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The Language
of Discovery
#UXLX
#languageofdiscovery
Joe Lamantia
UX Lead: Discovery Products

Oracle

@moJoe
JoeLamantia.com
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe
designed many
discovery solutions
discovery is...?
more than
visualization
not just search
Discovery
Act or experience of seeing, finding,
learning, or solving something.
Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
search
                                    prediction

         visualization

                         analysis
discovery is
making sense
 of the world
 search
                                     prediction

          visualization

                          analysis
Insight
Grasping or understanding meaning,
significance, and/or a solution.
A valuable change in perspective or understanding
that enables or guides further action.
Welcome to
The Age of Insight
“In the next ten
years, digital data
alone is expected
to grow 44 times.
By 2020, there
will be 4 billion
people online
creating 50
trillion gigabytes
of data.”
HP Intelligent Research
Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta
Varied data ‘materials’
 social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific

Full spectrum of granularity
Real-time & historical perspectives
Commoditized infrastructure
 storage, processing, distribution, publishing

Data ecosystem(s)
“The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to
process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to
communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the
next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for
elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we
really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the
complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand
that data and extract value from it.”

Hal Varian



http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
Everything is
discoverable
Horizon of Discoverability



       future


         soon


         present

           past
urban status
 http://citydashboard.org/london/
WAYWT?
social activity
influence
data journalism
‘Cliodynamics’ is a
transdisciplinary area of
research integrating
historical macrosociology,
economic history/
cliometrics, mathematical
modeling of long-term
social processes, and the
construction and analysis of
historical databases.
“The instability of large,
complex societies is a
predictable phenomenon,
according to a new
mathematical model that
explores the emergence of
early human societies via
warfare.”

“Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model reveals
the dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncover
in archaeological data.”
                  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
“What we found are the
   constants that describe
   every city,” he says.

   I don’t know anything
   about this city or even
   where it is or its history, but
   I can tell you all about it.

   And the reason I can do that
   is because every city is
   really the same.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
cultural analytics
Everyone
discovers
ready data
viz tools
management tools
engagement models
consumer devices
“The datasexual looks a lot like
you and me, but what’s different is
their preoccupation with personal
data.

They are relentlessly digital, they
obsessively record everything
about their personal lives, and
they think that data is sexy. In
fact, the bigger the data, the sexier
it becomes.

Their lives - from a data


                        data as lifestyle
perspective, at least - are perfectly
groomed.”
Discovery is the leading
emerging interaction category
of the Age of Insight
mediated sense making
As I was waiting for a table at a
local restaurant the other day, I
flipped through a couple of the
free classified papers.

I was shocked to realize how
dependent I’ve grown on
three simple features that just
aren’t available in the analog
world: search, sort and filter.




    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
Complex ecosystems:

 multi-channel experiences
                              everyware
                             environments
network & service models


                   dynamic perspectives
 fluid data
How to design discovery
experiences...?
Need & context vary wildly




    Patterns of form
    are inadequate.
Task patterns = vague...
Activity Centered Design
The Language of Discovery:

A concrete descriptive language for
human discovery activity in diverse
contexts.

A simple and consistent vocabulary that
is independent of domain, role,
information type, etc.
Leverages what is common
in human discovery.

Allows for what varies in
contexts of discovery
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experience
works like musical notes
grammatical
structure & behavior
visual grammars
activity grammars
Research-based
scenario analysis
Call Centers &               Maintenance        Data Quality &
           Knowledge                    Repair &           Governance
           Mgmt                         Overhaul


                          Claims Analysis                                              Enterprise Search
                                                                 Digital Asset         & Knowledge Mgmt
                                                                 Mgmt
           Warranty
           Analysis              Field Service                              Operations
                                                                                                 Financial
                                 Analysis                                   & Planning
                                                                                                 Analysis
                                           Service Measure
               Customer                                                          Human Capital
               Risk Analysis
                                         Support & Plan &                        Management
                                          Maintain Operate

                                             Market Research                       Program & Portfolio
                          Pricing             Sell & Develop &                     Mgmt
                          Analysis
                                             Deliver Produce
                                                                      Manufacturing
                                                                      & Quality           Inventory &
                          Inventory &
                                                                                          Demand Visibility
Sales &                   Delivery
Customer                                                          Part, Commodity
Analysis                             Product                      & Supplier
                                     Information                  Analysis
           Market                                                                         Spend
                                     Mgmt
           Intelligence
                             diverse roots                                                Analysis
User Scenarios
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in
manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace
that part.”
- Engineering


“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the
quality of the investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level
investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager


“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can
negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk
based on market indices.”
- Procurement
DISCOVERY   S
Literary Modes


“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or
 manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular
                  form or genre.”




         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
Argumentation
The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity
of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and
argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Discovery Modes



“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is
   not tied exclusively to a particular context or
                     domain.”
MODE
Identifying Modes
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing
and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”
- Engineering

“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the
investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager

“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”
- Procurement


   Mode = ‘Comprehend’ (understand)
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of an item or data set’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Identifying Modes
“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the
best part possible for my assembly.”
- Engineering

“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding
based on performance problems.”
- Account Rep

“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”
- SVP Sales

“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/
products.”
- Brand Manager

                       Mode = ‘Explore’
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set
for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’


e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Modes are the verbs of
discovery scenarios.
You can explore:
people
places
events
objects
data
topics
...?
Explore   something   to...   result or goal.

 verb      object               predicate
Locate
             Verify
             Monitor
             Compare
9 distinct   Comprehend
modes        Explore
             Analyze
             Evaluate
             Synthesize
Modes seem to be
internalized & common.
domain independent
             scale independent
             structurally consistent
             semantically distinct
each
             orthogonal
mode is...   conceptually
             connected
             sequencable
             combinable
you said they
work like music?
Chains &
Sequences
scenario analysis: multiple /
sequential modes
1. Replace a problematic part
   (from sourcing, cost or technical
   perspective)


2. ...with an equivalent or better
   part




3. ...without compromising quality
   and cost.
1. Replace a problematic part
                                       Analyze
   (from sourcing, cost or technical
   perspective)


2. ...with an equivalent or better
   part                                Compare




3. ...without compromising quality
                                       Evaluate
   and cost.
Comparison–driven Search
1. Replace a problematic part
                                       Analyze
   (from sourcing, cost or technical
   perspective)


2. ...with an equivalent or better
   part                                Compare




3. ...without compromising quality
                                       Evaluate
   and cost.
1. Analyze




2. and understand gaps between
   current cost of commodity




3. versus best in class
   manufacturing costs.
1. Analyze
                                 Analyze



2. and understand gaps between
   current cost of commodity
                                 Compare



3. versus best in class
   manufacturing costs.          Evaluate
Comparison–driven Search
1. Analyze
                                 Analyze



2. and understand gaps between
   current cost of commodity
                                 Compare



3. versus best in class
   manufacturing costs.          Evaluate
recognizable mode chains
Comparison-     Analyze    Compare      Evaluate
driven Search


Exploration-
                Explore     Analyze     Evaluate
driven Search


Strategic       Analyze   Comprehend    Evaluate
Insight


Strategic       Monitor     Analyze     Evaluate
Oversight


Comparative     Analyze    Compare     Synthesize
Synthesis
Comparison–driven Search

    Analyze                                      Compare                                          Evaluate


Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer


Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering


Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering


Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager


See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement


Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Strategic Oversight

    Monitor                                        Analyze                                        Evaluate


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales


Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector


Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager


Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager


Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Exploration-driven Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Strategic Insight

    Analyze                                  Comprehend                                           Evaluate


Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering


Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering


Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager


Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager


I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Comparison–driven Synthesis

    Analyze                                    Compare                                       Synthesize


Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image


Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering


Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer


Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
Mode Networks

               Verify


Analyze     Comprehend    Synthesize


             Compare       Evaluate


Monitor       Analyze


Explore
Mode
When I use the tool, I can...
       Monitor

...currently popular colors over useful
intervals




        Explore

...currently popular colors, or colors
popular in the past



         Verify

That a color is popular now or in the
past
As a user, I can...

     Analyze     1. Analyze the popularity
                    and importance of colors
                    over time to see patterns




                 2. Compare colors in terms
     Compare
                    of importance and
                    popularity at various
                    cycles, trends, and
                    moments.

                 3. Evaluate colors vs. their
     Evaluate
                    current and historic
                    importance and popularity.



Comparison-driven Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
As a reader, I can...

  Monitor

...articles to see what is new and
available.



   Explore

...available articles and topics to
identify those of interest to me.



   Locate
... and read articles of interest,
supporting information, and
related materials.
As a reader, I can...

     Analyze        1. Analyze events and topics
                       using the data and tools
                       provided




   Comprehend       2. Understand the events
                       and topics using the
                       Guardian’s perspective
                       and my own.



     Evaluate       3. Evaluate all perspectives,
                       as well as the actions and
                       decisions based on them.



Strategic Insight     into events & actions of government & society
As a reader, I get...

     Analyze       1. Analyze the causes,
                      participants and events of
                      the UK riots




                   2. Compare suggested
     Compare
                      causes, insights and
                      explanations into the
                      events.



    Synthesize     3. Synthesize these insights
                      into a coordinated
                      perspective on the riots



Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
My twitter home page allows me to...
   Monitor

...the tweets of people I follow, my
followers, community interactions.


    Explore

...trends and active topics, and
suggestions for people to follow.


    Locate

..tweets, people, hashtags / topics


  Synthesize
...new tweets via composition,
retweet, or favorite tweets.
The profile snapshot lets me...
  Evaluate

...the author of a tweet to decide if I
am interested in them



   Locate

...the profile and homepage of the
author of a tweet
A twitter profile page lets me...

    Explore
...the authors profile to learn more
about them



   Evaluate
...their activity, followers, tweets,
relevance to me



 Comprehend

...the author’s interests, point of view,
Twitter Profile viewers can...

     Explore       1. Explore the author’s
                      profile, activity and
                      community interactions.




                   2. Analyze the author’s
    Analyze           followers, activity, tweets,
                      community interaction,
                      who they follow.



    Evaluate       3. Evaluate the author to
                      decide their relevance and
                      value.



Exploration-driven search ... for valuable people streams to follow
MICRO view - visual art

data: 25 canonical paintings representing
transition from realism to modernism,
1849-1916
Strategic     Analyze   Comprehend    Evaluate
Insight




Comparative   Analyze    Compare     Synthesize
Synthesis
Strategic   Analyze   Comprehend   Evaluate
Insight
Analyze


                                              Synthesize



                          Explore




                                                 Compare
   Comprehend

Cultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
Comparative   Analyze   Compare   Synthesize
Synthesis
Using the language
To inform the core principles for the user
            experience of the product


            To coordinate the design of product
            features and functions across channels
            and form-factors
product
            To evaluate the quality and success of
strategy,   product designs, in terms of usability,
            engagement, value, etc.

definition
            To establish a roadmap for the product's
& design    evolution and determine development
            efforts


            To shape strategy for a portfolio of
            products by understanding the value
            proposition of current and potential new
            products
To guide the deployment of the product as
             part of a solution for customers
solution          identifying needs via scenarios and
                  other solution specification tools
design for        crafting functional requirements and

product           interaction designs for deployed
                  applications


customers    To describe and publish patterns and best
             practices in implementation of the product
             - workspace, application, application suite
Mode-based design
application   Supply Chain Planning and Management



template
Role / Persona                                    Scenarios & Goals
                      •
 Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as
                         the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve
                         through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners
                         to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real
  Planner / Analyst
                         time.
                      •
 Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature,
                         degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics
                         and performance measures
                      •
 Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance
                         forecasting methods to reflect these changes



                      •
 Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team
                         performance
                      •
 Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use
  Planning Manager       for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization.
                      •
 Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by
                         planning teams



                      •
 Achieve 100% forecast accuracy
                      •
 Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations.


   Planning Team
Role / Persona                                      Modes & Mode Chains
                      Planners needing to create new forecasts based on previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors will
                      follow the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize): this involves analyzing their
                      previous forecasts and comparing them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of known causal and
                      correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather, then creating (synthesizing) new forecasts that
  Planner / Analyst   reflect insights realized from these activities.

                       Comparative
                                              Analyze                      Compare                      Synthesize
                        Synthesis



                      Planners working to improve forecasting accuracy will follow the Strategic Insight chain (Analyze –
                      Comprehend – Evaluate), when they review previous forecasts to understand their accuracy and identify
                      possible sources of error: analyzing cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to understand the
                      factors affecting those forecasts, then evaluating the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal
                      factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts.

                        Strategic
                                               Analyze                   Comprehend                       Evaluate
                         Insight




                      Planning Managers will follow the Strategic Oversight chain (Monitor – Analyze – Evaluate) when assessing
                      the performance of Planners: monitoring the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team,
                      analyzing forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy, and evaluating the effectiveness of
                      analysts, and forecasting methods.
  Planning Manager

                        Strategic
                                               Monitor                      Analyze                       Evaluate
                        Oversight
Role / Persona                                            Chains & Sequences
                      Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts
                      vs. actual activity in the supply chain; when errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in
                      one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new
                      situation; they will move on to the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect
                      their newly generated insights and improved understanding; they will then switch back to Strategic
  Planner / Analyst   Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over
                      time.



                        Strategic                       Strategic                  Comparison-driven                         Strategic
                        Oversight                        Insight                      Synthesis                              Oversight




                      Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a
                      sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploration-driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly
                      strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices; they will move to Strategic Insight to understand how
                      and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness; Comparison-driven Synthesis will help Managers
  Planning Manager    formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices; and they will rely on Strategic
                      Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.




                      Exploration-driven                         Strategic                  Comparison-driven                        Strategic
                           Search                                 Insight                      Synthesis                             Oversight
Application Structure

3 screen types

each composed of defined components
  visualization, navigation, tabular data,
  search, context management, alerts, etc.

apps have multiple instances of screen types
  each populated by differing data ‘content’

supports
Dashboard Screen Type
The Dashboard screen is designed primarily to enable the
Strategic Oversight (Monitor-Analyze-Evaluate) chain, by
presenting an overview of the major areas of supply chain
activity. Individual Planners use the Dashboard to Monitor
the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with
established baselines and targets. Planning Managers use
the Dashboard screen to Monitor the accuracy of all the
forecasts made by the Planning team.

One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply
chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity, providing
summaries of the status of processes via KPIs and
measurements using a component from our library, as well
as a chart presenting historical values of these measures for
Analysis via visualization component.

A list of alerts provides a guide to notable changes across
the supply chain, allowing Planners and Managers to
monitor, analyze, and evaluate notable events and changes
as part of a steady flow of information.

The Dashboard enables Planners and Managers to execute
the Strategic Oversight chain by following the linked data
points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the
information for analysis.




                                                          Strategic
                                                                      Monitor   Analyze   Evaluate
                                                          Oversight
Planner / Analyst            Planning Manager
Trends Screen Type

Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the
state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time.

For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the
Exploration-driven Search (Explore-Analyze-Evaluate) and
Comparison-driven Synthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) chains,
in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time
and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors.

The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of
sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion
with Comparison-driven Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in
companion to Strategic Insight.




                                            Exploration-driven
                                                                            Explore   Analyze   Evaluate
                                                 Search




                                                      Comparative
 Planner / Analyst             Planning Manager                             Analyze   Compare   Synthesize
                                                       Synthesis
Analysis Screen Type
The Summary and Analysis screen is designed to support the Strategic
Insight (Analyze-Comprehend-Evaluate), and Comparison-driven
Synthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) mode chains. Each Analysis
screen in the template is focused on one sub-function of the supply chain.
This Analysis screen focuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’
of products in retail settings and various stages of the supply chain.

On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation
components allow the user to manage the data that is presented in the
tables, charts, and lists to the right, by exploring the underlying information
space. They also communicate this context to users to keep them oriented.

At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, which follows on from
the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, providing visibility
into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply
chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts.

Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and
data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity
by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help
Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status
of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis
methods than either presentation method supports alone.

At the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the individual
transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation.




                                                       Strategic
                                                                               Analyze      Comprehend   Evaluate
                                                        Insight

 Planner / Analyst              Planning Manager
                                                        Comparative
                                                                                  Analyze     Compare    Synthesize
                                                         Synthesis
Groups &
Collaboration
Discovery Profile
                                Data Science
Locate                             Team

Verify
Monitor
Compare
Comprehend
Explore
Analyze
Evaluate
Synthesize
Collaborative Discovery


              Data Science   Data Science   Data Science
                 Team           Team           Team



Locate

Verify

Monitor

Compare

Comprehend

Explore

Analyze

Evaluate
Analysis Cluster

Discovery Capability Model


 Locate
 Verify
 Monitor
 Compare
 Comprehend
 Explore
 Analyze
 Evaluate
 Synthesize
Language of Discovery
References & Resources
Resources
The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task
analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)
https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf

Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume
49 Issue 4, April 2006
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf

Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences

Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns

Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions

Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:
http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them

Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science
30: 205-214

Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search
Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424.

Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and
technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)

Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.

Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46

Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6

O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from
here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445

Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th
international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA

Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by
Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with
Computers, 10:321–351.
Language of Discovery
Mode Definitions
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of an item or data set’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Comparing
‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and
differences’
e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown
information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”
– Engineer
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set
for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’


e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”

– Engineer
Verifying
‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items
meets some specific criterion’
e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”
– Supply Chain Specialist
Monitoring
‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set
for purposes of management or control’
e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account
Reps to fix the problems”

– Sales Manager
Analyzing
‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to
identify patterns & relationships’
e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the
relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?”

– Engineering
Evaluating
‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value
of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark
or model’
e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price
variation to negotiate a better price”

– Procurement
Synthesizing
‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse
inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’
e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going”

– Account Rep
Language of Discovery
Mode Chains & Sequences
Comparison–driven Search

    Analyze                                      Compare                                          Evaluate


Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer


Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering


Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering


Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager


See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement


Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Strategic Oversight

    Monitor                                        Analyze                                        Evaluate


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales


Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector


Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager


Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager


Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Exploration-driven Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Strategic Insight

    Analyze                                  Comprehend                                           Evaluate


Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering


Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering


Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager


Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager


I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Comparative Synthesis

    Analyze                                    Compare                                       Synthesize


Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image


Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering


Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer


Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst

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The Language of Discovery: Designing Big Data Interactions

  • 2. Joe Lamantia UX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle @moJoe JoeLamantia.com Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • 7. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • 8. search prediction visualization analysis
  • 9. discovery is making sense of the world search prediction visualization analysis
  • 10. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action.
  • 11. Welcome to The Age of Insight
  • 12. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research
  • 13.
  • 14. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s)
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 21. Horizon of Discoverability future soon present past
  • 27. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases.
  • 28. “The instability of large, complex societies is a predictable phenomenon, according to a new mathematical model that explores the emergence of early human societies via warfare.” “Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model reveals the dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncover in archaeological data.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
  • 29. “What we found are the constants that describe every city,” he says. I don’t know anything about this city or even where it is or its history, but I can tell you all about it. And the reason I can do that is because every city is really the same.” http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
  • 37. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data data as lifestyle perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.”
  • 38. Discovery is the leading emerging interaction category of the Age of Insight
  • 40. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • 41. Complex ecosystems: multi-channel experiences everyware environments network & service models dynamic perspectives fluid data
  • 42. How to design discovery experiences...?
  • 43. Need & context vary wildly Patterns of form are inadequate.
  • 44. Task patterns = vague...
  • 46. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc.
  • 47. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery
  • 49. Generative tool for discovery capability and experience
  • 54.
  • 57. Call Centers & Maintenance Data Quality & Knowledge Repair & Governance Mgmt Overhaul Claims Analysis Enterprise Search Digital Asset & Knowledge Mgmt Mgmt Warranty Analysis Field Service Operations Financial Analysis & Planning Analysis Service Measure Customer Human Capital Risk Analysis Support & Plan & Management Maintain Operate Market Research Program & Portfolio Pricing Sell & Develop & Mgmt Analysis Deliver Produce Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Inventory & Demand Visibility Sales & Delivery Customer Part, Commodity Analysis Product & Supplier Information Analysis Market Spend Mgmt Intelligence diverse roots Analysis
  • 58. User Scenarios “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 60. Literary Modes “a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • 61. Argumentation The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • 62. Discovery Modes “a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • 63. MODE
  • 64. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement Mode = ‘Comprehend’ (understand)
  • 65. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data set’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 66. Identifying Modes “I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the best part possible for my assembly.” - Engineering “I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems.” - Account Rep “I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.” - SVP Sales “I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/ products.” - Brand Manager Mode = ‘Explore’
  • 67. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 68. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios.
  • 70. Explore something to... result or goal. verb object predicate
  • 71. Locate Verify Monitor Compare 9 distinct Comprehend modes Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • 72. Modes seem to be internalized & common.
  • 73. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct each orthogonal mode is... conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • 74. you said they work like music?
  • 76. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes
  • 77. 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost.
  • 78. 1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare 3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • 79. Comparison–driven Search 1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare 3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • 80. 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs.
  • 81. 1. Analyze Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • 82. Comparison–driven Search 1. Analyze Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • 84. Comparison- Analyze Compare Evaluate driven Search Exploration- Explore Analyze Evaluate driven Search Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 85. Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators
  • 86. Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • 87. Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 88. Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • 89. Comparison–driven Synthesis Analyze Compare Synthesize Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
  • 90.
  • 91. Mode Networks Verify Analyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare Evaluate Monitor Analyze Explore
  • 92. Mode
  • 93.
  • 94. When I use the tool, I can... Monitor ...currently popular colors over useful intervals Explore ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past
  • 95. As a user, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms Compare of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their Evaluate current and historic importance and popularity. Comparison-driven Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
  • 96.
  • 97. As a reader, I can... Monitor ...articles to see what is new and available. Explore ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials.
  • 98. As a reader, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided Comprehend 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. Evaluate 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Strategic Insight into events & actions of government & society
  • 99. As a reader, I get... Analyze 1. Analyze the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Compare suggested Compare causes, insights and explanations into the events. Synthesize 3. Synthesize these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
  • 100. My twitter home page allows me to... Monitor ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. Explore ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. Locate ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • 101. The profile snapshot lets me... Evaluate ...the author of a tweet to decide if I am interested in them Locate ...the profile and homepage of the author of a tweet
  • 102. A twitter profile page lets me... Explore ...the authors profile to learn more about them Evaluate ...their activity, followers, tweets, relevance to me Comprehend ...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • 103. Twitter Profile viewers can... Explore 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s Analyze followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. Evaluate 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Exploration-driven search ... for valuable people streams to follow
  • 104. MICRO view - visual art data: 25 canonical paintings representing transition from realism to modernism, 1849-1916
  • 105.
  • 106. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 107. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight
  • 108. Analyze Synthesize Explore Compare Comprehend Cultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
  • 109. Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 111. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors product To evaluate the quality and success of strategy, product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. definition To establish a roadmap for the product's & design evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products
  • 112. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers solution identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools design for crafting functional requirements and product interaction designs for deployed applications customers To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • 114. application Supply Chain Planning and Management template
  • 115. Role / Persona Scenarios & Goals • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real Planner / Analyst time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use Planning Manager for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • 116. Role / Persona Modes & Mode Chains Planners needing to create new forecasts based on previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors will follow the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize): this involves analyzing their previous forecasts and comparing them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of known causal and correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather, then creating (synthesizing) new forecasts that Planner / Analyst reflect insights realized from these activities. Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis Planners working to improve forecasting accuracy will follow the Strategic Insight chain (Analyze – Comprehend – Evaluate), when they review previous forecasts to understand their accuracy and identify possible sources of error: analyzing cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to understand the factors affecting those forecasts, then evaluating the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Planning Managers will follow the Strategic Oversight chain (Monitor – Analyze – Evaluate) when assessing the performance of Planners: monitoring the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team, analyzing forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy, and evaluating the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Planning Manager Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight
  • 117. Role / Persona Chains & Sequences Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts vs. actual activity in the supply chain; when errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation; they will move on to the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly generated insights and improved understanding; they will then switch back to Strategic Planner / Analyst Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time. Strategic Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Oversight Insight Synthesis Oversight Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploration-driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices; they will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness; Comparison-driven Synthesis will help Managers Planning Manager formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices; and they will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect. Exploration-driven Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Search Insight Synthesis Oversight
  • 118. Application Structure 3 screen types each composed of defined components visualization, navigation, tabular data, search, context management, alerts, etc. apps have multiple instances of screen types each populated by differing data ‘content’ supports
  • 119. Dashboard Screen Type The Dashboard screen is designed primarily to enable the Strategic Oversight (Monitor-Analyze-Evaluate) chain, by presenting an overview of the major areas of supply chain activity. Individual Planners use the Dashboard to Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers use the Dashboard screen to Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity, providing summaries of the status of processes via KPIs and measurements using a component from our library, as well as a chart presenting historical values of these measures for Analysis via visualization component. A list of alerts provides a guide to notable changes across the supply chain, allowing Planners and Managers to monitor, analyze, and evaluate notable events and changes as part of a steady flow of information. The Dashboard enables Planners and Managers to execute the Strategic Oversight chain by following the linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the information for analysis. Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 120. Trends Screen Type Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploration-driven Search (Explore-Analyze-Evaluate) and Comparison-driven Synthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparison-driven Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Exploration-driven Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Comparative Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 121. Analysis Screen Type The Summary and Analysis screen is designed to support the Strategic Insight (Analyze-Comprehend-Evaluate), and Comparison-driven Synthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) mode chains. Each Analysis screen in the template is focused on one sub-function of the supply chain. This Analysis screen focuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings and various stages of the supply chain. On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to manage the data that is presented in the tables, charts, and lists to the right, by exploring the underlying information space. They also communicate this context to users to keep them oriented. At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, providing visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts. Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone. At the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the individual transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 123. Discovery Profile Data Science Locate Team Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • 124. Collaborative Discovery Data Science Data Science Data Science Team Team Team Locate Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate
  • 125. Analysis Cluster Discovery Capability Model Locate Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • 126.
  • 128.
  • 129. Resources The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005) https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume 49 Issue 4, April 2006 http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 30: 205-214 Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424. Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • 130. Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004) Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371. Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46 Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6 O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445 Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351.
  • 131.
  • 132.
  • 134. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data set’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 135. Comparing ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer
  • 136. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 137. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 138. Verifying ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist
  • 139. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager
  • 140. Analyzing ‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships’ e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?” – Engineering
  • 141. Evaluating ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark or model’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement
  • 142. Synthesizing ‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’ e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going” – Account Rep
  • 143. Language of Discovery Mode Chains & Sequences
  • 144. Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators
  • 145. Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • 146. Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 147. Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • 148. Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare Synthesize Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst

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