The speed Vs torque characteristic of dc series
   traction
 motor with a constant votltage
supply is shown on right side.As
 the speed decreases, torque
for motor increases sharply. As
load is removed from motor,
speed increases sharply. Hence
it must have a load connected.
(7) Braking: Dynamic or rheostatic braking is
  employed for electric locomotives. During the time
  of braking, traction motors are disconnected from
  supply and is connected to a dynamic resistance.
  Now traction motors are acted as traction generator
  because kinetic energy is converted into electrical
  energy. The direction of current is reversed during
  this period as before braking. Field current also
  reverses as field winding is connected in series with
  armature. Hence connections of field winding
  should be changed such that current flows in it in
  should
be changed such that current flows in it in same
direction as before braking. The output of generator
is given to grid resistance and it dissipates power
as heat. Due to friction between wheel and track, a
opposite torque is developed. As a result,
locomotive stops.
           If connections of field winding is not
revesed, no braking will occure.
           Dynamic resistance must be less than
critical resistance otherwise generator will not be
self exciting.
Traction motor

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Traction motor

  • 1. JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY , JAIPUR Name : Rajneesh Roll No. : 5EE42 Subject : Practical Training Seminar - 1 Session : 2011-12
  • 2. TRACTION MOTOR
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL SHED RATLAM Diesel Shed Ratlam(M.P.) is established on 1 may 1967. It is awarded with ISO 9001-2000 and ISO 14001-1996 certificate firstly in western railway. It is located on main line between Delhi and Mumbai. Shed is a place where maintenance and repair of locomotive is done. As on today ,the shed has holding of 140 diesel locos. The entire diesel shed is divided into mainly two sections : (1) Mechanical Section (2) Electrical Section
  • 4. LOCOMOTIVE AND ITS TYPE Locomotive is an automatic device which kept on steel frame having ability to run on rails and has power to pull passenger as well as goods trains. Locomotives are of three types : (1) Steam Locomotive (2) Diesel Electric Locomotive (3) Electric Locomotive
  • 5. (1) STEAM LOCOMOTIVE Steam locomotive played a key role during development and golden age of railroading. Steam locomotive is a self contained power unit consisting of a steam engine , a boiler with fuel and water supplies. Superheated steam is admitted to the cyllinders by a suitable valve arrangement and the pressure on the pistons being transmitted through main rod to the driving wheels. The superheated steam is controlled by a throttle.
  • 6. Steam locomotive has been replaced in developed nations by electric locomotives and diesel- electric locomotives because of following disadvantages of steam locomotive : (a) It has strictly limited overload capacity. (b) It has very low thermal efficiency of about 6-8% because installation of a condenser on locomotive is very difficult. (c) It is available for hauling work for about 60% of its working days, remaining 40% being spent in preparing for service, in maintence and overhaul.
  • 7. (2) DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE Diesel electric locomotives were introduced firstly in united states in 1924 and have become the most widely used type of locomotive. It was introduced for first time in India in 1958. Diesel electric locomotive has electric drive in form of traction motors driving the axles and controlled with electronic controls. It differs from electric locomotives principally in that it has its own generating station instead of being connected to a remote generating station through overhead wires. The generating station consists of a large diesel engine coupled to dc generator that provides power to traction motors. These motors drive the driving wheels.
  • 8. TRAIN WITH DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
  • 9. Advantages: (a) It provides high starting acceleration in comparison to steam locomotive. (b) It is more efficient than a steam locomotive. Disadvantages: (a) It is costlier than either steam or electric locomotive for same power. (b) Life of diesel engine is shorter comparatively. (c) Regenerative braking cannot be employed though rheostatic can be. (d) Overload capacity is limited because diesel engine is a constant output prime mover.
  • 10. (3) ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE Electric locomotives generally have two or more dc or ac motors. In these locomotives , power is collected from an electric trolley which is running on an overhead wire. The overhead wire can carry both types of supply ac as well as dc. Indian railway also uses both types of supply systems : (a) AC system- 25 kv single phase 50 hz ac supply (b) DC system- 1500 V dc supply Only western zone and central zone of railway uses dc system.
  • 11. TRAIN WITH ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
  • 12. Advantages: (a) It does not produce any smoke and flue gases, so it is most suited for undergrounds trains. (b) The maintenance cost of electric locomotive is lower than steam locomotive. (c) Traction motors used in it have very high starting torqe. (d) Regenerative braking is used for ac systems. (e) An electric locomotive can be started in a moment but a steam locomotive takes about 2 hours to heat.
  • 13. Disadvantages: (a) Electric traction has high initial cost of laying out overhead electric supply system. (b) Power failure for few minutes can cause traffic dislocation for hours. (c) Communication lines which usually run parallel to the power supply lines suffer from electrical interference. (d) Electric locomotive can be use only on those routes which have been electrified.
  • 14. DC SYSTEM OF RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION In dc system with overhead catenary, dc traction motors are supplied 1500 V DC by catenary. In overhead electrification systems, electricity is supplied through an overhead system of suspended cable which is known as catenary. Indian Railway uses catenaries of constant tension type. At one end of each section of catenary the cable connects to a pulley by going over this ,is terminated by hanging a weight. Catenary wires are usually made of copper alloys such as cadmium- copper which has high tensile strength of 63 kg per sequare mm.
  • 15. For transmission of 1500 V DC by overhead wire, substations are made and they are located 40 km apart with each other. These substations receive power from 132 kv ,3-phase network. At these substations, this high-voltage 3-phase supply is converted into low-voltage 1-phase supply with help of Scott-connected 3-phase transformers. Next this low voltage ac is converted into 1500 V DC by using suitable rectifiers. The dc supply so obtained is fed to dc traction motors via suitable contact.
  • 16. Advantages of dc system over 1-φ ac system: (a) DC system does not cause electrical interference with overhead communication lines. (b) DC motors are better suited for frequent and rapid acceleration of heavy trains than ac motors. (c) DC train equipment is lighter, less costly and more efficient than similar ac equipment. (d) When operating under similar conditions, dc trains consumes less energy than 1-φ ac train. Disadvantage: Only one disadvantage is the necessity of locating ac/dc conversion substations at short distance apart.
  • 17. TRACTION MOTOR (1) Description: The traction motor is a four pole DC series motor in which field winding is connected in series with armature. It is a forced ventilated machine arranged for axle mounting on sleeve bearing. Transverse movement is limited by the flanges of axle suspension bearing. An electric locomotive as well as diesel-electric locomotive in indian railway contain six dc traction motors at once.
  • 18. (2) Construction: The armature core is made from high permeability silicon steel stampings and these stampings are separated by thin coating of varnish as insulation with each other. The armature is lap wounded with 100% equalization. The commutator is built up with hard drawn silver bearing copper segment which are insulated with micanite segment. After the commutator is statically and dynamically seasoned to insure stability ,the complete armature is dynamically balanced.
  • 19. The high permeability cast steel magnet frame is machined to insure alignment of the end shields, pole bores & axle way bores. The main poles are built from steel laminations. There are four brush holder per motor, each carrying 3 split carbon brushes. Each brush holder is carried on two insulated support pins. The armature is supported on grease lubricated roller bearing. Bearing assemblies are sealed type, so necessity of lubrication in about 2 or 3 years.
  • 20.
  • 21. (3) Rating: A traction motor has following ratings: Voltage - 285 volts Current - 980 ampere Speed - 360 rpm Power - 248 kw
  • 22. (4) Principle: When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, a force is exerted on it and direction of force is determined by fleming’s left hand rule. In a dc motor, dc supply is provided to field winding. As a result, unidirectional magnetic field is produced and magnetic field lines cut the rotor conductors which carry current equal to field current. Since the conductors are on circumference of rotor, force acts in tangential direction to the rotor. Thus a torque is developed on the rotor and it starts to rotate.
  • 23. (5) Operation: To understand the operation of a traction motor, three transition panels are studied. Transition panels perform transition events. These events correspond to field weaking and changing the connections of traction motor. Three transition panels are performed at three different speeds – First transition at 30 km/hr speed Second transition at 50 km/hr speed Third transition at 80 km/hr speed
  • 24. When 1500 V dc supply is provided to circuit of traction motors, a large current flows through armature of motor as it is connected in series with field. As a result armature, armature begins to rotate and a back emf is generated which opposes the main supply voltage. ( back emf Eb = PφNZ/60A Eb α N ) As speed increases, back emf also increases and it offers resistance to flow of generated current to traction motors. Hence for increasing the speed , the supply voltage must increase but it is not
  • 25. possible to increase supply above 1500 V. Therefore, when speed is reached at 30 km/hr, first transition panel is switched on. Now a parallel combination of two series connected traction motors is under operation and resistance is connected in parallel with the field of motors to refuse back emf. Now speed increases beyond 40 km/hr and back emf again starts increasing rapidly. So second transition panel is switched on at speed of 50km/hr. After second transition, all six motors run in parallel
  • 26. without resistance parallel to field of motors. No longer back emf is controlled by second transition panel as speed increases beyond 70 km/hr, so third transition panel is switched on at speed of 80 km/hr. By this transition, resistances are connected parallel with field of motors in circuit of second transition to reduce back emf.
  • 27. (6) Speed-Torque characteristic: The speed Vs torque characteristic of dc series traction motor with a constant votltage supply is shown on right side.As the speed decreases, torque for motor increases sharply. As load is removed from motor, speed increases sharply. Hence it must have a load connected.
  • 28. (7) Braking: Dynamic or rheostatic braking is employed for electric locomotives. During the time of braking, traction motors are disconnected from supply and is connected to a dynamic resistance. Now traction motors are acted as traction generator because kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy. The direction of current is reversed during this period as before braking. Field current also reverses as field winding is connected in series with armature. Hence connections of field winding should be changed such that current flows in it in should
  • 29. be changed such that current flows in it in same direction as before braking. The output of generator is given to grid resistance and it dissipates power as heat. Due to friction between wheel and track, a opposite torque is developed. As a result, locomotive stops. If connections of field winding is not revesed, no braking will occure. Dynamic resistance must be less than critical resistance otherwise generator will not be self exciting.