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Design For Goals
Tutorial: JBoye 09
Joe Lamantia
Independent Consultant


15 years: design, technology, business
write & speak: user experience – ubicomp



JoeLamantia.com
@mojoe
joe.lamantia@gmail.com
Goals*




Experiences
              Real*
Todayʼs Menu




                Introductions & Background - 20 min
                   Understanding Audiences - 40 min
                                              Break - 10 min
       Modes, Scenarios, Patterns & Life-cycles - 60 min
                                              Break - 10 min
                                             Design - 20 min
                                           Lessons - 20 min




               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   4
Background


    Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   5
Partnership with Keane
                                                                                                          Information Collection and Business
Surveyor Project Profile                                                                                               Process Transformation




Client: Leading Provider of Credit Ratings, Research and Risk Analysis for Fixed-Income
Securities and Other Obligations


Business Need: Evolve the website into a more compelling information delivery
environment that is superior to competitor sites, promotes the companyʼs overall business
objectives, and meets the needs of business users, shareholders, issuers and investors


Strategic Goals
 • Usability: Identify usability issues and recommend areas of improvement to ensure that customers and stakeholders
   will use it because they want to, not because they have to
 • Scalability: Define a site architecture that is clearly capable of supporting future increases in user base and functional
   capability
 • Flexibility: Define a site structure that allows for functional enhancements to made easily within a reasonable time-to-
   market
 • Reliability: Verify that the right architectural components, monitoring tools and operational practices are being used to
   ensure that the site is stable and continues to run smoothly
 • Manageability: Develop a build vs. buy strategy that makes the most efficient use of internal resources




                       Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia                      6
Scope




        Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
 • Worldwide and real time

 • All activities & topics




                         Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
 • Worldwide and real time

 • All activities & topics

700,000 documents
 • Refresh 1000 / day

 • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt




                         Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
  • Worldwide and real time

  • All activities & topics

700,000 documents
  • Refresh 1000 / day

  • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt

Millions of data points (ratings)
  • Qualitative and quantitative




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
  • Worldwide and real time

  • All activities & topics

700,000 documents
  • Refresh 1000 / day

  • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt

Millions of data points (ratings)
  • Qualitative and quantitative

25 Services & products on-line
  • Combining documents and data

  • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
  • Worldwide and real time

  • All activities & topics

700,000 documents
  • Refresh 1000 / day

  • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt

Millions of data points (ratings)
  • Qualitative and quantitative

25 Services & products on-line
  • Combining documents and data

  • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities

Multiple delivery channels
  • Web applications, desktop applications, data feeds, document repository, web repository




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Scope

Address the full spectrum of global finance
  • Worldwide and real time

  • All activities & topics

700,000 documents
  • Refresh 1000 / day

  • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt

Millions of data points (ratings)
  • Qualitative and quantitative

25 Services & products on-line
  • Combining documents and data

  • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities

Multiple delivery channels
  • Web applications, desktop applications, data feeds, document repository, web repository

Diverse customers
  • 100,000 users

  • All perspectives




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   7
Current Limitations

 Barriers to Ratings and Research Expansion
Clients can only realize the value of Client research if they can find it




         User Issues                                                                           Business Impacts
        Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search                                                  Detracts from the value of Client ratings and
                                                                                              research
        No document cross-referencing
                                                                                              Limits ability to attract and retain “non-captive”
        Ability to browse content tedious at best
                                                                                              customers in new markets



     Example Scenario: Search for Relevant Research

        Senior
        Credit
        Analyst




                       !                                   !                                   !                        !
                       Client.com “quick search” for      “Quick search” by “Ticker” for      Advanced Search;          Leaves Client.com and finds
                       “British Air”; no search           BAY.L; no search results            non-intuitive interface   desired content on
                       results found                      found                                                         competitor’s website




           “You have to know what you’re looking for” — Senior Credit Analyst, AIG Global Investment Group




                                   Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                Joe Lamantia         8
Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception

A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client


 Example Scenario: View Latest Research

  Ratings
  Advisory




              !                                  !                                   !                            !
             Detail page contains assorted      Related Research tab shows a        Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site first,
             links and tabs; content not        seemingly random list of            number of ill-defined doc    because competitor’s site is
             on one page                        assorted documents                  types, published at          easier to use
                                                                                    different times




                         Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                    Joe Lamantia             9
Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception

A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client


 Example Scenario: View Latest Research

  Ratings
  Advisory




              !                                  !                                   !                            !
             Detail page contains assorted      Related Research tab shows a        Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site first,
             links and tabs; content not        seemingly random list of            number of ill-defined doc    because competitor’s site is
             on one page                        assorted documents                  types, published at          easier to use
                                                                                    different times




   “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…”
   — Director, Global Ratings Advisory




                         Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                    Joe Lamantia             9
Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception

A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client


 Example Scenario: View Latest Research

  Ratings
  Advisory




               !                                  !                                   !                            !
              Detail page contains assorted      Related Research tab shows a        Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site first,
              links and tabs; content not        seemingly random list of            number of ill-defined doc    because competitor’s site is
              on one page                        assorted documents                  types, published at          easier to use
                                                                                     different times




    “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…”
    — Director, Global Ratings Advisory


  User Issues
   Research content is inconsistent
                                                                                    Business Impacts
                                                                                   Hampers deepening of relationships
   Related research functions are ineffective
                                                                                    with established clients
   Sites are difficult for users to understand
                                                                                   Detracts from the company’s reputation as an
   and navigate
                                                                                    authoritative source of high quality info




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                    Joe Lamantia             9
Business Problems


Client.com could not effectively support growth because it failed to meet users’ needs




                                Barriers to Product Adoption
            Data &                                                                                                        Employees
                                Limited integration of data and features
            Analytics           Lack of common user experience

                                                                                                     Data & Analytics Markets
                                                                                                     Quantitative Users


                                Barriers to Ratings and Research
     Xyz Ratings &              Expansion                                                            Adjacent Markets
            Research            Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search                                 Equity Investors, Hedge Fund Managers


                                Limited related research navigation
                                                                                                     Traditional Markets
                                                                                                     Issuers, Intermediaries & Fixed
                                Barriers to Emerging Market                                          Income Investors


            Global              Development
                                Numerous barriers to getting basic information
            Expansion           Lack of integration between the main website and local
                                                                                                     Emerging Markets
                                                                                                     New Issuers, Intermediaries, & Investors
                                 content


                                                                                                     Non-Client Users
                                Barriers to Value Perception                                         Shareholders, Regulators, Recruits

     Co     Maintain            Inconsistent research content                                       & Journalists

            Integrity &         Sub-standard user experience
            Reputation




                    Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                   Joe Lamantia               10
Recommendations by Theme



                                         Develop an information taxonomy and ontology


  1   Information Retrieval
                                         Extend metadata collection
                                         Implement a robust search architecture
                                         Build user-centric search interfaces




  2
                                         Implement a services-based architecture with a well defined business tier
      Growth Capacity                    Standardize information supply chain, leveraging Module-3 designs,
                                          infrastructure and investment




  3
                                         Develop a unified service delivery platform
      User Centric Design                Consolidate & standardize content
                                         Create a user-centric site structure




  4
                                         Unify core web site and regional sites
      Global Site Strategy               Support multiple approaches to affiliate site integration
                                         Support translation of research content as needed




  5   Governance
                                         Establish cross-discipline oversight groups
                                         Formalize product consistency "checkpoints"




                   Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009     Joe Lamantia    11
36-Month Roadmap



 Phase 1: Foundation & Usability                                                  Phase 2: Consolidation & Scalability                                  Phase 3: Integration & Flexibility

 Track 1: Information Retrieval

 Architecture, Design,                      Metadata Collection                                                Metadata Collection                                               Metadata Collection
                                POC
 & Vendor Selection                         Baseline                                                           Automation Support                                                Social Tagging

                 Taxonomy/Metadata                                              Taxonomy/Metadata                                                     Taxonomy/Metadata
                 Mgmt. Baseline                                                 Mgmt. Automation Support                                              Mgmt. Social Tagging

                                                Search                                                                               Search                                              Search
                                                Baseline                                                                             Term Expansion                                      Key Identification



 Track 2: Unified Service Delivery

 UE      Site Architecture      UE         Core Web Site
                                                                                                                                                      Aggregated Market-Centric Pages
 Diff.   & Design               POC        Implementation




                                                                  Migration     Data Architecture
                                                                                                        Product Migration
                                                                  Planning      Foundation Imp.


 Track 3: Global Site Support

                             Country/Lang                                                                                                                                                        Affiliate Integration
                             Selector                                                                                                                                                            Support

                                                                  Migration
                                                                                Global Site Migration
                                                                  Planning

                                                                                                                                                      Improved Local
                                                                                                                                                      Language Support


 Track 4: Governance

 Governance                                                 Tax./Ont.         Content/Publication
               UE Governance       Arch Governance                                                      Ongoing Governance & Oversight
 Planning                                                   Governance        Governance


               Product Lifecycle Process
               Improvement




                                             Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                                                             Joe Lamantia                     12
Information Retrieval

Goals and Recommendations



         Goals                                                                          Recommendations

        Provide enhanced support for related                                        Develop an information
          research identification and retrieval                                       taxonomy and ontology

        Implement robust document and content                                       Extend metadata collection
          categorization to enable more effective
          keyword searches                                                           Implement a robust search architecture


        Enable efficient topical searching of all
                                                                                     Build user-centric search
          documents and content                                                       interfaces

        Develop advanced search capabilities that
          align to industry best practices




                         Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009        Joe Lamantia    13
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                     Future State


      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                   N/A
      mean?)




      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                    Search Results

                                                                                          Did you mean?         Refine Search

                                                                                          Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                         Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                    Matching Research


                                                                                          Other Results
                                                                                                                Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)




      Other Matches
      (i.e. site content,             N/A
      products, etc…)




                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009    Joe Lamantia             14
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                     Future State

                                                                           Integrate
      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                                                         Results
                                      N/A                                  • Improves
      mean?)
                                                                            usability of the
                                                                            search interfaces
                                                                          • Increases the
                                                                            probability of
                                                                            finding the
      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
                                                                            desired result
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                    Search Results

                                                                                          Did you mean?         Refine Search

                                                                                          Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                         Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                    Matching Research


                                                                                          Other Results
                                                                                                                Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)




      Other Matches
      (i.e. site content,             N/A
      products, etc…)




                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009    Joe Lamantia             14
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                                    Future State

                                                                           Integrate                         Suggest
      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                                                         Results                          Alternate
                                      N/A                                  • Improves                        Searches
      mean?)
                                                                            usability of the                 Provides
                                                                            search interfaces                alternate
                                                                          • Increases the                    search terms
                                                                            probability of                   such as
                                                                            finding the                      corrections
      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
                                                                            desired result                   of CRSspelled
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                    Search Results       words


                                                                                          Did you mean?                        Refine Search

                                                                                          Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                                        Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                    Matching Research


                                                                                          Other Results
                                                                                                                               Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)




      Other Matches
      (i.e. site content,             N/A
      products, etc…)




                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                   Joe Lamantia             14
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                                    Future State

                                                                           Integrate                         Suggest               Group
      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                                                         Results                          Alternate             Results
                                      N/A                                  • Improves                        Searches              Provides
      mean?)
                                                                            usability of the                 Provides              user with
                                                                            search interfaces                alternate             context to
                                                                          • Increases the                    search terms          help
                                                                            probability of                   such as               interpret
                                                                            finding the                      corrections           result sets
      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
                                                                            desired result                   of CRSspelled
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                    Search Results       words


                                                                                          Did you mean?                        Refine Search

                                                                                          Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                                        Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                    Matching Research


                                                                                          Other Results
                                                                                                                               Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)




      Other Matches
      (i.e. site content,             N/A
      products, etc…)




                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                   Joe Lamantia             14
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                                    Future State

                                                                           Integrate                         Suggest               Group
      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                                                         Results                          Alternate             Results
                                      N/A                                  • Improves                        Searches              Provides
      mean?)
                                                                            usability of the                 Provides              user with
                                                                            search interfaces                alternate             context to
                                                                          • Increases the                    search terms          help
                                                                            probability of                   such as               interpret
                                                                            finding the                      corrections           result sets
      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
                                                                            desired result                   of CRSspelled
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                    Search Results       words


                                                                                          Did you mean?                        Refine Search

                                                                                          Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                                        Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                    Matching Research


                                                                                          Other Results
                                                                                                                               Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)



                                                                           Provide Other
                                                                            Matches
                                                                           • Includes  non-
      Other Matches                                                          research
      (i.e. site content,             N/A                                    document
      products, etc…)
                                                                             content such as
                                                                             Rating Definitions
                                                                             eliminating need
                                                                             for users to
                                                                             know what content
                                                                             is and is
                                                                             not searched
                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                   Joe Lamantia             14
Information Retrieval

Build User-Centric Search Interfaces

  Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search



      Current State                                                                                                                                   Future State

                                                                           Integrate                              Suggest                         Group
      Search Suggestions
      (i.e. Did you                                                         Results                               Alternate                       Results
                                      N/A                                  • Improves                             Searches                        Provides
      mean?)
                                                                            usability of the                      Provides                        user with
                                                                            search interfaces                     alternate                       context to
                                                                          • Increases the                         search terms                    help
                                                                            probability of                        such as                         interpret
                                                                            finding the                           corrections                     result sets
      Matching Issuers                                                    Client.com
                                                                            desired result                        of CRSspelled
      (grouped by
      business line)                                                                       Search Results         words


                                                                                               Did you mean?                                 Refine Search

                                                                                               Matching Issuers

      Matching Research                                                                                                                      Save Search
      (Document Title)                                                                         Matching Research


                                                                                               Other Results
                                                                                                                                             Modify Alerts

      Matching Research
      (Full Text)



                                                                           Provide Other                               Support Derivative
                                                                            Matches                                     Actions
                                                                           • Includes   non-                           • Allows  refinement of
      Other Matches                                                          research                                    search criteria based
      (i.e. site content,             N/A                                    document                                    on initial results
      products, etc…)
                                                                             content such as                           • Enables saving search
                                                                             Rating Definitions                          criteria for future use
                                                                             eliminating need                          • Provides framework to
                                                                             for users to                                modify alerts
                                                                             know what content                           preferences based on
                                                                             is and is                                   search results (and/
                                                                             not searched                                or setup RSS feeds)
                            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                                   Joe Lamantia            14
Understanding Audiences


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   15
Audiences: Overview of User Groups



  Customers                            Users (non paying)                       Client Services                     Client Analysts




                                       This group utilizes Client.com to
 This group includes the range of
                                       support diverse purposes                 This group provides Client.com      Client analysts create the
 Client.com customers, from
                                       inlcuding research and                   customers with service and          valuable research and data
 Ratings Advisors to Credit
                                       regulation, that are not                 support for the research and data   delivered to customers via
 Analysts and Portfolio Managers
                                       connected to a credit issue or           or analytics offerings delivered    Client.com. Client Analysts
                                       other buying or selling decision.        via the web site. It includes       specialize in a particular area of
                                                                                customer facing roles, as well as   the market, and often have
                                                                                IT staff, and Issuer Relations.     contact with customers needing
                                                                                                                    additional clarification or insight
                                                                                                                    into Client actions and
                                                                                                                    viewpoints.




                           Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009              99   Joe Lamantia                 16
“Personas”

   Client Analysts
   Group 4


                                                        Access to all types of information is needed at
                                                        every moment of every day



   Analysts Needs/Goals
   •Easy access to research written by other Client analysts
   •Views of underlying data to support analysis when talking with customers
   •Ability to monitor publications on topics and industries related to their expertise


   Analysts Key Opportunities
   •Change perceptions of IR effectiveness by creating focused tools for specialized IR needs
   •Create focused tools for other job needs, such as document management
   •Provide cross-reference capabilities




                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   17
“Access to all types of
information is needed
at every moment of
every day.”


  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   18
Track Differentiation
Breadth vs. Depth

Track 1 took a deep dive into the requirements surrounding information retrieval, while
Track 2 took a broader and shallower view of the entire set of requirements.




                                                                Breadth
                                       Track 2:
                                        U.S.D.


                                                                                                                  Key

                                                                                                                Phase 1

                                                                                                                Phase 2
                        Depth
                                                                                                                Phase 3
                                                     Track 1:
                                                     Info
                                    Complete Scope




                                                     Retrieval
                                    Client.com




                                                                        Track 2:            Track 3:
                                                                        Products            Global




                          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   21
Understanding Experiences




   Why are people here?

   What are they doing?

               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   22
Design Research
Design Research




Declarative                     Demonstrative
Design Research

Structured                      Open


Declarative                     Demonstrative
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative




Individual                       Group
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative


Descriptive                      Predictive


Individual                       Group
Research Techniques




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs
Heuristic review




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs
Heuristic review
Usability testing



              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs
Heuristic review
Usability testing
Expert interviews


              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs
Heuristic review
Usability testing
Expert interviews
Concept mapping
              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Research Techniques


Customer interviews
Site visits
Contextual inquiry
Log analysis
Query logs
Heuristic review
Usability testing
Expert interviews
Concept mapping
Task analysis Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   24
Method: Understanding Goals


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   25
Design Research
Design Research




Declarative                     Demonstrative
Design Research

Structured                      Open


Declarative                     Demonstrative
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative




Individual                       Group
Design Research

Structured                       Open


Declarative                      Demonstrative


Quantitative                     Qualitative


Descriptive                      Predictive


Individual                       Group
Grounded Theory




      If your research goal is accurate description, then
      another method should be chosen since Grounded
      Theory is not a descriptive method.
      Instead it has the goal of generating concepts that
      explain people’s actions regardless of time and place.
      The descriptive parts of a GT are there mainly to
      illustrate the concepts.
                                                                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grounded_theory




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                 Joe Lamantia    27
Grounded Theory




    What most differentiates grounded theory from
    much other research is that it is explicitly
    emergent.  It does not test a hypothesis. 

    It sets out to find what theory accounts for
    the research situation as it is. 

    The aim, as Glaser in particular states it, is to
    discover the theory implicit in the data.



              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   28
Design Research




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   29
Interviews

   Raw Goals


   Root Goals


    Objects


Concrete Goals
Understanding User Goals



     Raw Goals
                                      Read operating guidelines

  Scan technical support requests

                 Review installation instructions



                Review technical specifications

               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   31
Understanding User Goals



     Root Goal
     Review
     “To examine in detail”




               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   32
User Goals

Assess means to make a judgement or decision about, considering relevant
factors

Compare means to review the similarities and differences of two or more
examples of the same type of thing by looking at them in detail

Find means to learn the location and status of

Identify means to distinguish by the use of specific criteria

Locate means to become aware of where and how a thing may be found, and /
or contacted.




                Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   33
User Goals

Monitor means to track the status and location of

Obtain means to acquire and retain for other purposes

Review means to examine in detail

Save means to store and keep

See means to be presented with in a manner that makes assumed
relationships or characteristics apparent

Understand means to consider all available points of view or sources of
information on a topic / item / situation, and formulate an opinion and frame of
reference for oneʼs own purposes.




                Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   34
Understanding User Goals



     Objects (Nouns)
                                      Analyst report
       Rating
                                                                                          Insurer

                 Issuer                                  Security


                                                                              Rating Type
                Country

               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009       Joe Lamantia   35
Concept Maps




               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   36
Modes




        Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   37
Understanding User Goals



     Concrete Goal
     “Root goal + [object]”

     Review ratings
     Review issuers
     Review securities
     Review reports
     Review rating types

               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   38
User Goals




             Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   39
“When you
come to a fork
in the road...
...take it.”
Exercise: Interviews


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   41
Situation

Your company
• Helps people buy and sell property

• Rates the value of properties, and analyzes the property market for the whole world

• You offer these ratings and reports online

• Customers pay for access to the reports and ratings

• You will improve the on-line tools people use to find reports and ratings.




Audiences & Customers
• Buyers want to purchase properties

• Sellers want to sell their properties

• Brokers want to help buy and sell properties for clients




                   Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   42
Interviewing

Get people to tell stories
Ask open questions: Who? How? When?
Active listening, not leading.
Reach for depth, context & richness.

Extend: And then? After that? What else?
Broaden: Similar to / like ____?
Examples: An example is _____?
Detail: Specifically ____?
Background: Why? Because...?
Negation: You donʼt ___? Why not?
Test: Never? Always? Everyone?
Doublecheck: You said _____. Is that right?

                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   43
Interview!
Listen for repeated / similar tasks
Identify verbs
Identify nouns
Emotions = importance



             Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   44
Understanding User Goals



     Concrete Goal
     “Root goal + [object]”

     Review ratings
     Review issuers
     Review securities
     Review reports
     Review rating types

               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   45
Understanding Needs




What root goals did you hear?

What objects?

What concrete goals?

              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   46
Findings


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   47
User Feedback




                Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   48
Understanding Experiences




   Why are people here?



               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   49
Understanding Experiences




                        “To retrieve
                       information”


               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   50
Understanding Experiences




   What are they doing?



               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   51
Understanding Experiences




                        “Retrieving
                       information”


               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   52
User Goals




             Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   53
Break (5 min)


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   54
Understanding Experiences




           How do they __?



               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   55
Modes




cross-channel & cross-media
interaction centric
emerge from user behavior
group diverse activities


        Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   56
Modes


    Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   57
Modes




        “…a broad but identifiable method,
        mood, or manner that is not
                               tied
        exclusively to a particular
        form or genre.”

                                                            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)




            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009               Joe Lamantia   58
Modes




4 Modes of Information Retrieval
Seeking & Finding
Visiting Stable Destinations
Monitoring
Taking Delivery


        Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   59
Modes

                           Seeking & Finding
                           The seeking mode focuses on traditional searching, but includes
                           other activities such as narrowing sets using cumulative
                           parameters, finding with/in faceted systems.
    Seeking &
     Finding
                           The key characteristic of seeking mode is that, users bring the
                           situations and contexts (like search results) they encounter into
                           existence by seeking them out.


                           When seeking, users encounter fluid destinations within the larger
                           information environment based on what they are looking for, and
                           how they are looking for it.


                           A classic example of seeking mode is a user who poses an ad-
                           hoc query via a search interface, and sorts through the list of
                           search results returned in response.



            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   60
Modes

                           Seeking & Finding
                           Finding could take the form of active searching by posing queries
                           to a search-style input experience.

    Seeking &
                           Finding could also take the form of refining a list of potentially
     Finding
                           useful items based on facets of the content.


                           Users may not know in advance what finding activities will yield.


                           Users may receive a set of search results that includes many
                           different types of items, from many different authors or content
                           sources that conceptually relate to what they began looking for
                           based on mappings of terms and concepts.




            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   61
Modes

                              Visiting Stable Destinations
                              When visiting stable destinations, users encounter stable places
                              within the information environment that exist regardless of the
                              user's activities.
  Visiting Stable
   Destinations
                              Destinations will offer users a set of things they know in advance
                              and expect to encounter. Persistence could be conceptual only,
                              reflected in navigation elements, or made part of the user
                              experience via any number of mechanisms.


                              All destinations have a focus of some kind, such as a topic, or
                              product, or event, and may be defined by the intersection of
                              several focuses, such as products or documents created by one
                              person that are related to a topic or event.




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   66
Modes

                              Visiting Stable Destinations
                              Destinations could take the form of pages that assemble content,
                              research, ratings, and functionality either dynamically based on
                              business rules and profile information or manually selected by
  Visiting Stable             Client.com staff or the users.
   Destinations
                              Destinations will likely change based on business rules and user
                              context, as well as changes in the items available within the
                              environment.


                              A good example of a stable destination is the Arts page of the
                              New York Time online; the articles and the art they concern
                              change constantly, yet users know what to expect when they
                              visit. The page is a visible part of the environment conceptually
                              (as a category) and in terms of navigation, and is easily
                              accessible directly from outside the environment.




              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   67
Modes




   Monitoring




            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   70
Modes

                            Monitoring
                            Monitoring effectively extends the user experience and
                            information retrieval capabilities beyond the boundaries of the
                            originating environment, and allows users to know in advance
                            what they will find or encounter when they enter the environment.
   Monitoring

                            For example, a user may wish to monitor the publications
                            concerning an issue in their portfolio; while the contents of new
                            publications would vary, every notification they receive would
                            concern a known issue.


                            Monitoring requires messages or communication tokens,
                            commonly email, RSS, or SMS, but could take many other forms
                            as well.




            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   71
Modes

                               Delivery
                               In this mode, users do not have to enter the environment at all to
                               retrieve information, enabling them to further goals without
                               increasing acquisition costs or effort.

    Delivery
                               Delivery could take the form of packages of documents or other
                               content dispatched to users via numerous channels, such as
                               RSS, email, SMS, etc.


                               Receiving delivered items is the least active mode we defined for
                               users, allowing them to retrieve information without actively
                               seeking, visiting a destination, or monitoring the environment.


                               Good examples of delivered information are the iconic stock
                               ticker, RSS feeds for blog postings, and email publications.




               Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   73
Modes




                                   Monitoring                                     Seeking



        Fluidity

                                                                          Visiting Stable
                                      Delivery
                                                                           Destinations




                                                        Activity
            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   75
Other Modes



Environment: transactional, siloed

Creative
Social
Collaborative
Competitive

              Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   76
What is the experience?




     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   77
Scenarios


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   78
Scenarios


Forward looking
Narrative
Communicate Vision
Speaks local language
Persona > Goal = Experience



            Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   79
Understanders and Decision Makers

Scenario: Evaluate New Issue




              William C. | Credit Analyst
              Customer evaluates new issue quickly



  William, a Credit Analyst,                    William turns to Client.com,         The destination lists initial       The issue destination also
  sees in his Bloomberg                         and searches for information         ratings and research for the        offers a list of peer issuers
  console that a hospital he                    on the issue by entering the         issue.                              (similar hospitals, or in the
  watches has offered a new                     CUSIP.                                                                   same region), as well as
  issue.                                                                             William also finds the most         their senior un-secured
                                                William is taken directly to         recent publications on the          ratings.
                                                the destination for the new          issuer and the industry the
                                                issue.                               issuer belongs to, and a link       A summary and extract of
                                                                                 F   to the destination for the      F                                   F
                                                                                                                         Client most recent credit
                                                                                 S   issuer.                         S   opinion on the issue and        S
                                                                                                                         issuer appears as well.




         William reads the
         summaries, considers the
         ratings, and formulates an
         opinion about the new issue
         based on the collected
         information Client.com
         presented.

                                               F
                                               S




                                              IR Modes Referenced
                             F      Finding                   M     Monitoring
                             S      Stable Destination        D     Delivery

                                 Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                49   Joe Lamantia             80
Research and Ratings Originators

Scenario: Rate New Issuer




               Rebecca M. | Client Analyst
               Client Analyst understands new domain to rate a new issuer



  Rebecca is a Banking Analyst                  Rebecca visits the Latin                With an overview of the                     Rebecca visits the
  for Client, focused on Latin                  American banking group                  activity in her field by other              destination for the Japanese
  American banks. She needs                     destination. She is offered             analysts,Rebecca moves on                   parent.
  to rate a new issuer - a                      links to destinations for new           to the linked new issuer
  Chilean bank whose parent                     issuers, all analysts tracking          page, which collects all                    Here she reviews current
  company is domiciled in                       Latin American banks, and               recent publications                         ratings and the ratings
  Japan.                                        recent rating actions taken             concerning the issuer, shows                history for the parent, as
                                                on issues in Latin American             the latest rating available for             well as a summary of the
  Rating this issuer requires                   banking.                                the Japanese parent                         most recent credit outlook
  Rebecca to understand                                                          S      company, and links to the         S         and credit opinion Client has   S
  subjects outside her                                                                  destination for the parent                  published about the parent.
  expertise.                                                                            company.




         Rebecca has stronger                          She visits the destination for            Rebecca contacts two of the
         context, but would like to                    Latin America, which                      analysts, to discuss specific
         speak with someone who                        identifies appropriate                    questions on economic
         knows more about Latin                        analysts from the Sovereign               factors in Latin America, and
         American regional                             Group, and offers recently                trends in Chile’s fiscal policy.
         economics, and Chilean fiscal                 published research
         policy.                                       discussing major trends in                With her more complete
                                                       econoimc development                      understanding, Rebecca is
                                                       across the region.                        confident she can rate the
                                                                                        S        Chilean issuer properly.           S




                                              IR Modes Referenced
                                F   Finding                   M     Monitoring
                                S   Stable Destination        D     Delivery

                                    Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                       50    Joe Lamantia             81
Reference Users

Scenario: Researching Complex Topic




              Peter N. | Corporate Librarian
              Non-expert assembles research on complex topic



  Peter, a Corporate Librarian,                Peter logs on to Client.com.            The returned results suggest           The results list items for
  must respond to a request                    This is a new topic he has              that Peter would be                    Peter’s query, and the special
  from an Analyst for the                      not researched before, so he            interested in a special topic,         topic Asian Financial Crisis.
  research that Client has                     chooses to directly enter a             “The Asian Financial Crisis”.          He saves links to both topics.
  published on the after effects               query for “asian currency
  of the Asian currency                        collapse effects” covering all          The results also provide               Peter can search again,
  collapse.                                    types of research.                      Peter suggestions for related          automatically using the
                                                                                       special topics, such as                special topics as a basis for
                                                                                F      “Korean Financial Market”,        F                                     F
                                                                                                                              the new query, applying
                                                                                       and links to destinations for     S    additional parameters to the     S
                                                                                       all suggested special topics.          combined query as needed.




         Peter refines the query,                     Peter sorts the returned                 Peter includes the saved
         using terms related to the                   results by date, and filters             links to the special topic
         request such as corporate                    out several types of                     destinations in his response
         governance, and setting the                  publications he does not                 to the analyst’s request.
         scope to specific countries                  need to satisfy the request,
         the analyst is interested in,                and chooses five pieces of               Peter dispatches the
         such as Korea and                            research to download at                  downloaded files to the
         Singapore.                                   once, in the format the                  analyst.
                                              F       analyst prefers.                F




                                             IR Modes Referenced
                             F     Finding                   M     Monitoring
                             S     Stable Destination        D     Delivery

                                   Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                  51    Joe Lamantia              82
Understanders and Decision Makers

Scenario: Monitor Portfolio (Activity / Research)




              Anike W. | Portfolio Manager
              Track research published across portfolio of issuers



  Anike manages a portfolio of                  Anike regularly visits the            Anike’s group destinations            Anike needs to know
  credit issues from a large                    destinations for her groups           provide a list of recent rating       immediately of any changes
  number of issuers. She has                    to see what new research of           actions for her issuers,              in the outlook for one issuer
  created several groups of                     interest to her is available.         gather links to all new               in the news for potential
  issuers on Client.com to help                                                       research of chosen types on           difficulties.
  her monitor the changes in                                                          the issues, list industries
  Client view of the issues and                                                       covered by the group,                 She creates an alert that will
  issuers in her portfolios.                                                          indicate new research                 send her notice of an rating
                                                                                      published on the issuers, and         action or new research
                                     S                                           S    offer destinations for the        S   mentioning this issuer or        S
                                     M                                           M    regions where issues are          M   issue.                           M
                                                                                      domiciled.




         Anike may need to change
         the mix in her portfolio. Her
         groups destination includes a
         cross-reference link to
         information on three issuers
         in her group offered by the
         Market Implied Ratings
         product.

         Anike’s firm may purchase             S
         MIR, so she follows the link.         M



                                              IR Modes Referenced
                             F      Finding                   M     Monitoring
                             S      Stable Destination        D     Delivery

                                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                  52   Joe Lamantia              83
Reference Users

Scenario: Customer Support




              Margaret T. | Client Service Desk
              Service desk assists customer



  A frustrated customer calls                 Margaret locates the Annual            She offers to explain three             She explains where the list
  the Client Service Desk to                  Default Report in the list of          easy ways to obtain the                 appears at key locations
  retrieve the Annual Default                 “Most Requested Items”                 study that are faster than              throughout Client.com, such
  Study, without checking                                                            calling.                                as the home page.
  Client.com.                                 Margaret asks what file
                                              format the customer prefers.           Margaret recommends using               She tells the customer how
  After many failed attempts in                                                      the “Most Requested Items”              to directly download the
  the past, the customer                      She emails the Annual                  list which gathers the most             latest version of the ADR and
  refuses to try finding things               Default Study to the                   needed publications across              other commonly needed
  on Client.com…                              customer.                          S   all business lines and         S        publications in a variety of    S
                                                                                     document types.                         file formats.




         Margaret also tells the                     She describes different                  The customer asks how to               The customer thanks
         customer how to bookmark                    delivery channels for the                set this up.                           Margaret for making things
         the destination page for the                alerts, email, RSS, etc.                                                        easier to find without
         Annual Default Study, where                                                          Margaret guides the                    mistakes, wasted time, or
         the latest version is always                The customer does not want               customer through setting up            making many phone calls.
         available.                                  to receive any additional                a subscription to the Annual
                                                     alerts.                                  Default Report by activating
         She explains how the                        Margaret explains how the                this feature (from the
         customer can set an alert to                customer can have the latest             bookmarked destination
         be notified when the Annual         S       version of the Annual Default            page, or other locations).
         Default study is updated.           M       Study automatically sent        M
                                                     out.                            D                                       D


                                            IR Modes Referenced
                            F     Finding                   M     Monitoring
                            S     Stable Destination        D     Delivery

                                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                  53   Joe Lamantia               84
Understanders and Decision Makers

Scenario: Understand & Interpret Methodology




              Simon L. | Ratings Advisor
              Customer quickly locates methodology documents



  Simon, a ratings advisor at                   Simon logs on to Client.com.             Simon wants a longer term               Simon quickly locates the
  an investment bank, needs                     Simon is presented with                  view of Client methodologies            methodology publications
  to understand Client method                   recent and frequently                    for structured finance. He              pertaining to asset backed
  for rating asset backed                       requested publications in the            navigates to the linked                 securities.
  securities..                                  area of structured finance,              destination for all
                                                based on his role, profile,              methodology publications,               He selects several that meet
                                                and interests.                           and focuses on the segment              his needs, indicates that he
                                                                                         for structured finance.                 wants them added to a new
                                                                                                                                 packet of documents for
                                                                                 S                                         S     later use.                       S
                                                                                 M                                        M




         Simon chooses to download                    On the methodologies page,                 Simon begins listening to the           He follows the link to the
         the methodology documents                    Simon sees a reference to a                recorded, to see if he should           destination page for the
         immediately, as well as save                 recorded Client briefing on                listen to the entire briefing           analyst, to see if the analyst
         the packet for later.                        emerging markets                           now, later, or at all.                  has written any interesting
                                                      methodologies.                                                                     publications recently.
         He reviews the packet,                                                                  While listening, Simon
         chooses the file format, and                 He reviews the summary of                  recognizes the name of a                Simon stops and bookmarks
         downloads the individual files               the briefing. It includes a list           Client analyst in the list of           the recorded briefing for
         all at the same time.                        of the other topics addressed              participants.                           later, and begins to review
                                               S      in the call, as well as the        S                                       S       the downloaded                   S
                                                      agenda and Client                                                                  methodology documents.
                                                      participants.

                                              IR Modes Referenced
                             F      Finding                  M      Monitoring
                             S      Stable Destination       D      Delivery

                                 Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009                       54   Joe Lamantia                   85
Using Scenarios

Challenges
 • Making the scenarios comprehensive across
  tasks and user types, given the large number of
  user types in the User Needs Matrix
 • Incorporating personas that illustrated differences
  in how users might interact with the system
 • Differences in the usersʼ end goals and job
  requirements
 • Client requested modifications very late in the
  process


Findings
 • Scenarios support an overall vision of customer
  experience and solution
 • Technical clients often to try to mold scenarios
  into use cases




                   Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   86
What is the offering?




      Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   87
IR Requirements




                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   88
Narrative Continuity




                            Narrative Continuity


                Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009             Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009              Joe Lamantia   89
Narrative Continuity




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                  Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009              Joe Lamantia         89
Patterns


     Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   90
Patterns


Repeated combinations of the modes
Longer-term perspective on behavior
Clarify experience value
Identify strategic opportunity




           Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   91
Desire path
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



A desire path (or desire line) is a path developed by erosion caused by animal
or human footfall. The path usually represents the shortest or most easily
navigated route between an origin and destination. The width and amount of
erosion of the line represents the amount of demand.

The term was coined by Gaston Bachelard in his book The Poetics of Space.[1]

Desire paths can usually be found as shortcuts where constructed pathways take
a circuitous route.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_path
Desire path
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



A desire path (or desire line) is a path developed by erosion caused by animal
or human footfall. The path usually represents the shortest or most easily
navigated route between an origin and destination. The width and amount of
erosion of the line represents the amount of demand.

The term was coined by Gaston Bachelard in his book The Poetics of Space.[1]

Desire paths can usually be found as shortcuts where constructed pathways take
a circuitous route.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_path
Information Retrieval Patterns



    Seeker
    The Seeker is looking for something.
    Once found, the Seeker goes elsewhere to accomplish other goals.




                                                                        Visiting Stable
         Seeking
                                                                         Destinations




                 Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   93
Example




          Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009   Joe Lamantia   94
Information Retrieval Patterns



    Regular Customer
    The Regular Customer visits the same destination(s) consistently for the same
    reasons. Then the Regular Customer realizes they can save the time and effort of
    visiting, and switches modes to have the things they need delivered directly to them.




      Visiting Stable
                                                                                         Delivery
       Destinations




                 Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009     Joe Lamantia   95
Designing Goal-based Experiences
Designing Goal-based Experiences
Designing Goal-based Experiences
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Designing Goal-based Experiences

  • 2. Joe Lamantia Independent Consultant 15 years: design, technology, business write & speak: user experience – ubicomp JoeLamantia.com @mojoe joe.lamantia@gmail.com
  • 4. Todayʼs Menu Introductions & Background - 20 min Understanding Audiences - 40 min Break - 10 min Modes, Scenarios, Patterns & Life-cycles - 60 min Break - 10 min Design - 20 min Lessons - 20 min Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 4
  • 5. Background Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 5
  • 6. Partnership with Keane Information Collection and Business Surveyor Project Profile Process Transformation Client: Leading Provider of Credit Ratings, Research and Risk Analysis for Fixed-Income Securities and Other Obligations Business Need: Evolve the website into a more compelling information delivery environment that is superior to competitor sites, promotes the companyʼs overall business objectives, and meets the needs of business users, shareholders, issuers and investors Strategic Goals • Usability: Identify usability issues and recommend areas of improvement to ensure that customers and stakeholders will use it because they want to, not because they have to • Scalability: Define a site architecture that is clearly capable of supporting future increases in user base and functional capability • Flexibility: Define a site structure that allows for functional enhancements to made easily within a reasonable time-to- market • Reliability: Verify that the right architectural components, monitoring tools and operational practices are being used to ensure that the site is stable and continues to run smoothly • Manageability: Develop a build vs. buy strategy that makes the most efficient use of internal resources Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 6
  • 7. Scope Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 8. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 9. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics 700,000 documents • Refresh 1000 / day • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 10. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics 700,000 documents • Refresh 1000 / day • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt Millions of data points (ratings) • Qualitative and quantitative Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 11. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics 700,000 documents • Refresh 1000 / day • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt Millions of data points (ratings) • Qualitative and quantitative 25 Services & products on-line • Combining documents and data • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 12. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics 700,000 documents • Refresh 1000 / day • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt Millions of data points (ratings) • Qualitative and quantitative 25 Services & products on-line • Combining documents and data • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities Multiple delivery channels • Web applications, desktop applications, data feeds, document repository, web repository Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 13. Scope Address the full spectrum of global finance • Worldwide and real time • All activities & topics 700,000 documents • Refresh 1000 / day • Diverse formats; pdf, doc, txt Millions of data points (ratings) • Qualitative and quantitative 25 Services & products on-line • Combining documents and data • Business intelligence, analysis / synthesis capabilities Multiple delivery channels • Web applications, desktop applications, data feeds, document repository, web repository Diverse customers • 100,000 users • All perspectives Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 7
  • 14. Current Limitations Barriers to Ratings and Research Expansion Clients can only realize the value of Client research if they can find it User Issues Business Impacts  Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search  Detracts from the value of Client ratings and research  No document cross-referencing  Limits ability to attract and retain “non-captive”  Ability to browse content tedious at best customers in new markets Example Scenario: Search for Relevant Research Senior Credit Analyst ! ! ! ! Client.com “quick search” for “Quick search” by “Ticker” for Advanced Search; Leaves Client.com and finds “British Air”; no search BAY.L; no search results non-intuitive interface desired content on results found found competitor’s website “You have to know what you’re looking for” — Senior Credit Analyst, AIG Global Investment Group Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 8
  • 15. Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains assorted Related Research tab shows a Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site first, links and tabs; content not seemingly random list of number of ill-defined doc because competitor’s site is on one page assorted documents types, published at easier to use different times Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 9
  • 16. Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains assorted Related Research tab shows a Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site first, links and tabs; content not seemingly random list of number of ill-defined doc because competitor’s site is on one page assorted documents types, published at easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 9
  • 17. Problem Example: Barriers to Value Perception A poor user experience lowered perceptions of Client Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains assorted Related Research tab shows a Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site first, links and tabs; content not seemingly random list of number of ill-defined doc because competitor’s site is on one page assorted documents types, published at easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory User Issues  Research content is inconsistent Business Impacts  Hampers deepening of relationships  Related research functions are ineffective with established clients  Sites are difficult for users to understand  Detracts from the company’s reputation as an and navigate authoritative source of high quality info Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 9
  • 18. Business Problems Client.com could not effectively support growth because it failed to meet users’ needs Barriers to Product Adoption Data & Employees  Limited integration of data and features Analytics  Lack of common user experience Data & Analytics Markets Quantitative Users Barriers to Ratings and Research Xyz Ratings & Expansion Adjacent Markets Research  Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search Equity Investors, Hedge Fund Managers  Limited related research navigation Traditional Markets Issuers, Intermediaries & Fixed Barriers to Emerging Market Income Investors Global Development  Numerous barriers to getting basic information Expansion  Lack of integration between the main website and local Emerging Markets New Issuers, Intermediaries, & Investors content Non-Client Users Barriers to Value Perception Shareholders, Regulators, Recruits Co Maintain  Inconsistent research content & Journalists Integrity &  Sub-standard user experience Reputation Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 10
  • 19. Recommendations by Theme  Develop an information taxonomy and ontology 1 Information Retrieval  Extend metadata collection  Implement a robust search architecture  Build user-centric search interfaces 2  Implement a services-based architecture with a well defined business tier Growth Capacity  Standardize information supply chain, leveraging Module-3 designs, infrastructure and investment 3  Develop a unified service delivery platform User Centric Design  Consolidate & standardize content  Create a user-centric site structure 4  Unify core web site and regional sites Global Site Strategy  Support multiple approaches to affiliate site integration  Support translation of research content as needed 5 Governance  Establish cross-discipline oversight groups  Formalize product consistency "checkpoints" Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 11
  • 20. 36-Month Roadmap Phase 1: Foundation & Usability Phase 2: Consolidation & Scalability Phase 3: Integration & Flexibility Track 1: Information Retrieval Architecture, Design, Metadata Collection Metadata Collection Metadata Collection POC & Vendor Selection Baseline Automation Support Social Tagging Taxonomy/Metadata Taxonomy/Metadata Taxonomy/Metadata Mgmt. Baseline Mgmt. Automation Support Mgmt. Social Tagging Search Search Search Baseline Term Expansion Key Identification Track 2: Unified Service Delivery UE Site Architecture UE Core Web Site Aggregated Market-Centric Pages Diff. & Design POC Implementation Migration Data Architecture Product Migration Planning Foundation Imp. Track 3: Global Site Support Country/Lang Affiliate Integration Selector Support Migration Global Site Migration Planning Improved Local Language Support Track 4: Governance Governance Tax./Ont. Content/Publication UE Governance Arch Governance Ongoing Governance & Oversight Planning Governance Governance Product Lifecycle Process Improvement Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 12
  • 21. Information Retrieval Goals and Recommendations Goals Recommendations  Provide enhanced support for related  Develop an information research identification and retrieval taxonomy and ontology  Implement robust document and content  Extend metadata collection categorization to enable more effective keyword searches  Implement a robust search architecture  Enable efficient topical searching of all  Build user-centric search documents and content interfaces  Develop advanced search capabilities that align to industry best practices Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 13
  • 22. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you N/A mean?) Matching Issuers Client.com (grouped by business line) Search Results Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Other Matches (i.e. site content, N/A products, etc…) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 23. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Integrate Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you Results N/A • Improves mean?) usability of the search interfaces • Increases the probability of finding the Matching Issuers Client.com desired result (grouped by business line) Search Results Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Other Matches (i.e. site content, N/A products, etc…) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 24. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Integrate Suggest Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you Results Alternate N/A • Improves Searches mean?) usability of the Provides search interfaces alternate • Increases the search terms probability of such as finding the corrections Matching Issuers Client.com desired result of CRSspelled (grouped by business line) Search Results words Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Other Matches (i.e. site content, N/A products, etc…) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 25. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Integrate Suggest Group Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you Results Alternate Results N/A • Improves Searches Provides mean?) usability of the Provides user with search interfaces alternate context to • Increases the search terms help probability of such as interpret finding the corrections result sets Matching Issuers Client.com desired result of CRSspelled (grouped by business line) Search Results words Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Other Matches (i.e. site content, N/A products, etc…) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 26. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Integrate Suggest Group Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you Results Alternate Results N/A • Improves Searches Provides mean?) usability of the Provides user with search interfaces alternate context to • Increases the search terms help probability of such as interpret finding the corrections result sets Matching Issuers Client.com desired result of CRSspelled (grouped by business line) Search Results words Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Provide Other Matches • Includes non- Other Matches research (i.e. site content, N/A document products, etc…) content such as Rating Definitions eliminating need for users to know what content is and is not searched Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 27. Information Retrieval Build User-Centric Search Interfaces Integrated and full-featured search interfaces will increase the effectiveness of Client search Current State Future State Integrate Suggest Group Search Suggestions (i.e. Did you Results Alternate Results N/A • Improves Searches Provides mean?) usability of the Provides user with search interfaces alternate context to • Increases the search terms help probability of such as interpret finding the corrections result sets Matching Issuers Client.com desired result of CRSspelled (grouped by business line) Search Results words Did you mean? Refine Search Matching Issuers Matching Research Save Search (Document Title) Matching Research Other Results Modify Alerts Matching Research (Full Text) Provide Other Support Derivative Matches Actions • Includes non- • Allows refinement of Other Matches research search criteria based (i.e. site content, N/A document on initial results products, etc…) content such as • Enables saving search Rating Definitions criteria for future use eliminating need • Provides framework to for users to modify alerts know what content preferences based on is and is search results (and/ not searched or setup RSS feeds) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 14
  • 28. Understanding Audiences Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 15
  • 29. Audiences: Overview of User Groups Customers Users (non paying) Client Services Client Analysts This group utilizes Client.com to This group includes the range of support diverse purposes This group provides Client.com Client analysts create the Client.com customers, from inlcuding research and customers with service and valuable research and data Ratings Advisors to Credit regulation, that are not support for the research and data delivered to customers via Analysts and Portfolio Managers connected to a credit issue or or analytics offerings delivered Client.com. Client Analysts other buying or selling decision. via the web site. It includes specialize in a particular area of customer facing roles, as well as the market, and often have IT staff, and Issuer Relations. contact with customers needing additional clarification or insight into Client actions and viewpoints. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 99 Joe Lamantia 16
  • 30. “Personas” Client Analysts Group 4 Access to all types of information is needed at every moment of every day Analysts Needs/Goals •Easy access to research written by other Client analysts •Views of underlying data to support analysis when talking with customers •Ability to monitor publications on topics and industries related to their expertise Analysts Key Opportunities •Change perceptions of IR effectiveness by creating focused tools for specialized IR needs •Create focused tools for other job needs, such as document management •Provide cross-reference capabilities Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 17
  • 31. “Access to all types of information is needed at every moment of every day.” Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 18
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Track Differentiation Breadth vs. Depth Track 1 took a deep dive into the requirements surrounding information retrieval, while Track 2 took a broader and shallower view of the entire set of requirements. Breadth Track 2: U.S.D. Key Phase 1 Phase 2 Depth Phase 3 Track 1: Info Complete Scope Retrieval Client.com Track 2: Track 3: Products Global Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 21
  • 35. Understanding Experiences Why are people here? What are they doing? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 22
  • 38. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative
  • 39. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative
  • 40. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative Individual Group
  • 41. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative Descriptive Predictive Individual Group
  • 42. Research Techniques Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 43. Research Techniques Customer interviews Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 44. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 45. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 46. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 47. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 48. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Heuristic review Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 49. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Heuristic review Usability testing Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 50. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Heuristic review Usability testing Expert interviews Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 51. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Heuristic review Usability testing Expert interviews Concept mapping Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 52. Research Techniques Customer interviews Site visits Contextual inquiry Log analysis Query logs Heuristic review Usability testing Expert interviews Concept mapping Task analysis Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 24
  • 53. Method: Understanding Goals Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 25
  • 56. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative
  • 57. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative
  • 58. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative Individual Group
  • 59. Design Research Structured Open Declarative Demonstrative Quantitative Qualitative Descriptive Predictive Individual Group
  • 60. Grounded Theory If your research goal is accurate description, then another method should be chosen since Grounded Theory is not a descriptive method. Instead it has the goal of generating concepts that explain people’s actions regardless of time and place. The descriptive parts of a GT are there mainly to illustrate the concepts. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grounded_theory Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 27
  • 61. Grounded Theory What most differentiates grounded theory from much other research is that it is explicitly emergent.  It does not test a hypothesis.  It sets out to find what theory accounts for the research situation as it is.  The aim, as Glaser in particular states it, is to discover the theory implicit in the data. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 28
  • 62. Design Research Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 29
  • 63. Interviews Raw Goals Root Goals Objects Concrete Goals
  • 64. Understanding User Goals Raw Goals Read operating guidelines Scan technical support requests Review installation instructions Review technical specifications Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 31
  • 65. Understanding User Goals Root Goal Review “To examine in detail” Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 32
  • 66. User Goals Assess means to make a judgement or decision about, considering relevant factors Compare means to review the similarities and differences of two or more examples of the same type of thing by looking at them in detail Find means to learn the location and status of Identify means to distinguish by the use of specific criteria Locate means to become aware of where and how a thing may be found, and / or contacted. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 33
  • 67. User Goals Monitor means to track the status and location of Obtain means to acquire and retain for other purposes Review means to examine in detail Save means to store and keep See means to be presented with in a manner that makes assumed relationships or characteristics apparent Understand means to consider all available points of view or sources of information on a topic / item / situation, and formulate an opinion and frame of reference for oneʼs own purposes. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 34
  • 68. Understanding User Goals Objects (Nouns) Analyst report Rating Insurer Issuer Security Rating Type Country Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 35
  • 69. Concept Maps Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 36
  • 70. Modes Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 37
  • 71. Understanding User Goals Concrete Goal “Root goal + [object]” Review ratings Review issuers Review securities Review reports Review rating types Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 38
  • 72. User Goals Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 39
  • 73. “When you come to a fork in the road... ...take it.”
  • 74. Exercise: Interviews Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 41
  • 75. Situation Your company • Helps people buy and sell property • Rates the value of properties, and analyzes the property market for the whole world • You offer these ratings and reports online • Customers pay for access to the reports and ratings • You will improve the on-line tools people use to find reports and ratings. Audiences & Customers • Buyers want to purchase properties • Sellers want to sell their properties • Brokers want to help buy and sell properties for clients Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 42
  • 76. Interviewing Get people to tell stories Ask open questions: Who? How? When? Active listening, not leading. Reach for depth, context & richness. Extend: And then? After that? What else? Broaden: Similar to / like ____? Examples: An example is _____? Detail: Specifically ____? Background: Why? Because...? Negation: You donʼt ___? Why not? Test: Never? Always? Everyone? Doublecheck: You said _____. Is that right? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 43
  • 77. Interview! Listen for repeated / similar tasks Identify verbs Identify nouns Emotions = importance Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 44
  • 78. Understanding User Goals Concrete Goal “Root goal + [object]” Review ratings Review issuers Review securities Review reports Review rating types Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 45
  • 79. Understanding Needs What root goals did you hear? What objects? What concrete goals? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 46
  • 80. Findings Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 47
  • 81. User Feedback Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 48
  • 82. Understanding Experiences Why are people here? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 49
  • 83. Understanding Experiences “To retrieve information” Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 50
  • 84. Understanding Experiences What are they doing? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 51
  • 85. Understanding Experiences “Retrieving information” Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 52
  • 86. User Goals Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 53
  • 87. Break (5 min) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 54
  • 88. Understanding Experiences How do they __? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 55
  • 89. Modes cross-channel & cross-media interaction centric emerge from user behavior group diverse activities Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 56
  • 90. Modes Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 57
  • 91. Modes “…a broad but identifiable method, mood, or manner that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature) Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 58
  • 92. Modes 4 Modes of Information Retrieval Seeking & Finding Visiting Stable Destinations Monitoring Taking Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 59
  • 93. Modes Seeking & Finding The seeking mode focuses on traditional searching, but includes other activities such as narrowing sets using cumulative parameters, finding with/in faceted systems. Seeking & Finding The key characteristic of seeking mode is that, users bring the situations and contexts (like search results) they encounter into existence by seeking them out. When seeking, users encounter fluid destinations within the larger information environment based on what they are looking for, and how they are looking for it. A classic example of seeking mode is a user who poses an ad- hoc query via a search interface, and sorts through the list of search results returned in response. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 60
  • 94. Modes Seeking & Finding Finding could take the form of active searching by posing queries to a search-style input experience. Seeking & Finding could also take the form of refining a list of potentially Finding useful items based on facets of the content. Users may not know in advance what finding activities will yield. Users may receive a set of search results that includes many different types of items, from many different authors or content sources that conceptually relate to what they began looking for based on mappings of terms and concepts. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 61
  • 95.
  • 96.
  • 97.
  • 98.
  • 99. Modes Visiting Stable Destinations When visiting stable destinations, users encounter stable places within the information environment that exist regardless of the user's activities. Visiting Stable Destinations Destinations will offer users a set of things they know in advance and expect to encounter. Persistence could be conceptual only, reflected in navigation elements, or made part of the user experience via any number of mechanisms. All destinations have a focus of some kind, such as a topic, or product, or event, and may be defined by the intersection of several focuses, such as products or documents created by one person that are related to a topic or event. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 66
  • 100. Modes Visiting Stable Destinations Destinations could take the form of pages that assemble content, research, ratings, and functionality either dynamically based on business rules and profile information or manually selected by Visiting Stable Client.com staff or the users. Destinations Destinations will likely change based on business rules and user context, as well as changes in the items available within the environment. A good example of a stable destination is the Arts page of the New York Time online; the articles and the art they concern change constantly, yet users know what to expect when they visit. The page is a visible part of the environment conceptually (as a category) and in terms of navigation, and is easily accessible directly from outside the environment. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 67
  • 101.
  • 102.
  • 103. Modes Monitoring Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 70
  • 104. Modes Monitoring Monitoring effectively extends the user experience and information retrieval capabilities beyond the boundaries of the originating environment, and allows users to know in advance what they will find or encounter when they enter the environment. Monitoring For example, a user may wish to monitor the publications concerning an issue in their portfolio; while the contents of new publications would vary, every notification they receive would concern a known issue. Monitoring requires messages or communication tokens, commonly email, RSS, or SMS, but could take many other forms as well. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 71
  • 105.
  • 106. Modes Delivery In this mode, users do not have to enter the environment at all to retrieve information, enabling them to further goals without increasing acquisition costs or effort. Delivery Delivery could take the form of packages of documents or other content dispatched to users via numerous channels, such as RSS, email, SMS, etc. Receiving delivered items is the least active mode we defined for users, allowing them to retrieve information without actively seeking, visiting a destination, or monitoring the environment. Good examples of delivered information are the iconic stock ticker, RSS feeds for blog postings, and email publications. Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 73
  • 107.
  • 108. Modes Monitoring Seeking Fluidity Visiting Stable Delivery Destinations Activity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 75
  • 109. Other Modes Environment: transactional, siloed Creative Social Collaborative Competitive Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 76
  • 110. What is the experience? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 77
  • 111. Scenarios Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 78
  • 112. Scenarios Forward looking Narrative Communicate Vision Speaks local language Persona > Goal = Experience Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 79
  • 113. Understanders and Decision Makers Scenario: Evaluate New Issue William C. | Credit Analyst Customer evaluates new issue quickly William, a Credit Analyst, William turns to Client.com, The destination lists initial The issue destination also sees in his Bloomberg and searches for information ratings and research for the offers a list of peer issuers console that a hospital he on the issue by entering the issue. (similar hospitals, or in the watches has offered a new CUSIP. same region), as well as issue. William also finds the most their senior un-secured William is taken directly to recent publications on the ratings. the destination for the new issuer and the industry the issue. issuer belongs to, and a link A summary and extract of F to the destination for the F F Client most recent credit S issuer. S opinion on the issue and S issuer appears as well. William reads the summaries, considers the ratings, and formulates an opinion about the new issue based on the collected information Client.com presented. F S IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 49 Joe Lamantia 80
  • 114. Research and Ratings Originators Scenario: Rate New Issuer Rebecca M. | Client Analyst Client Analyst understands new domain to rate a new issuer Rebecca is a Banking Analyst Rebecca visits the Latin With an overview of the Rebecca visits the for Client, focused on Latin American banking group activity in her field by other destination for the Japanese American banks. She needs destination. She is offered analysts,Rebecca moves on parent. to rate a new issuer - a links to destinations for new to the linked new issuer Chilean bank whose parent issuers, all analysts tracking page, which collects all Here she reviews current company is domiciled in Latin American banks, and recent publications ratings and the ratings Japan. recent rating actions taken concerning the issuer, shows history for the parent, as on issues in Latin American the latest rating available for well as a summary of the Rating this issuer requires banking. the Japanese parent most recent credit outlook Rebecca to understand S company, and links to the S and credit opinion Client has S subjects outside her destination for the parent published about the parent. expertise. company. Rebecca has stronger She visits the destination for Rebecca contacts two of the context, but would like to Latin America, which analysts, to discuss specific speak with someone who identifies appropriate questions on economic knows more about Latin analysts from the Sovereign factors in Latin America, and American regional Group, and offers recently trends in Chile’s fiscal policy. economics, and Chilean fiscal published research policy. discussing major trends in With her more complete econoimc development understanding, Rebecca is across the region. confident she can rate the S Chilean issuer properly. S IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 50 Joe Lamantia 81
  • 115. Reference Users Scenario: Researching Complex Topic Peter N. | Corporate Librarian Non-expert assembles research on complex topic Peter, a Corporate Librarian, Peter logs on to Client.com. The returned results suggest The results list items for must respond to a request This is a new topic he has that Peter would be Peter’s query, and the special from an Analyst for the not researched before, so he interested in a special topic, topic Asian Financial Crisis. research that Client has chooses to directly enter a “The Asian Financial Crisis”. He saves links to both topics. published on the after effects query for “asian currency of the Asian currency collapse effects” covering all The results also provide Peter can search again, collapse. types of research. Peter suggestions for related automatically using the special topics, such as special topics as a basis for F “Korean Financial Market”, F F the new query, applying and links to destinations for S additional parameters to the S all suggested special topics. combined query as needed. Peter refines the query, Peter sorts the returned Peter includes the saved using terms related to the results by date, and filters links to the special topic request such as corporate out several types of destinations in his response governance, and setting the publications he does not to the analyst’s request. scope to specific countries need to satisfy the request, the analyst is interested in, and chooses five pieces of Peter dispatches the such as Korea and research to download at downloaded files to the Singapore. once, in the format the analyst. F analyst prefers. F IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 51 Joe Lamantia 82
  • 116. Understanders and Decision Makers Scenario: Monitor Portfolio (Activity / Research) Anike W. | Portfolio Manager Track research published across portfolio of issuers Anike manages a portfolio of Anike regularly visits the Anike’s group destinations Anike needs to know credit issues from a large destinations for her groups provide a list of recent rating immediately of any changes number of issuers. She has to see what new research of actions for her issuers, in the outlook for one issuer created several groups of interest to her is available. gather links to all new in the news for potential issuers on Client.com to help research of chosen types on difficulties. her monitor the changes in the issues, list industries Client view of the issues and covered by the group, She creates an alert that will issuers in her portfolios. indicate new research send her notice of an rating published on the issuers, and action or new research S S offer destinations for the S mentioning this issuer or S M M regions where issues are M issue. M domiciled. Anike may need to change the mix in her portfolio. Her groups destination includes a cross-reference link to information on three issuers in her group offered by the Market Implied Ratings product. Anike’s firm may purchase S MIR, so she follows the link. M IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 52 Joe Lamantia 83
  • 117. Reference Users Scenario: Customer Support Margaret T. | Client Service Desk Service desk assists customer A frustrated customer calls Margaret locates the Annual She offers to explain three She explains where the list the Client Service Desk to Default Report in the list of easy ways to obtain the appears at key locations retrieve the Annual Default “Most Requested Items” study that are faster than throughout Client.com, such Study, without checking calling. as the home page. Client.com. Margaret asks what file format the customer prefers. Margaret recommends using She tells the customer how After many failed attempts in the “Most Requested Items” to directly download the the past, the customer She emails the Annual list which gathers the most latest version of the ADR and refuses to try finding things Default Study to the needed publications across other commonly needed on Client.com… customer. S all business lines and S publications in a variety of S document types. file formats. Margaret also tells the She describes different The customer asks how to The customer thanks customer how to bookmark delivery channels for the set this up. Margaret for making things the destination page for the alerts, email, RSS, etc. easier to find without Annual Default Study, where Margaret guides the mistakes, wasted time, or the latest version is always The customer does not want customer through setting up making many phone calls. available. to receive any additional a subscription to the Annual alerts. Default Report by activating She explains how the Margaret explains how the this feature (from the customer can set an alert to customer can have the latest bookmarked destination be notified when the Annual S version of the Annual Default page, or other locations). Default study is updated. M Study automatically sent M out. D D IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 53 Joe Lamantia 84
  • 118. Understanders and Decision Makers Scenario: Understand & Interpret Methodology Simon L. | Ratings Advisor Customer quickly locates methodology documents Simon, a ratings advisor at Simon logs on to Client.com. Simon wants a longer term Simon quickly locates the an investment bank, needs Simon is presented with view of Client methodologies methodology publications to understand Client method recent and frequently for structured finance. He pertaining to asset backed for rating asset backed requested publications in the navigates to the linked securities. securities.. area of structured finance, destination for all based on his role, profile, methodology publications, He selects several that meet and interests. and focuses on the segment his needs, indicates that he for structured finance. wants them added to a new packet of documents for S S later use. S M M Simon chooses to download On the methodologies page, Simon begins listening to the He follows the link to the the methodology documents Simon sees a reference to a recorded, to see if he should destination page for the immediately, as well as save recorded Client briefing on listen to the entire briefing analyst, to see if the analyst the packet for later. emerging markets now, later, or at all. has written any interesting methodologies. publications recently. He reviews the packet, While listening, Simon chooses the file format, and He reviews the summary of recognizes the name of a Simon stops and bookmarks downloads the individual files the briefing. It includes a list Client analyst in the list of the recorded briefing for all at the same time. of the other topics addressed participants. later, and begins to review S in the call, as well as the S S the downloaded S agenda and Client methodology documents. participants. IR Modes Referenced F Finding M Monitoring S Stable Destination D Delivery Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 54 Joe Lamantia 85
  • 119. Using Scenarios Challenges • Making the scenarios comprehensive across tasks and user types, given the large number of user types in the User Needs Matrix • Incorporating personas that illustrated differences in how users might interact with the system • Differences in the usersʼ end goals and job requirements • Client requested modifications very late in the process Findings • Scenarios support an overall vision of customer experience and solution • Technical clients often to try to mold scenarios into use cases Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 86
  • 120. What is the offering? Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 87
  • 121. IR Requirements Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 88
  • 122. Narrative Continuity Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 123. Narrative Continuity e tiv ra ar N er m to us C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 124. Narrative Continuity e tiv rio ra na ar N ce er S m nt to re us ur C C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 125. Narrative Continuity e tiv rio ra io na ar ar N ce en er S Sc m nt on to re us si ur Vi C C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 126. Narrative Continuity t en m e re tiv ui rio ra io eq na ar ar lR N ce en na er S Sc m tio nt on to re nc us si ur Fu Vi C C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 127. Narrative Continuity t en m e re tiv ui rio ra io eq na ar ar lR N ce en na er S e Sc as m tio nt on C to re nc us se si ur Fu Vi U C C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 128. Narrative Continuity t en m e re tiv ui rio ra io eq na ar ar lR N ce en na er e S e Sc as as m tio nt tC on C to re nc us se si ur s Fu Te Vi U C C Narrative Continuity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 89
  • 129. Patterns Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 90
  • 130. Patterns Repeated combinations of the modes Longer-term perspective on behavior Clarify experience value Identify strategic opportunity Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 91
  • 131. Desire path From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A desire path (or desire line) is a path developed by erosion caused by animal or human footfall. The path usually represents the shortest or most easily navigated route between an origin and destination. The width and amount of erosion of the line represents the amount of demand. The term was coined by Gaston Bachelard in his book The Poetics of Space.[1] Desire paths can usually be found as shortcuts where constructed pathways take a circuitous route. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_path
  • 132. Desire path From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A desire path (or desire line) is a path developed by erosion caused by animal or human footfall. The path usually represents the shortest or most easily navigated route between an origin and destination. The width and amount of erosion of the line represents the amount of demand. The term was coined by Gaston Bachelard in his book The Poetics of Space.[1] Desire paths can usually be found as shortcuts where constructed pathways take a circuitous route. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desire_path
  • 133. Information Retrieval Patterns Seeker The Seeker is looking for something. Once found, the Seeker goes elsewhere to accomplish other goals. Visiting Stable Seeking Destinations Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 93
  • 134. Example Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 94
  • 135. Information Retrieval Patterns Regular Customer The Regular Customer visits the same destination(s) consistently for the same reasons. Then the Regular Customer realizes they can save the time and effort of visiting, and switches modes to have the things they need delivered directly to them. Visiting Stable Delivery Destinations Designing the Experience of Information Retrieval : Janus Boye Conference 2009 Joe Lamantia 95

Editor's Notes

  1. http://www.flickr.com/photos/keylosa/184606430/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/feijeriemersma/566123729/
  2. This client is integrating a series of siloed products that provide a substantial body of qualitative research and quantitative analytics tools into an single services delivery platform relying on a common user experience framework and technology architecture. The eventual user experience must meet the needs of a diverse population of customers and internal users, working in the complex financial services domain. We will trace the co-evolution of the information architecture and taxonomy efforts, beginning with identifying business drivers and establishing a vision, and progressing to the most recent design iterations.
  3. darker colors indicate priority apparent affiliation
  4. Easy access to all research by all analysts
  5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/18594324@N00/293665719/
  6. Photo from http://www.flickr.com/photos/barvault/605379975/
  7. It is a general method. It is the systematic generation of theory from systematic research.  It is a set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories.  These concepts/categories are related to each other as a theoretical explanation of the action(s) that continually resolves the main concern of the participants in a substantive area. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is a 1967 book (ISBN 0-202-30260-1) by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss on grounded theory. After their success with Awareness of Dying, Glaser and Strauss decided to write a book on methodology. The Discovery of Grounded Theory was meant to invite and motivate people to use the newly developed methodology. Unlike later works, it does not provide much advice on how to put the theory into practice. The authors had several goals in mind when writing the book: Legitimize qualitative research. Having a reference book by established authors helped students defend qualitative studies which were not widely accepted at the time. Criticize functionalists like Talcott Parsons and his student Robert K. Merton who in turn had been a teacher of Barney Glaser. Demonstrate the possibility of building theories from data, something that many qualitative researchers doubt to this day, instead choosing to stick with mere ethnographic descriptions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Discovery_of_Grounded_Theory
  8. Hypothesis testing versus emergence What most differentiates grounded theory from much other research is that it is explicitly emergent.  It does not test a hypothesis.  It sets out to find what theory accounts for the research situation as it is.  In this respect it is like action research: the aim is to understand the research situation.  The aim, as Glaser in particular states it, is to discover the theory implicit in the data. This distinction between "emergence and forcing", as Glaser frames it, is fundamental to understanding the methodology.  Most of you, whatever your discipline, will have been exposed more to hypothesis-testing research than to emergent research.  The research processes you have learned and the thesis structures you have internalised are those of hypothesis testing, not of emergence.  Doing grounded theory well is partly a matter of unlearning some of what you have been taught or have acquired through your reading. If you judge grounded theory by the criteria you have learned to use for hypothesis testing research you will likely misjudge it, perhaps badly.  In particular, the place of literature is quite different.  So is the way in which both methodology and theory develop gradually as data and interpretations accumulate. In particular, judgments about the rigour of research are often based on narrow criteria: criteria which make sense only for the methodology for which they were developed.  Grounded theory has its own sources of rigour.  It is responsive to the situation in which the research is done.  There is a continuing search for evidence which disconfirms the emerging theory.  It is driven by the data in such a way that the final shape of the theory is likely to provide a good fit to the situation. In fact, Glaser suggests two main criteria for judging the adequacy of the emerging theory: that it fits the situation;  and that it works -- that it helps the people in the situation to make sense of their experience and to manage the situation better. Elsewhere, I’ve offered similar arguments in favour of action research.  In particular, I draw your attention to my 1999 paper to the AQR conference, and the recent paper on data driven research. Now, the elements in more detail ...  http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html#a_gt_hypoth
  9. interviews examples
  10. concept maps example
  11. finding needs matrix example
  12. user needs matrix example
  13. user needs matrix example
  14. http://www.flickr.com/photos/morville/collections/72157603789246885/
  15. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  16. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  17. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  18. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  19. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  20. Results on a single financial statement. Emphasize analyst role as interpreter of reseacr, not person who finds things and creates profiles (tasks for customer support). Emphasize capabilities for person centered finding.
  21. requirements matrix example
  22. http://www.flickr.com/photos/felixphs/4053353930
  23. http://www.flickr.com/photos/blokes_pix/3206406794/sizes/l/
  24. What is a wave? A wave is equal parts conversation and document. People can communicate and work together with richly formatted text, photos, videos, maps, and more. A wave is shared. Any participant can reply anywhere in the message, edit the content and add participants at any point in the process. Then playback lets anyone rewind the wave to see who said what and when. A wave is live. With live transmission as you type, participants on a wave can have faster conversations, see edits and interact with extensions in real-time. http://www.flickr.com/photos/marketingfacts/3575434336/
  25. http://www.flickr.com/photos/vintagevogue/3272695970/
  26. darker colors indicate priority apparent affiliation
  27. actual affiliation
  28. http://www.flickr.com/photos/allisonmccarthy/2760577496/
  29. http://www.rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mental-models/