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The Language   #StrataNY2012
               #languageofdiscovery
of Discovery   #ageofinsight
Joe Lamantia
UX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle
@moJoe
JoeLamantia.com
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe
designed many
discovery solutions
Welcome to
The Age of Insight
“In the next ten
years, digital data
alone is expected
to grow 44 times.
By 2020, there
will be 4 billion
people online
creating 50
trillion gigabytes
of data.”
HP Intelligent Research
Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta
Varied data ‘materials’
 social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific

Full spectrum of granularity
Real-time & historical perspectives
Commoditized infrastructure
 storage, processing, distribution, publishing

Data ecosystem(s)
Everything is
discoverable
discovery is...?
more than
visualization
not just search
Discovery
Act or experience of seeing, finding,
learning, or solving something.
Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
discovery is
making sense
 of the world
 search
                                     prediction

          visualization

                          analysis
Insight
Grasping or understanding meaning,
significance, and/or a solution.
A valuable change in perspective or
understanding that enables or guides
further action.
urban status
 http://citydashboard.org/london/
W Antwerp WT?
influence
data journalism
cultural analytics
‘Cliodynamics’ is a
transdisciplinary area of
research integrating
historical macrosociology,
economic history/
cliometrics, mathematical
modeling of long-term
social processes, and the
construction and analysis of
historical databases.


     scientific disciplines
“What we found are the
   constants that describe
   every city,” he says.

   I don’t know anything
   about this city or even
   where it is or its history, but
   I can tell you all about it.

   And the reason I can do that
   is because every city is
   really the same.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
we know you’re a dog
Everyone
discovers
“The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to
process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to
communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the
next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for
elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we
really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the
complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand
that data and extract value from it.”

Hal Varian



http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
ready data
interaction tools
management tools
engagement models
consumer devices
“The datasexual looks a lot like
you and me, but what’s different is
their preoccupation with personal
data.

They are relentlessly digital, they
obsessively record everything
about their personal lives, and
they think that data is sexy. In
fact, the bigger the data, the sexier
it becomes.

Their lives - from a data


                        data as lifestyle
perspective, at least - are perfectly
groomed.”
Discovery is the leading
emerging interaction category
of the Age of Insight
discovery capability is expected
in all interaction contexts
As I was waiting for a table at a
local restaurant the other day, I
flipped through a couple of the
free classified papers.

I was shocked to realize how
dependent I’ve grown on
three simple features that just
aren’t available in the analog
world: search, sort and filter.




    http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
Horizon of Discoverability



       future


         soon


         present

           past
Discovery is Everyware

multi-channel experiences     mixed realities

networked devices & places
                                 ubicomp
                               environments
 information
  shadows

 product, service, personal avatars
How to design discovery
experiences...?
precursors
Bates - tactics & categories
O’Day & Jeffries - categories
Cool & Belkin
Ellis - behaviors & modes
Marchionini - IR framework
Spencer - Modes
Lamantia - Modes & patterns
information retrieval
mediated sense making
Need & context vary wildly




    Patterns of form
    are inadequate.
data + activity   insight!
The same thing
we do every night...
Activity Centered Design
Research-based
Call Centers &               Maintenance        Data Quality &
           Knowledge                    Repair &           Governance
           Mgmt                         Overhaul


                          Claims Analysis                                              Enterprise Search
                                                                 Digital Asset         & Knowledge Mgmt
                                                                 Mgmt
           Warranty
           Analysis              Field Service                              Operations
                                                                                                 Financial
                                 Analysis                                   & Planning
                                                                                                 Analysis
                                           Service Measure
               Customer                                                          Human Capital
               Risk Analysis
                                         Support & Plan &                        Management
                                          Maintain Operate

                                             Market Research                       Program & Portfolio
                          Pricing             Sell & Develop &                     Mgmt
                          Analysis
                                             Deliver Produce
                                                                      Manufacturing
                                                                      & Quality           Inventory &
                          Inventory &
                                                                                          Demand Visibility
Sales &                   Delivery
Customer                                                          Part, Commodity
Analysis                             Product                      & Supplier
           Market
           Intelligence
                            solution contexts
                                     Information
                                     Mgmt
                                                                  Analysis
                                                                                          Spend
                                                                                          Analysis
scenario analysis
User Scenarios
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in
manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace
that part.”
- Engineering


“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the
quality of the investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level
investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager


“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can
negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk
based on market indices.”
- Procurement
The Language of Discovery:

A concrete descriptive language for
human discovery activity in diverse
contexts.

A simple and consistent vocabulary that
is independent of domain, role,
information type, etc.
Leverages what is common
in human discovery.

Allows for what varies in
contexts of discovery.
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experiences
activity grammar
works like musical notes
DISCOVERY   S
Literary Modes


“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or
 manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular
                  form or genre.”




         http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
Argumentation
The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity
of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and
argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Rhetorical Modes




Exposition
The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information
by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.




                    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_modes
Discovery Modes



“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is
   not tied exclusively to a particular context or
                     domain.”
Identifying Modes
“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the
best part possible for my assembly.”
- Engineering

“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding
based on performance problems.”
- Account Rep

“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”
- SVP Sales

“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/
products.”
- Brand Manager
Identifying Modes
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing
and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”
- Engineering

“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the
investment opportunity.”

“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager

“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”
- Procurement
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of something’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”

– Engineer
MODE
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the
purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’


e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Monitoring
‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for
purposes of management or control’
e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account
Reps to fix the problems”

– Sales Manager
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”

– Engineer
Evaluate
‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value
of something with respect to a specific benchmark’
e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price
variation to negotiate a better price”

– Procurement
Verify
‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some
specific criterion’
e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”
– Supply Chain Specialist
Compare
‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and
differences’
e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown
information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”
– Engineer
best route is?
Locate
          Verify
          Monitor
          Compare
9 modes   Comprehend
          Explore
          Analyze
          Evaluate
          Synthesize
Locate
To find a specific (possibly known) thing
e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier -
Engineering




Verify
‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets
some specific criterion’
e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist




Monitor
‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for
purposes of management or control’
e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales
Manager
Compare
To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences
e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying
competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering




Comprehend
To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of
something
e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications
plan – Director, Brand Image




Explore
To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of
knowledge discovery
e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and
forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement
Analyze
To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns &
relationships
e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or
step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering




Evaluate
To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with
respect to a specific benchmark or model
e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better
price - Procurement




Synthesize
To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create
a novel artifact or composite view
e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep
Modes are the verbs of
discovery scenarios.
grammatical
structure & behavior
Discovery Goal
Explore                     verb

something               object

to effect

result or goal.       predicate
You can explore:
people
places
events
objects
data
topics
processes
...??
you said they
work like music?
Mode
When I use the tool, I can...
       Monitor

...currently popular colors over useful
intervals




       Explore

...currently popular colors, or colors
popular in the past



        Verify

That a color is popular now or in the
past
As a reader, I can...

  Monitor

...articles to see what is new and
available.



  Explore

...available articles and topics to
identify those of interest to me.



   Locate
... and read articles of interest,
supporting information, and
related materials.
My twitter home page allows me to...
   Monitor

...the tweets of people I follow, my
followers, community interactions.


   Explore

...trends and active topics, and
suggestions for people to follow.


    Locate

..tweets, people, hashtags / topics


 Synthesize
...new tweets via composition,
retweet, or favorite tweets.
The profile snapshot lets me...
  Evaluate

...the author of a tweet to decide if I
am interested in them



   Locate

...the profile and homepage of the
author of a tweet
A twitter profile page lets me...

   Explore
...the authors profile to learn more
about them



   Evaluate
...their activity, followers, tweets,
relevance to me



Comprehend

...the author’s interests, point of view,
domain independent
scale independent
structurally consistent
semantically distinct
orthogonal
conceptually connected
sequencable
combinable
Modes seem to be
internalized & common.
you said they
work like music?
Chains
scenario analysis: multiple /
sequential modes
Comparative Search
1. Replace a problematic part
                                       Analyze
   (from sourcing, cost or technical
   perspective)


2. ...with an equivalent or better
   part                                Compare




3. ...without compromising quality
                                       Evaluate
   and cost.
Comparative Search
1. Analyze
                                    Analyze



2. and understand gaps between
   current cost of commodity
                                    Compare



3. versus best in class
   manufacturing costs.             Evaluate
enterprise
scenario chains
Comparative Search

    Analyze                                      Compare                                          Evaluate


Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer


Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering


Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering


Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager


See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement


Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Exploratory Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Strategic Oversight

    Monitor                                        Analyze                                        Evaluate


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales


Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector


Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer


Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager


Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager


Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Strategic Insight

    Analyze                                  Comprehend                                           Evaluate


Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering


Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering


Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager


Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager


I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Comparative Synthesis

    Analyze                                    Compare                                       Synthesize


Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image


Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering


Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer


Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
Enterprise Scenario Chains
Comparative   Analyze    Compare      Evaluate
  Search


Exploratory
              Explore     Analyze     Evaluate
  Search


 Strategic    Analyze   Comprehend     Evaluate
  Insight

 Strategic    Monitor    Analyze      Evaluate
 Oversight

Comparative   Analyze    Compare      Synthesize
 Synthesis
consumer scenario
     chains
   http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_zero/7350565830/in/photostream/
277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the
end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to
achieve it.


• Find best offers before the others do so I can have
  a high margin.

• Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely
  so that I can achieve a good price.

• Understand what is selling by area/region so I can
  source the correct stock.

• See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online
  to supply to the Head of Global Media.
Insight-driven Search

      Explore                                                   Analyze   Comprehend


An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need:


“Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances)




A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Opportunity-driven Search

      Explore                                                   Locate   Evaluate


A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery:



“Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances)



A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Qualified Search

                                   Locate                       Verify


A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required:


“Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances)




A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Consumer Scenario Chains


Insight-driven
                 Explore   Analyze     Comprehend
Search


Opportunity-     Explore   Locate       Evaluate
driven Search


Qualified         Locate    Verify
Search
Mode
recognizable mode chains
Color Forecast users can...

    Analyze       1. Analyze the popularity
                     and importance of colors
                     over time to see patterns




                  2. Compare colors in terms
    Compare
                     of importance and
                     popularity at various
                     cycles, trends, and
                     moments.

                  3. Evaluate colors vs. their
    Evaluate
                     current and historic
                     importance and popularity.



Comparative Search             ...of colors I may use for my purposes
Data blog readers can...

     Analyze        1. Analyze events and
                       topics using the data and
                       tools provided




   Comprehend       2. Understand the events
                       and topics using the
                       Guardian’s perspective
                       and my own.



    Evaluate        3. Evaluate all perspectives,
                       as well as the actions and
                       decisions based on them.



Strategic Insight     into events & actions of government & society
Data blog readers can...

     Analyze       1. Analysis of the causes,
                      participants and events of
                      the UK riots




                   2. Comparison of
     Compare
                      suggested causes,
                      insights and explanations
                      into the events.



    Synthesize     3. Synthesis of these
                      insights into a coordinated
                      perspective on the riots



Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
Twitter users can...

 Explore    1. Explore the author’s
               profile, activity and
               community interactions.




            2. Analyze the author’s
 Analyze       followers, activity, tweets,
               community interaction,
               who they follow.



Evaluate    3. Evaluate the author to
               decide their relevance and
               value.



Exploratory search        ... for valuable people streams to follow
mode networks
Mode Networks

              Verify


Analyze    Comprehend     Synthesize


             Compare       Evaluate


Monitor      Analyze


Explore
Mode Networks



Explore      Analyze      Comprehend


             Locate        Evaluate


                            Verify
Exploratory Search

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Initial   Operative   Summary
Initial                              Operative                                    Summary

    Explore                                      Analyze                                        Evaluate


Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer


Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager


Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager


Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager


Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer


Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Initial   Operative     Summary
              Verify


Analyze    Comprehend    Synthesize


            Compare       Evaluate


Monitor      Analyze


Explore
Sensemaking




Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
Initial   Operative Summary
Using the language
To inform the core principles for the user
            experience of the product


            To coordinate the design of product
            features and functions across channels
            and form-factors
Product
            To evaluate the quality and success of
Strategy,   product designs, in terms of usability,
            engagement, value, etc.

Definition
            To establish a roadmap for the product's
& Design    evolution and determine development
            efforts


            To shape strategy for a portfolio of
            products by understanding the value
            proposition of current and potential new
            products
To guide the deployment of the product
             as part of a solution for customers

solution     Identifying needs via scenarios and
             other solution specification tools

design for   Crafting functional requirements and
             interaction designs for deployed
product      applications

             To describe and publish patterns and
customers    best practices in implementation of the
             product - workspace, application,
             application suite
Mode-based design
discovery application
 template




Supply Chain Management
Analytics and Forecasting
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context


    Business               User          Goals & Scenarios       Modes & Chains        Discovery Assets
     Goals                Types




§Engagement      §Knowledgeable         §Plan                 §Locate              §Product info
§Conversion      §Enthusiast            §Optimize             §Explore             §Rich Media
§Cross-Sell      §Uncertain Explorer    §Launch               §Strategic Insight   §Textual Info
§Adoption        §Manager               §Build                §Qualified Search    §Social Media
§Acquisition                                                                          §Metrics




  What are the        Who are the                                                        What decision-
                                                                   How do people
    business      critical users and     What are business-                                discovery
                                                                  need to interact
   strategies,       how do their        user critical goals &                            support and
                                                                  with information
  objectives, &   discovery needs         scenarios? What                                 information
                                                                   assets & each
   priorities?       & behaviors           do they need to                               assets will help
                                                                  other to achieve
                         vary?            know to succeed?                             them achieve their
                                                                     their goals?
                                                                                             goals?
Supply Chain Process



Planning Team       Planner / Analyst          Planning Manager




Plan            Source           Manufacture         Distribute   Replenish
Planners: Needs & Goals
                    •
 Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a
                       very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each
                       product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve
Planner / Analyst
                       through several iterations before reaching their final state,
                       allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales,
                       inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real
                       time.


                    •
 Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods
                       by understanding the nature, degree, and source of
                       forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined
                       metrics and performance measures.


                    •
 Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting
                       forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to
                       reflect these changes.
Managers: Needs & Goals

                    •
 Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to
                       assess individual and team performance
                    •
 Determine the specific metrics and performance
Planning Manager
                       measurements that Planning teams use for reference,
                       based on the long-term goals of the organization.
                    •
 Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting
                       practices and tools used by planning teams




                    •
 Achieve 100% forecast accuracy
                    •
 Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all
                       situations.

  Planning Team
recognizable mode chains
Planners: Mode Chains
To create new forecasts, Planners:
                                                  Analyze
Analyze their previous forecasts and newly
identified causal factors



Compare them to accuracy baselines and           Compare

the expected impact of correlating factors
such as seasonal events or weather

                                                Synthesize
Create new forecasts that reflect insights
from analytical activities

                                             Strategic Insight
data + activity
           Forecast
Planners: Mode Chains
To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners:
                                                  Analyze
Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy
and error rates to



Understand the factors affecting forecasts       Comprehend




Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of         Evaluate
newly identified causal factors by
retrospectively including them in previous
forecasts
                                             Strategic Insight
data + activity
           Causes
Planning Managers: Mode Chains
Managers assessing Planner performance:
                                                    Monitor
Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by
individual analysts and the team


                                                    Analyze
Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in
variance and accuracy


                                                   Evaluate
Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and
forecasting methods.

                                               Strategic Insight
data + activity
           Method
Discovery scope


                              ???
 Methodology

                             Causal Factor

       Forecast (location)


                             Item
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experiences
Information in workspaces:

how much?

when & where?

what behavior?
Application Structure
3 screen types composed of
defined components (portlets)
offering discovery ‘functions’

• faceted navigation
• data visualization
• application navigation
• tabular data
• search
• context management
• metrics
• alerts
• filtering
Dashboard Screen
Dashboard Screen
Planners Monitor the
accuracy of their own
forecasts compared
with established
baselines and targets.

Planning Managers
Monitor the accuracy
of all the forecasts
made by the Planning
team.
                               Planner / Analyst         Planning Manager



                                          Strategic Oversight

                         Monitor                   Analyze                  Evaluate
Dashboard Screen
One pane enables          A chart presents historical
monitoring of each        values of these measures
major area of supply      for Analysis.
chain activity, such as
Inventory or Capacity.

Provides summary
status of processes via
KPIs and
measurements.
Dashboard Screen
Alerts allow Planners to
monitor, analyze, and
evaluate changes to
supply chain flow.

Initiate the Strategic
Insight chain: follow
linked data points in
charts, metrics and
alerts ‘deeper’ into the
information space.
Analysis Screen
Focused on one sub-function of the supply
chain: forecasts and activity for
‘restocking’ of products in retail settings
through stages of the supply chain.

Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted
Navigation components allow the user to
understand & manage the data that is
presented in the workspace tables, charts,
while analyzing the information.

Summarize and communicate
workspace context to users to provide
orientation and comprehension.
Analysis Screen
‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators
identified on the Dashboard,

Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the
supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate).
Analysis Screen
Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data
grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product
type) to enable analysis.

These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors
contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider
range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone.
Analysis Screen

Supporting tables provide lists of the individual
transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation.
Analysis Screen




              Planner / Analyst    Planning Manager




  Strategic
                   Analyze        Comprehend           Evaluate
   Insight


  Comparative
                   Analyze         Compare            Synthesize
   Synthesis
Trends Screen
 Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and
 understand the state of the supply chain, and the
 accuracy of their forecasts over time.

 For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed
 to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze-
 Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze-
 Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and
 Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and
 supply chain activity and suggest potential causal
 factors.

 The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the
 context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic
 Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or
 Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic
 Insight.


                                Exploration-driven
                                                         Explore       Analyze   Evaluate
                                     Search




                                         Comparative
Planner / Analyst     Planning Manager                       Analyze   Compare   Synthesize
                                          Synthesis
Sequences
Planners: Mode Sequences
                                                                   Planner / Analyst


Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for               Strategic
visibility into the status of their published final forecasts         Oversight
vs. actual activity in the supply chain;


When errors or variances beyond an acceptable
                                                                     Strategic
threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will                  Insight
switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to
understand the new situation.


They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis
chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly          Comparative Synthesis
generated insights and improved understanding.


They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to
                                                                     Strategic
maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and                       Oversight
effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
Mode Sequences

A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks
that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or
customers.

“Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified
set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing
cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in
industrial decision making.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization




                                 Business Process Optimization


     Strategic                                  Strategic                           Strategic
                                                            Comparative Synthesis
     Oversight                                   Insight                            Oversight
Managers: Mode Sequences
                                                              Planning Manager



Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting           Exploratory
practices and methods of their teams will employ a               Search

sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory
driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong
or weak forecasts and forecasting practices.
                                                                Strategic
                                                                 Insight
They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how
and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness.


                                                              Comparative
Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate
                                                               Synthesis
new or improved measurements and forecasting
practices.


They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the              Strategic
                                                                Oversight
effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
Mode Sequences

“Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes
within an organization.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering




               Business Process Re-Engineering / Design

Exploration-driven                                   Strategic   Comparison-driven   Strategic
     Search                                           Insight       Synthesis        Oversight
interaction-based
language for business-
      level dialog
learn hearts & minds
rely on known modes & sequences
parsimonious composition
hunt cross-channel flows
optimize for core scenarios
every interaction enhances insight
Language of Discovery
References & Resources
Publications
Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf

Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer?
a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ

Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012,
Nijmegen, NL.

Designing the Search Experience: forthcoming
References & Resources
The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task
analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)
https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf

Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume
49 Issue 4, April 2006
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf

Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences

Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns

Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions

Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:
http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them

Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science
30: 205-214

Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search
Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424.

Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and
technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)

Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.

Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46

Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6

O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from
here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445

Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th
international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA

Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by
Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with
Computers, 10:321–351.
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).

Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation,
45(3), pp. 171-212.

Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the
Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369.

Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research
Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403.

Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic
Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634.

Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study
Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
@moJoe
JoeLamantia.com
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe


@tgr2uk
Information Interaction http://isquared.wordpress.com/
http://www.slideshare.net/tgr2uk/

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Designing Big Data Interactions Using the Language of Discovery

  • 1. The Language #StrataNY2012 #languageofdiscovery of Discovery #ageofinsight
  • 2. Joe Lamantia UX Lead: Discovery Products Oracle @moJoe JoeLamantia.com Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • 4. Welcome to The Age of Insight
  • 5. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research
  • 6. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s)
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 14. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • 15. discovery is making sense of the world search prediction visualization analysis
  • 16. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action.
  • 22. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases. scientific disciplines
  • 23. “What we found are the constants that describe every city,” he says. I don’t know anything about this city or even where it is or its history, but I can tell you all about it. And the reason I can do that is because every city is really the same.” http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
  • 26. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 27.
  • 33. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data data as lifestyle perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.”
  • 34.
  • 35. Discovery is the leading emerging interaction category of the Age of Insight
  • 36. discovery capability is expected in all interaction contexts
  • 37. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • 38. Horizon of Discoverability future soon present past
  • 39. Discovery is Everyware multi-channel experiences mixed realities networked devices & places ubicomp environments information shadows product, service, personal avatars
  • 40. How to design discovery experiences...?
  • 41. precursors Bates - tactics & categories O’Day & Jeffries - categories Cool & Belkin Ellis - behaviors & modes Marchionini - IR framework Spencer - Modes Lamantia - Modes & patterns
  • 44. Need & context vary wildly Patterns of form are inadequate.
  • 45. data + activity insight!
  • 46. The same thing we do every night...
  • 49. Call Centers & Maintenance Data Quality & Knowledge Repair & Governance Mgmt Overhaul Claims Analysis Enterprise Search Digital Asset & Knowledge Mgmt Mgmt Warranty Analysis Field Service Operations Financial Analysis & Planning Analysis Service Measure Customer Human Capital Risk Analysis Support & Plan & Management Maintain Operate Market Research Program & Portfolio Pricing Sell & Develop & Mgmt Analysis Deliver Produce Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Inventory & Demand Visibility Sales & Delivery Customer Part, Commodity Analysis Product & Supplier Market Intelligence solution contexts Information Mgmt Analysis Spend Analysis
  • 51. User Scenarios “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 52. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc.
  • 53. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery.
  • 55. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 59. Literary Modes “a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • 60. Argumentation The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • 61. Rhetorical Modes Exposition The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_modes
  • 62. Discovery Modes “a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • 63. Identifying Modes “I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the best part possible for my assembly.” - Engineering “I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems.” - Account Rep “I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.” - SVP Sales “I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/ products.” - Brand Manager
  • 64. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 65. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 66. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. MODE
  • 70. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 71.
  • 72. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager
  • 73.
  • 74. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 75.
  • 76. Evaluate ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement
  • 77.
  • 78. Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist
  • 79.
  • 80. Compare ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer
  • 82. Locate Verify Monitor Compare 9 modes Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • 83. Locate To find a specific (possibly known) thing e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier - Engineering Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist Monitor ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager
  • 84. Compare To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering Comprehend To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image Explore To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of knowledge discovery e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement
  • 85. Analyze To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns & relationships e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering Evaluate To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark or model e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price - Procurement Synthesize To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep
  • 86. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios.
  • 88. Discovery Goal Explore verb something object to effect result or goal. predicate
  • 90. you said they work like music?
  • 91. Mode
  • 92.
  • 93. When I use the tool, I can... Monitor ...currently popular colors over useful intervals Explore ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past
  • 94.
  • 95. As a reader, I can... Monitor ...articles to see what is new and available. Explore ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials.
  • 96. My twitter home page allows me to... Monitor ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. Explore ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. Locate ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • 97. The profile snapshot lets me... Evaluate ...the author of a tweet to decide if I am interested in them Locate ...the profile and homepage of the author of a tweet
  • 98. A twitter profile page lets me... Explore ...the authors profile to learn more about them Evaluate ...their activity, followers, tweets, relevance to me Comprehend ...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • 99. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct orthogonal conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • 100. Modes seem to be internalized & common.
  • 101. you said they work like music?
  • 102. Chains
  • 103. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes
  • 104. Comparative Search 1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare 3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • 105. Comparative Search 1. Analyze Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • 107. Comparative Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators
  • 108. Exploratory Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 109. Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • 110. Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • 111. Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare Synthesize Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
  • 112. Enterprise Scenario Chains Comparative Analyze Compare Evaluate Search Exploratory Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 113. consumer scenario chains http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_zero/7350565830/in/photostream/
  • 114. 277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to achieve it. • Find best offers before the others do so I can have a high margin. • Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely so that I can achieve a good price. • Understand what is selling by area/region so I can source the correct stock. • See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online to supply to the Head of Global Media.
  • 115. Insight-driven Search Explore Analyze Comprehend An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need: “Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances) A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 116. Opportunity-driven Search Explore Locate Evaluate A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery: “Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances) A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 117. Qualified Search Locate Verify A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required: “Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances) A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 118. Consumer Scenario Chains Insight-driven Explore Analyze Comprehend Search Opportunity- Explore Locate Evaluate driven Search Qualified Locate Verify Search
  • 119. Mode
  • 121. Color Forecast users can... Analyze 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms Compare of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their Evaluate current and historic importance and popularity. Comparative Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
  • 122. Data blog readers can... Analyze 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided Comprehend 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. Evaluate 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Strategic Insight into events & actions of government & society
  • 123. Data blog readers can... Analyze 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of Compare suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. Synthesize 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Comparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
  • 124. Twitter users can... Explore 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s Analyze followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. Evaluate 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Exploratory search ... for valuable people streams to follow
  • 126. Mode Networks Verify Analyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare Evaluate Monitor Analyze Explore
  • 127. Mode Networks Explore Analyze Comprehend Locate Evaluate Verify
  • 128.
  • 129. Exploratory Search Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 130. Initial Operative Summary
  • 131. Initial Operative Summary Explore Analyze Evaluate Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator
  • 132. Initial Operative Summary Verify Analyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare Evaluate Monitor Analyze Explore
  • 133. Sensemaking Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
  • 134. Initial Operative Summary
  • 136. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors Product To evaluate the quality and success of Strategy, product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. Definition To establish a roadmap for the product's & Design evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products
  • 137. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers solution Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools design for Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed product applications To describe and publish patterns and customers best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • 139.
  • 140. discovery application template Supply Chain Management Analytics and Forecasting
  • 142. Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context Business User Goals & Scenarios Modes & Chains Discovery Assets Goals Types §Engagement §Knowledgeable §Plan §Locate §Product info §Conversion §Enthusiast §Optimize §Explore §Rich Media §Cross-Sell §Uncertain Explorer §Launch §Strategic Insight §Textual Info §Adoption §Manager §Build §Qualified Search §Social Media §Acquisition §Metrics What are the Who are the What decision- How do people business critical users and What are business- discovery need to interact strategies, how do their user critical goals & support and with information objectives, & discovery needs scenarios? What information assets & each priorities? & behaviors do they need to assets will help other to achieve vary? know to succeed? them achieve their their goals? goals?
  • 143. Supply Chain Process Planning Team Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Plan Source Manufacture Distribute Replenish
  • 144. Planners: Needs & Goals • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve Planner / Analyst through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes.
  • 145. Managers: Needs & Goals • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance Planning Manager measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • 147. Planners: Mode Chains To create new forecasts, Planners: Analyze Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors Compare them to accuracy baselines and Compare the expected impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather Synthesize Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical activities Strategic Insight
  • 148. data + activity Forecast
  • 149. Planners: Mode Chains To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners: Analyze Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to Understand the factors affecting forecasts Comprehend Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of Evaluate newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts Strategic Insight
  • 150. data + activity Causes
  • 151. Planning Managers: Mode Chains Managers assessing Planner performance: Monitor Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team Analyze Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy Evaluate Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Strategic Insight
  • 152. data + activity Method
  • 153. Discovery scope ??? Methodology Causal Factor Forecast (location) Item
  • 154. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 155. Information in workspaces: how much? when & where? what behavior?
  • 156. Application Structure 3 screen types composed of defined components (portlets) offering discovery ‘functions’ • faceted navigation • data visualization • application navigation • tabular data • search • context management • metrics • alerts • filtering
  • 158. Dashboard Screen Planners Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze Evaluate
  • 159. Dashboard Screen One pane enables A chart presents historical monitoring of each values of these measures major area of supply for Analysis. chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity. Provides summary status of processes via KPIs and measurements.
  • 160. Dashboard Screen Alerts allow Planners to monitor, analyze, and evaluate changes to supply chain flow. Initiate the Strategic Insight chain: follow linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the information space.
  • 161.
  • 162. Analysis Screen Focused on one sub-function of the supply chain: forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings through stages of the supply chain. Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to understand & manage the data that is presented in the workspace tables, charts, while analyzing the information. Summarize and communicate workspace context to users to provide orientation and comprehension.
  • 163. Analysis Screen ‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate).
  • 164. Analysis Screen Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone.
  • 165. Analysis Screen Supporting tables provide lists of the individual transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation.
  • 166. Analysis Screen Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 167. Trends Screen Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Exploration-driven Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Comparative Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • 169. Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / Analyst Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for Strategic visibility into the status of their published final forecasts Oversight vs. actual activity in the supply chain; When errors or variances beyond an acceptable Strategic threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will Insight switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation. They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly Comparative Synthesis generated insights and improved understanding. They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to Strategic maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and Oversight effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
  • 170. Mode Sequences A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. “Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization Business Process Optimization Strategic Strategic Strategic Comparative Synthesis Oversight Insight Oversight
  • 171. Managers: Mode Sequences Planning Manager Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting Exploratory practices and methods of their teams will employ a Search sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices. Strategic Insight They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. Comparative Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate Synthesis new or improved measurements and forecasting practices. They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the Strategic Oversight effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
  • 172. Mode Sequences “Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering Business Process Re-Engineering / Design Exploration-driven Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Search Insight Synthesis Oversight
  • 174. learn hearts & minds rely on known modes & sequences parsimonious composition hunt cross-channel flows optimize for core scenarios every interaction enhances insight
  • 175.
  • 177.
  • 178. Publications Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012, Nijmegen, NL. Designing the Search Experience: forthcoming
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