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The Language   #UXAustralia
               #languageofdiscovery
of Discovery   #ageofinsight
Joe Lamantia
UX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle
@moJoe
JoeLamantia.com
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe
designed many
discovery solutions
discovery is...?
more than
visualization
not just search
Discovery
Act or experience of seeing, finding,
learning, or solving something.
Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
discovery is
making sense
 of the world
 search
                                     prediction

          visualization

                          analysis
Insight
Grasping or understanding meaning,
significance, and/or a solution.
A valuable change in perspective or understanding
that enables or guides further action.
Welcome to
The Age of Insight
“In the next ten
years, digital data
alone is expected
to grow 44 times.
By 2020, there
will be 4 billion
people online
creating 50
trillion gigabytes
of data.”
HP Intelligent Research
Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta
Varied data ‘materials’
 social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific

Full spectrum of granularity
Real-time & historical perspectives
Commoditized infrastructure
 storage, processing, distribution, publishing

Data ecosystem(s)
Everything is
discoverable
Horizon of Discoverability



       future


         soon


         present

           past
urban status
 http://citydashboard.org/london/
WAYWT?
social exchange
influence
humanity
data journalism
‘Cliodynamics’ is a
transdisciplinary area of
research integrating
historical macrosociology,
economic history/
cliometrics, mathematical
modeling of long-term
social processes, and the
construction and analysis of
historical databases.


     scientific disciplines
“The instability of large,
complex societies is a
predictable phenomenon,
according to a new
mathematical model that
explores the emergence of
early human societies via
warfare.”

“Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model reveals
the dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncover
in archaeological data.”
                  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
“What we found are the
   constants that describe
   every city,” he says.

   I don’t know anything
   about this city or even
   where it is or its history, but
   I can tell you all about it.

   And the reason I can do that
   is because every city is
   really the same.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
cultural analytics
Everyone
discovers
“The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to
process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to
communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the
next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for
elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we
really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the
complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand
that data and extract value from it.”

Hal Varian



http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
ready data
interaction tools
management tools
engagement models
consumer devices
“The datasexual looks a lot like
you and me, but what’s different is
their preoccupation with personal
data.

They are relentlessly digital, they
obsessively record everything
about their personal lives, and
they think that data is sexy. In
fact, the bigger the data, the sexier
it becomes.

Their lives - from a data


                        data as lifestyle
perspective, at least - are perfectly
groomed.”
Discovery is the leading
emerging interaction category
of the Age of Insight
discovery capability is expected
in all interaction contexts
As I was waiting for a table at a
local restaurant the other day, I
flipped through a couple of the
free classified papers.

I was shocked to realize how
dependent I’ve grown on
three simple features that just
aren’t available in the analog
world: search, sort and filter.




    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
mediated sense making
Complex ecosystems:

 multi-channel experiences
                              everyware
                             environments
network & service models


                   dynamic perspectives
 fluid data
How to design discovery
experiences...?
precursors
Bates - tactics & categories
OʼDay & Jeffries - categories
Cool & Belkin
Ellis - behaviors & modes
Marchionini - IR framework
Spencer - Modes
Lamantia - Modes & patterns
Need & context vary wildly




    Patterns of form
    are inadequate.
Task patterns = vague...
Activity Centered Design
The Language of Discovery:

A concrete descriptive language for
human discovery activity in diverse
contexts.

A simple and consistent vocabulary that
is independent of domain, role,
information type, etc.
Leverages what is common
in human discovery.

Allows for what varies in
contexts of discovery
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experiences
works like musical notes
grammatical
structure & behavior
visual grammars
activity grammars
Research-based
scenario analysis
Call Centers &               Maintenance        Data Quality &
           Knowledge                    Repair &           Governance
           Mgmt                         Overhaul


                          Claims Analysis                                              Enterprise Search
                                                                 Digital Asset         & Knowledge Mgmt
                                                                 Mgmt
           Warranty
           Analysis              Field Service                              Operations
                                                                                                 Financial
                                 Analysis                                   & Planning
                                                                                                 Analysis
                                           Service Measure
               Customer                                                          Human Capital
               Risk Analysis
                                         Support & Plan &                        Management
                                          Maintain Operate

                                             Market Research                       Program & Portfolio
                          Pricing             Sell & Develop &                     Mgmt
                          Analysis
                                             Deliver Produce
                                                                      Manufacturing
                                                                      & Quality           Inventory &
                          Inventory &
                                                                                          Demand Visibility
Sales &                   Delivery
Customer                                                          Part, Commodity
Analysis                             Product                      & Supplier
                                     Information                  Analysis
           Market                                                                         Spend
                                     Mgmt
           Intelligence
                            diverse contexts                                              Analysis
User Scenarios
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in
manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace
that part.”
- Engineering


“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the
quality of the investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level
investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager


“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can
negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk
based on market indices.”
- Procurement
DISCOVERY   S
Literary Modes


“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or
 manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular
                  form or genre.”




         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
Argumentation
The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity
of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and
argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Discovery Modes



“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is
   not tied exclusively to a particular context or
                     domain.”
MODE
Identifying Modes
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing
and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”
- Engineering

“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the
investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager

“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”
- Procurement
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of an item or data set’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Identifying Modes
“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the
best part possible for my assembly.”
- Engineering

“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding
based on performance problems.”
- Account Rep

“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”
- SVP Sales

“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/
products.”
- Brand Manager
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set
for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’


e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Modes are the verbs of
discovery scenarios.
Explore   something   to...   result or goal.

 verb      object               predicate
You can explore:
people
places
events
objects
data
topics
processes
...??
Locate
             Verify
             Monitor
             Compare
9 distinct   Comprehend
modes        Explore
             Analyze
             Evaluate
             Synthesize
Mode
When I use the tool, I can...
       Monitor

...currently popular colors over useful
intervals




        Explore

...currently popular colors, or colors
popular in the past



         Verify

That a color is popular now or in the
past
As a reader, I can...

  Monitor

...articles to see what is new and
available.



   Explore

...available articles and topics to
identify those of interest to me.



   Locate
... and read articles of interest,
supporting information, and
related materials.
My twitter home page allows me to...
   Monitor

...the tweets of people I follow, my
followers, community interactions.


    Explore

...trends and active topics, and
suggestions for people to follow.


    Locate

..tweets, people, hashtags / topics


  Synthesize
...new tweets via composition,
retweet, or favorite tweets.
The profile snapshot lets me...
  Evaluate

...the author of a tweet to decide if I
am interested in them



   Locate

...the profile and homepage of the
author of a tweet
A twitter profile page lets me...

    Explore
...the authors profile to learn more
about them



   Evaluate
...their activity, followers, tweets,
relevance to me



 Comprehend

...the author’s interests, point of view,
domain independent
scale independent
structurally consistent
semantically distinct
orthogonal
conceptually connected
sequencable
combinable
Modes seem to be
internalized & common.
you said they
work like music?
Chains
scenario analysis: multiple /
sequential modes
Comparative Search
1. Replace a problematic part
                                       Analyze
   (from sourcing, cost or technical
   perspective)


2. ...with an equivalent or better
   part                                Compare




3. ...without compromising quality
                                       Evaluate
   and cost.
Comparative Search
1. Analyze
                                    Analyze



2. and understand gaps between
   current cost of commodity
                                    Compare



3. versus best in class
   manufacturing costs.             Evaluate
recognizable mode chains
Comparative Search

    Analyze                                      Compare                                          Evaluate


Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer


Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering


Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering


Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager


See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement


Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Exploratory Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Strategic Oversight

    Monitor                                        Analyze                                        Evaluate


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales


Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector


Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager


Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager


Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Strategic Insight

    Analyze                                  Comprehend                                           Evaluate


Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering


Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering


Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager


Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager


I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Comparative Synthesis

    Analyze                                    Compare                                       Synthesize


Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image


Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering


Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer


Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
Comparative   Analyze    Compare      Evaluate
Search


Exploratory
              Explore     Analyze     Evaluate
Search


Strategic     Analyze   Comprehend    Evaluate
Insight


Strategic     Monitor     Analyze     Evaluate
Oversight


Comparative   Analyze    Compare     Synthesize
Synthesis
Mode
As a user, I can...

    Analyze    1. Analyze the popularity
                  and importance of colors
                  over time to see patterns




               2. Compare colors in terms
    Compare
                  of importance and
                  popularity at various
                  cycles, trends, and
                  moments.

               3. Evaluate colors vs. their
    Evaluate
                  current and historic
                  importance and popularity.



Comparative Search          ...of colors I may use for my purposes
As a reader, I can...

     Analyze        1. Analyze events and
                       topics using the data and
                       tools provided




   Comprehend       2. Understand the events
                       and topics using the
                       Guardian’s perspective
                       and my own.



     Evaluate       3. Evaluate all perspectives,
                       as well as the actions and
                       decisions based on them.



Strategic Insight     into events & actions of government & society
As a reader, I get...

     Analyze       1. Analysis of the causes,
                      participants and events of
                      the UK riots




                   2. Comparison of
     Compare
                      suggested causes,
                      insights and explanations
                      into the events.



    Synthesize     3. Synthesis of these
                      insights into a coordinated
                      perspective on the riots



Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
Twitter Profile viewers can...

 Explore       1. Explore the author’s
                  profile, activity and
                  community interactions.




               2. Analyze the author’s
 Analyze          followers, activity, tweets,
                  community interaction,
                  who they follow.



Evaluate       3. Evaluate the author to
                  decide their relevance and
                  value.



Exploratory search           ... for valuable people streams to follow
MICRO view - visual art

data: 25 canonical paintings representing
transition from realism to modernism,
1849-1916
Strategic     Analyze   Comprehend    Evaluate
Insight




Comparative   Analyze    Compare     Synthesize
Synthesis
Strategic   Analyze   Comprehend   Evaluate
Insight
Analyze


                                              Synthesize



                          Explore




                                                 Compare
   Comprehend

Cultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
Comparative   Analyze   Compare   Synthesize
Synthesis
mode networks
Verify


Analyze   Comprehend   Synthesize


           Compare      Evaluate


Monitor     Analyze


Explore
Initial   Operative     Summary
              Verify


Analyze    Comprehend    Synthesize


            Compare       Evaluate


Monitor      Analyze


Explore
Initial   Operative Summary
Sensemaking




Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
Initial   Operative Summary
Using the language
To inform the core principles for the user
            experience of the product


            To coordinate the design of product
            features and functions across channels
            and form-factors
product
            To evaluate the quality and success of
strategy,   product designs, in terms of usability,
            engagement, value, etc.

definition
            To establish a roadmap for the product's
& design    evolution and determine development
            efforts


            To shape strategy for a portfolio of
            products by understanding the value
            proposition of current and potential new
            products
To guide the deployment of the product
             as part of a solution for customers

solution         identifying needs via scenarios and
                 other solution specification tools

design for       crafting functional requirements
                 and interaction designs for
product          deployed applications

             To describe and publish patterns and
customers    best practices in implementation of the
             product - workspace, application,
             application suite
Mode-based design
discovery application
 template




Supply Chain Management
Analytics and Forecasting
Personas, Scenarios, Goals
                    •
Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a
                      very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each
                      product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve
Planner / Analyst     through several iterations before reaching their final state,
                      allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales,
                      inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time.


                    •
Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by
                      understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting
                      errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and
                      performance measures.


                    •
Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting
                      forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect
                      these changes.
Personas, Scenarios, Goals

                   •
Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to
                     assess individual and team performance
                   •
Determine the specific metrics and performance
Planning Manager
                     measurements that Planning teams use for reference,
                     based on the long-term goals of the organization.
                   •
Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting
                     practices and tools used by planning teams




                   •
Achieve 100% forecast accuracy
                   •
Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations.
Planning Team
Planners: Mode Chains
Planners needing to create new forecasts will:

Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal    Analyze
factors




Compare them to accuracy baselines and the expected           Compare
impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or
weather


Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical
                                                              Synthesize
activities




                                                   Comparative synthesis
Planners: Mode Chains
Planners working to improve forecasting accuracy will:

Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to
                                                                     Analyze




Understand the factors affecting those forecasts                   Comprehend




Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified             Evaluate
causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous
forecasts


                                                                Strategic Insight
Planning Managers: Mode Chains
When assessing the performance of Planners, Managers will:


Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts        Monitor
and the team




Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and            Analyze
accuracy




Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting              Evaluate
methods.



                                                                Strategic Insight
Application Structure
3 screen types composed of
defined components (portlets)
offering discovery ʻfunctionsʼ

• faceted navigation
• data visualization
• application navigation
• tabular data
• search
• context management
• metrics
• alerts
• filtering
Dashboard Screen
Individual Planners use the Dashboard to
Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts
compared with established baselines and
targets. Planning Managers use the Dashboard
screen to Monitor the accuracy of all the
forecasts made by the Planning team.

One pane enables monitoring of each major
area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory
or Capacity, providing summaries of the status
of processes via KPIs and measurements using
a component from our library, as well as a chart
presenting historical values of these measures
for Analysis via visualization component.

A list of alerts provides a guide to notable
changes across the supply chain, allowing
Planners and Managers to monitor, analyze,
and evaluate notable events and changes as
part of a steady flow of information.                     Planner / Analyst         Planning Manager

The Dashboard enables Planners and
Managers to execute the Strategic Insight                           Strategic Oversight
chain by following the linked data points in
charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the
                                                   Monitor                   Analyze                  Evaluate
information for analysis.
Analysis Screen
Each Analysis screen in the template is focused on one
sub-function of the supply chain. This Analysis screen
focuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of
products in retail settings and various stages of the supply
chain.

On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted
Navigation components allow the user to manage the data
that is presented in the tables, charts, and lists to the right,
by exploring the underlying information space. They also
communicate this context to users to keep them oriented.

At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, which
follows on from the performance indicators identified on
the Dashboard, providing visibility into the smaller scale
measures that determine the status of the supply chain;
specifically, the accuracy of forecasts.

Below the summary, a group of components presents a
visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by
one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to
enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners
and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the
status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider
range of analysis methods than either presentation
                                           Strategic
method supports alone.                                      Analyze          Comprehend   Evaluate
                                             Insight
At the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the
  Planner / Analyst       Planning Manager
individual transactions for detailed analysis and
                                            Comparative
                                                                   Analyze     Compare    Synthesize
evaluation.                                   Synthesis
Trends Screen
 Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and
 understand the state of the supply chain, and the
 accuracy of their forecasts over time.

 For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed
 to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze-
 Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze-
 Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and
 Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and
 supply chain activity and suggest potential causal
 factors.

 The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the
 context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic
 Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or
 Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic
 Insight.


                                Exploration-driven
                                                         Explore       Analyze   Evaluate
                                     Search




                                         Comparative
Planner / Analyst     Planning Manager                       Analyze   Compare   Synthesize
                                          Synthesis
Sequences
Planners: Mode Sequences
                                                                   Planner / Analyst


Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for               Strategic
visibility into the status of their published final forecasts         Oversight
vs. actual activity in the supply chain;


When errors or variances beyond an acceptable
                                                                     Strategic
threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will                  Insight
switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to
understand the new situation.


They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis
chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly          Comparative Synthesis
generated insights and improved understanding.


They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to
                                                                     Strategic
maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and                       Oversight
effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
Mode Sequences

A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks
that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or
customers.

“Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified
set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing
cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in
industrial decision making.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization




                                 Business Process Optimization


     Strategic                                  Strategic                           Strategic
                                                            Comparative Synthesis
     Oversight                                   Insight                            Oversight
Managers: Mode Sequences
                                                              Planning Manager



Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting           Exploratory
practices and methods of their teams will employ a               Search

sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory
driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong
or weak forecasts and forecasting practices.
                                                                Strategic
                                                                 Insight
They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how
and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness.


                                                              Comparative
Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate
                                                               Synthesis
new or improved measurements and forecasting
practices.


They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the              Strategic
                                                                Oversight
effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
Mode Sequences

“Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes
within an organization.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering




               Business Process Re-Engineering / Design

Exploration-driven                                   Strategic   Comparison-driven   Strategic
     Search                                           Insight       Synthesis        Oversight
interaction-based
language for business-
      level dialog
learn hearts & minds
rely on known modes & sequences
parsimonious composition
hunt cross-channel flows
optimize for core scenarios
every interaction enhances insight
Language of Discovery
References & Resources
Language of Discovery Publications
Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf

Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer?
a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ

Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012,
Nijmegen, NL.

Russell-Rose and Tate. Designing the Search Experience [forthcoming]
References & Resources
The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task
analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)
https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf

Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume
49 Issue 4, April 2006
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf

Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences

Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns

Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions

Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:
http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them

Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science
30: 205-214

Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search
Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424.

Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and
technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)

Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.

Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46

Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6

O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from
here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445

Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th
international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA

Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by
Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with
Computers, 10:321–351.
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45
(3), pp. 171-212.

Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the
Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369.

Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research
Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403.

Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic
Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634.

Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study
Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
@moJoe
JoeLamantia.com
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe


@tgr2uk

Information Interaction http://isquared.wordpress.com/

http://www.slideshare.net/tgr2uk/
Language of Discovery
Mode Definitions
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of an item or data set’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Comparing
‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and
differences’
e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown
information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”
– Engineer
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set
for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’


e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”

– Engineer
Verifying
‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items
meets some specific criterion’
e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”
– Supply Chain Specialist
Monitoring
‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set
for purposes of management or control’
e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account
Reps to fix the problems”

– Sales Manager
Analyzing
‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to
identify patterns & relationships’
e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the
relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?”

– Engineering
Evaluating
‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value
of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark
or model’
e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price
variation to negotiate a better price”

– Procurement
Synthesizing
‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse
inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’
e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going”

– Account Rep
Language of Discovery
Mode Chains & Sequences
Comparison–driven Search

    Analyze                                      Compare                                          Evaluate


Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer


Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering


Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering


Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager


See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement


Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Strategic Oversight

    Monitor                                        Analyze                                        Evaluate


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales


Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector


Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager


Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager


Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Exploration-driven Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Strategic Insight

    Analyze                                  Comprehend                                           Evaluate


Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering


Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering


Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager


Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager


I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Comparative Synthesis

    Analyze                                    Compare                                       Synthesize


Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image


Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering


Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer


Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst

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Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery

  • 1. The Language #UXAustralia #languageofdiscovery of Discovery #ageofinsight
  • 2. Joe Lamantia UX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle @moJoe JoeLamantia.com Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • 7. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • 8. discovery is making sense of the world search prediction visualization analysis
  • 9. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action.
  • 10. Welcome to The Age of Insight
  • 11. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research
  • 12.
  • 13. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s)
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 19. Horizon of Discoverability future soon present past
  • 26.
  • 27. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases. scientific disciplines
  • 28. “The instability of large, complex societies is a predictable phenomenon, according to a new mathematical model that explores the emergence of early human societies via warfare.” “Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model reveals the dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncover in archaeological data.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
  • 29. “What we found are the constants that describe every city,” he says. I don’t know anything about this city or even where it is or its history, but I can tell you all about it. And the reason I can do that is because every city is really the same.” http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
  • 32. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 33.
  • 39. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data data as lifestyle perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.”
  • 40. Discovery is the leading emerging interaction category of the Age of Insight
  • 41. discovery capability is expected in all interaction contexts
  • 42. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • 44. Complex ecosystems: multi-channel experiences everyware environments network & service models dynamic perspectives fluid data
  • 45. How to design discovery experiences...?
  • 46. precursors Bates - tactics & categories OʼDay & Jeffries - categories Cool & Belkin Ellis - behaviors & modes Marchionini - IR framework Spencer - Modes Lamantia - Modes & patterns
  • 47. Need & context vary wildly Patterns of form are inadequate.
  • 48. Task patterns = vague...
  • 50. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc.
  • 51. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery
  • 53. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 60. Call Centers & Maintenance Data Quality & Knowledge Repair & Governance Mgmt Overhaul Claims Analysis Enterprise Search Digital Asset & Knowledge Mgmt Mgmt Warranty Analysis Field Service Operations Financial Analysis & Planning Analysis Service Measure Customer Human Capital Risk Analysis Support & Plan & Management Maintain Operate Market Research Program & Portfolio Pricing Sell & Develop & Mgmt Analysis Deliver Produce Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Inventory & Demand Visibility Sales & Delivery Customer Part, Commodity Analysis Product & Supplier Information Analysis Market Spend Mgmt Intelligence diverse contexts Analysis
  • 61. User Scenarios “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 63. Literary Modes “a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • 64. Argumentation The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • 65. Discovery Modes “a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • 66. MODE
  • 67. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 68. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data set’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 69. Identifying Modes “I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the best part possible for my assembly.” - Engineering “I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems.” - Account Rep “I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.” - SVP Sales “I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/ products.” - Brand Manager
  • 70. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 71. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios.
  • 72. Explore something to... result or goal. verb object predicate
  • 74. Locate Verify Monitor Compare 9 distinct Comprehend modes Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • 75. Mode
  • 76.
  • 77. When I use the tool, I can... Monitor ...currently popular colors over useful intervals Explore ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past
  • 78.
  • 79. As a reader, I can... Monitor ...articles to see what is new and available. Explore ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials.
  • 80. My twitter home page allows me to... Monitor ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. Explore ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. Locate ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • 81. The profile snapshot lets me... Evaluate ...the author of a tweet to decide if I am interested in them Locate ...the profile and homepage of the author of a tweet
  • 82. A twitter profile page lets me... Explore ...the authors profile to learn more about them Evaluate ...their activity, followers, tweets, relevance to me Comprehend ...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • 83. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct orthogonal conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • 84. Modes seem to be internalized & common.
  • 85. you said they work like music?
  • 87. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes
  • 88. Comparative Search 1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare 3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • 89. Comparative Search 1. Analyze Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • 91. Comparative Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators
  • 92. Exploratory Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 93. Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • 94. Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • 95. Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare Synthesize Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
  • 96. Comparative Analyze Compare Evaluate Search Exploratory Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 97. Mode
  • 98. As a user, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms Compare of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their Evaluate current and historic importance and popularity. Comparative Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
  • 99. As a reader, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided Comprehend 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. Evaluate 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Strategic Insight into events & actions of government & society
  • 100. As a reader, I get... Analyze 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of Compare suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. Synthesize 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
  • 101. Twitter Profile viewers can... Explore 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s Analyze followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. Evaluate 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Exploratory search ... for valuable people streams to follow
  • 102. MICRO view - visual art data: 25 canonical paintings representing transition from realism to modernism, 1849-1916
  • 103.
  • 104. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 105. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight
  • 106. Analyze Synthesize Explore Compare Comprehend Cultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
  • 107. Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 109. Verify Analyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare Evaluate Monitor Analyze Explore
  • 110. Initial Operative Summary Verify Analyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare Evaluate Monitor Analyze Explore
  • 111. Initial Operative Summary
  • 112.
  • 113. Sensemaking Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
  • 114. Initial Operative Summary
  • 116. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors product To evaluate the quality and success of strategy, product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. definition To establish a roadmap for the product's & design evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products
  • 117. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers solution identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools design for crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for product deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and customers best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • 119. discovery application template Supply Chain Management Analytics and Forecasting
  • 120. Personas, Scenarios, Goals • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve Planner / Analyst through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes.
  • 121. Personas, Scenarios, Goals • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance Planning Manager measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • 122. Planners: Mode Chains Planners needing to create new forecasts will: Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal Analyze factors Compare them to accuracy baselines and the expected Compare impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical Synthesize activities Comparative synthesis
  • 123. Planners: Mode Chains Planners working to improve forecasting accuracy will: Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to Analyze Understand the factors affecting those forecasts Comprehend Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified Evaluate causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts Strategic Insight
  • 124. Planning Managers: Mode Chains When assessing the performance of Planners, Managers will: Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts Monitor and the team Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and Analyze accuracy Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting Evaluate methods. Strategic Insight
  • 125. Application Structure 3 screen types composed of defined components (portlets) offering discovery ʻfunctionsʼ • faceted navigation • data visualization • application navigation • tabular data • search • context management • metrics • alerts • filtering
  • 126. Dashboard Screen Individual Planners use the Dashboard to Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers use the Dashboard screen to Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity, providing summaries of the status of processes via KPIs and measurements using a component from our library, as well as a chart presenting historical values of these measures for Analysis via visualization component. A list of alerts provides a guide to notable changes across the supply chain, allowing Planners and Managers to monitor, analyze, and evaluate notable events and changes as part of a steady flow of information. Planner / Analyst Planning Manager The Dashboard enables Planners and Managers to execute the Strategic Insight Strategic Oversight chain by following the linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the Monitor Analyze Evaluate information for analysis.
  • 127. Analysis Screen Each Analysis screen in the template is focused on one sub-function of the supply chain. This Analysis screen focuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings and various stages of the supply chain. On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to manage the data that is presented in the tables, charts, and lists to the right, by exploring the underlying information space. They also communicate this context to users to keep them oriented. At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, providing visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts. Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation Strategic method supports alone. Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight At the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the Planner / Analyst Planning Manager individual transactions for detailed analysis and Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize evaluation. Synthesis
  • 128.
  • 129. Trends Screen Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Exploration-driven Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Comparative Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 131. Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / Analyst Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for Strategic visibility into the status of their published final forecasts Oversight vs. actual activity in the supply chain; When errors or variances beyond an acceptable Strategic threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will Insight switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation. They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly Comparative Synthesis generated insights and improved understanding. They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to Strategic maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and Oversight effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
  • 132. Mode Sequences A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. “Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization Business Process Optimization Strategic Strategic Strategic Comparative Synthesis Oversight Insight Oversight
  • 133. Managers: Mode Sequences Planning Manager Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting Exploratory practices and methods of their teams will employ a Search sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices. Strategic Insight They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. Comparative Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate Synthesis new or improved measurements and forecasting practices. They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the Strategic Oversight effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
  • 134. Mode Sequences “Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering Business Process Re-Engineering / Design Exploration-driven Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Search Insight Synthesis Oversight
  • 136. learn hearts & minds rely on known modes & sequences parsimonious composition hunt cross-channel flows optimize for core scenarios every interaction enhances insight
  • 137.
  • 139.
  • 140. Language of Discovery Publications Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012, Nijmegen, NL. Russell-Rose and Tate. Designing the Search Experience [forthcoming]
  • 141. References & Resources The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005) https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume 49 Issue 4, April 2006 http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 30: 205-214 Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424. Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • 142. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004) Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371. Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46 Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6 O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445 Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351.
  • 143. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45 (3), pp. 171-212. Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369. Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403. Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634. Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
  • 144.
  • 145.
  • 148. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of an item or data set’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 149. Comparing ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer
  • 150. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data set for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 151. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 152. Verifying ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist
  • 153. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager
  • 154. Analyzing ‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set to identify patterns & relationships’ e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?” – Engineering
  • 155. Evaluating ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmark or model’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement
  • 156. Synthesizing ‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’ e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going” – Account Rep
  • 157. Language of Discovery Mode Chains & Sequences
  • 158. Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators
  • 159. Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • 160. Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 161. Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • 162. Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare Synthesize Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst