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The DIY Future
2007 Italian IA Summit
Joe Lamantia
   Involved in user experience / Internet since 1996
   In 2000, became an entrepreneur and started my own company
   Creator of the leading freely available tool for card sort analysis
   Creator of the Building Blocks design framework for portals and user experiences
   Currently based in New York - but enjoys Europe a great deal…


On the Web
   JoeLamantia.com
   Boxesandarrows.com
   Tagsonomy.com


Email to joe (at) joelamantia.com
   Where to get a good bowl of noodles
   Your favorite kind of hot sauce

                                                                                        2
                                           Italian IA Summit : 2007      Joe Lamantia
IA means?
design means?




                                               3
     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Big tent!




(all inclusive)
                                                4
      Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
7 Years Ago
functional requirements
                                             content templates
site map
                                             branding
card sort
                                             style guide
content inventory
                                             form design
wire frames
taxonomy / controlled vocabulary
navigation model
task flow
usability evaluation
category structure
personas
metadata
                                                                                5
                                   Italian IA Summit : 2007      Joe Lamantia
Traditional Model of Information Architecture




                                                                               6
                                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
netNumina User Experience Development Process




                                                                         Wireframes
                                                     Mental Model
                                                                                        Site Map

                                                                                                    Content
                                                                                                    Matrix



                         User                 Creative Brief
                                  User
                       Personas Scenarios
          User Needs
            Matrix

                                                                                             Visual Design
                                                                                               Direction
                                                   Typography and            Visual Design
                                                                                                                         User-centered final
                                                   Branding Options             Options
                                                                                                                           Screen design
                                 Business
                               Requirements
                                Document
      Business
    Requirements   Functionality
                      Matrix




                                                                                                                                           7
                                                      Italian IA Summit : 2007                                Joe Lamantia
Wireframe (UI Concept)




                                                                   8
                         Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
User Experience Design Concept




                                                                           9
                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
How about you?




                                                10
      Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Now
service design                           multivariate testing
brand resonance                          behavior analytics
emotional triggers                       enterprise architecture
design ethnography                       conceptual modeling
social metadata systems                  collaboration environments
ontology / semantic networks             mobile experience
metadata repositories                    knowledge management
organizational culture                   rich internet
business transformation                  social media
information value chains                 innovation pipelines
scenario based visioning                 network mechanisms
enterprise 2.0 adoption
                                                                               11
                               Italian IA Summit : 2007         Joe Lamantia
And now...?




                                              12
    Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
What’s changed?

Why are things different?


                                                     13
           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
We’re designing different things.

    We’re designing things
          differently.

                                                         14
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Integrated Experiences:
multi-lateral
co-created
multi-dimensional



                                                              15
                    Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Integration = increased complexity
...experiential impact of design
...challenges for design(ers)




                                                          16
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
2 Cycles



                                                     17
           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
The Centralization Pendulum
Technologies oscillate from centralized to decentralized architectures

                                 Centralized


                              Mainframe
                                                 Client-server



                               PC
                                                    Internet



                                 De-centralized




                                                                                    18
                                          Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Permeability
Networks and systems are more or less permeable (open)

                                             Permeable



                                      Red Cross Volunteers




                                                  U.S. Supreme Court




                                             Impermeable


Permeable: A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of water.

Permeable: A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of information.
                                                                               http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permeable

                                                                                                                    19
                                                    Italian IA Summit : 2007               Joe Lamantia
Permeable
From Wiktionary:
A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the
passage of water.


A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the
passage of information.

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permeable




                                                                                    15
                                                                                    20
                                          Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Why does this matter?




                                                   21
         Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New models = de-centralized, permeable

                           Centralized

                                                FaceBook
             Green Zone                              YouTube
             in Baghdad                           Amazon



                                                                Permeable
      Impermeable

                                                      Blogosphere
            Virus
                                                          P2P
                          De-centralized


Sometimes both...
                                                                                   22
                               Italian IA Summit : 2007             Joe Lamantia
Amazon
Tags
Reviews
Lists
Ratings
Registries
Stores
Used Books
Author Pages
Author Blogs
API
S3 service


                                                         23
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Others?




                                            24
  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
3 Shifts



                                                     25
           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
3 shifts in culture show growing
 technology permeation




                                                           26
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
quot;According to Moor, the computer revolution is occurring in two stages.
The first stage was that of quot;technological introductionquot; in which computer
technology was developed and refined. This already occurred in America
during the first forty years after the Second World War.
The second stage -- one that the industrialized world has only recently
entered -- is that of quot;technological permeationquot; in which technology gets
integrated into everyday human activities and into social institutions, changing
the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as quot;moneyquot;, quot;educationquot;,
quot;workquot;, and quot;fair electionsquot;.


      Computer Ethics
      http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/
      




                                                                                        27
                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Design decisions now affect more
people, in more ways.




                                                          28
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
1.Social shift
2.DIY shift
3.Rise of the SPIME



                                                          29
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
1. Social Shift




                                                            30
                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Product / Service + Social Elements
Identity
Presence
Relationships
Group Structures
Direct Communication
Membership Criteria
Lifecycles
Reputation
Tokens
Public speech
Arbitration / Negotiation


                                                                      31
                            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Network mechanisms amplify the
effects of design decisions to
include whole communities!



                                                         32
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
More than social networking
Diverse user groups
Self-defined user communities
Shifting user communities
Overlapping identities (personal / professional)
New group and community dynamics
     Social memory
     Social identity mechanisms
     Reputation banking & influence trading

Cultural differences
     Power distance indexes

Shifting organizational contexts
     Knowledge markets
     Tagging / folksonomies



                                                                                       33
                                             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Unilateral is now multilateral




                                                            34
                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
2. DIY (Do It Yourself) Shift




                                                            35
                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New economic and production models?
“Small Pieces Loosely Joined”
Lowered barriers to entry
     Commoditized design and development
     Empowered amateurs
     Business designers

‘Shadow IT’
Free or low-cost tools and data sources
     Open source
     APIs
     Web Services / SOA
     Public data sets

Public infrastructure for mashups
     Yahoo Pipes
     Google Gadgets



                                                                                     36
                                           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
In DIY everyone designs / co-creates




                                                           37
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
iPad Touch
Product
Concept
Renderings



From:
http://factoryjoe.com




                                                                  38
                        Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
3. Rise of the SPIME




                                                          39
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
“Scenario: You buy a Spime with a credit
card. Your account info is embedded in the
transaction, including a special email
address set up for your Spimes.
After the purchase, a link is sent to you with
customer support, relevant product data,
history of ownership, geographies,
manufacturing origins, ingredients, recipes
for customization, and bluebook value.
The spime is able to update its data in your
database (via radio-frequency ID), to inform
you of required service calls, with appropriate
links to service centers.
This removes guesswork and streamlines
recycling.




                                                                                            40
                                                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
“So …you would be able to swiftly understand:
• where it was
• when you got it
• how much it cost
• who made it
• what it was made of

• where those resources came from
• what a better model looked like
• what a cheaper model looked like
• who to thank for making it
• who to complain to about its inadequacies

• what previous kinds of Spime used to look like
• why this Spime is better than earlier ones

what you could do to help that happen
• what people think the Spime of Tomorrow might look like
• the history of the Spime's ownership


                                                                                         41
                                               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
When Blobjects Rule the Earth
what it had been used for
where and when it was used
what other people who own this kind of Spime think about it
how other people more or less like you have altered or fancied-up or modified their Spime
• what most people use Spimes for
• the entire range of unorthodox uses of Spimes by the world's most extreme Spime geek fandom

• and how much your Spime is worth on an auction site

And especially -- absolutely critically -- where to get rid of it safely.”


            SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 2004




                                                                                              42
                                                    Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Emerging SPIME ecology:
• RFID
• GIS / geo-location
• tagging
• white-label social networking
• smart objects
• ubiquitous connectivity
• PLM (Product Life Cycle Management)




New niche: Collective services
>> GetSatisfaction.com




                                                                            43
                                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
SPIMEs bridge physical and virtual worlds
“Mostly virtual, occasionally physical”
    Physical manifestation
    Temporal persistence
    Real in all worlds at the same time
    Geolocatable
Semantically interconnected
    Tied to deep pools of collective metadata
    Findable
Full lifecycle awareness
    Must be sustainable / green




                                                                                    44
                                          Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Virtual experiences now affect the
physical realm, and vice versa.




                                                           45
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Design = multi-dimensional




                                                          46
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Traditional Model of Information Architecture




                                                                               47
                                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New Model for Information Architecture / UX


(Still 3 circles...)




                                                                              48
                                    Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New Audiences



                                                          49
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
DIY Audiences:
 contributor
   (architect, designer, builder)
 remixer
 aggregator
   (editor, synthesizer)
 commenter, rater
 recommender
 consumer
                                                              50
                    Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New Environments



                                                             51
                   Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
socially sensitive
legally regulated
contextually ambiguous
physically uncomfortable
cognitively stressful
erratically connected
biologically / medically sensitive
ecologically constrained

                                                             52
                   Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New Challenges



                                                           53
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Integration = increased complexity
...experiential impact of design
...challenges for design(ers)




                                                          54
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
55
Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
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Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
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Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
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Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Designing Web Applications for Use
By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006
“A third problem with users is that there are so many of them. And they are all
different. They want different things and like different things and react
differently.
I have watched teams run in circles as they redesign for each new user who
gives them feedback on a paper prototype or each new group passing through
the usability lab.
The genuine diversity of real people can distract designers from the
commonality of their needs and interests.”


      http://www.uie.com/articles/designing_web_applications_for_use/




                                                                                       59
                                            Italian IA Summit : 2007    Joe Lamantia
Does the integrated experience
mean design must resolve new
kinds of conflict?



                                                          60
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Multilateral = potential conflicts




                                                           61
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Co-creation = conflicting agendas




                                                         62
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
New dimensions = new conflicts




                                                         63
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Integration = many new conflicts




                                                          64
                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Possible conflicts in integrated experience
Name and Branding                        Open / Closed Architecture
Privacy                                  Language
                                         Cultural Concepts
Function
                                         Ownership and rights
Interaction
                                         Pace and delivery
Materials and makeup
                                         Lifecycle
Time place of use
                                         Emotion
Mental Model
                                         Identity
Ecological Impact
                                         Confidentiality
Shipping, storage, and handling
                                         Legality
Energy Consumption
                                         Symbolic value / role
Price
                                         Transparency
Information Needs
                                         Meaning
Labeling & terminology
                                                                                65
                                  Italian IA Summit : 2007       Joe Lamantia
The New Designer / Architect




                                                               66
                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
business savvy
technologically capable
skilled analyst & visualizer
narrative communicator
holistic thinker
strategic innovator
customer empath
tool maker
mediator
                                                             67
                   Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
business modeling
financial analysis
technologically selection
organizational network analysis
change management
business anthropology
knowledge management
industrial design
systems analysis
                                                            68
                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
and ?




                                          69
Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Conflict: The Missing Ingredient



                                                               70
                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Current design approaches do not
adequately address conflict.




                                                         71
               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Many frameworks, theories, methods...
Elements of Experience
Emotional Design
Forces of User Experience
Experience Design
Design Maturity Model
Making Meaning
User Centered Design
User Experience Honeycomb
User Centric Design
Contextual Design
Activity Centered Design
Participatory Design


                                                                      72
                            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
What can we do?




                                                        73
              Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Treat conflict as a natural element of context
Conflict = “new layer” of context


Advantages
Use existing design tools and methods
No disruption to stakeholder models
No new artifacts or deliverables




                                                                         74
                               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
How to address conflict as context?

Adapt common design methods and tools
Include conflict as a subject from the start
Address conflicts as they arise
Insist on resolution




                                                                           75
                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
4 Step process to resolve ethical conflicts
1. Discover
2. Understand
3. Communicate
4. Resolve




                                                                 76
                       Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Address conflict throughout the design cycle.
“Bake it in…”
                              User Roles +
               Interviews &
                              User Needs     Personas                         Scenarios
                 Findings
                                = Matrix
                                                                           Search for Relevant Research
                                                                           Learn about Client.com
Surveyor                                                                   View Latest Research
                                                                           Evaluate New Product

                                                                               Understand Methodology
                                                                               Monitor Portfolio
     Track 1:
                                                                               Researching Complex Topic
     Information
                                                                               Respond to Customer Call
        Retrieval
                                                                               Evaluate/Rate New Issue




                                                                                          Monitor credit risk over time
                                                                                          Learn about Client.com
                                                                                          Understand the rating agency
                Track 2:                                                                  Identify and compare entities
           Unified Service
                                                                                          Access ratings, research & opinion
                  Delivery
                                                                                          Perform customer service
                                                                                          Perform credit risk analysis




                                                                                                                               77
                                                Italian IA Summit : 2007                              Joe Lamantia
Vision Themes
‘Talking points’ for design vision
Allow stakeholders to communicate shared
vision



How To Address Conflict:
Prioritize themes for importance to vision
Treat conflicting themes as optional
Require unanimous vote to include themes




                                                                                       78
                                             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Stakeholder / Business Goals
Defined as part of vision phase
Translate business needs into aspects and capabilities
of solution



How To Address Conflict:
Track active disagreements in documentation
Map relationships between conflicting items
Use Delphi process to resolve




                                                                                        79
                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Map conflicts to business strategy and goals


                     Barriers to Product Adoption
       Data &                                                                                      Employees
                      Limited integration of data and features
       Analytics      Lack of common user experience

                                                                              Data & Analytics Markets
                                                                              Quantitative Users


                     Barriers to Ratings and Research
  Xyz Ratings &      Expansion                                                Adjacent Markets
      Research                                                                Equity Investors, Hedge Fund Managers
                      Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search
                      Limited related research navigation
                                                                              Traditional Markets
                                                                              Issuers, Intermediaries & Fixed
                     Barriers to Emerging Market                              Income Investors


                     Development
       Global
                      Numerous barriers to getting basic information
       Expansion                                                              Emerging Markets
                      Lack of integration between the main website and       New Issuers, Intermediaries, & Investors
                       local content


                                                                              Non-Client Users
                     Barriers to Value Perception
       Maintain
  Co
                                                                              Shareholders, Regulators, Recruits
                      Inconsistent research content                          & Journalists

       Integrity &    Sub-standard user experience
       Reputation




                                                                                                                         80
                                                   Italian IA Summit : 2007                   Joe Lamantia
Personas
Describes types of user / customer / person



How To Address Conflict:
Flag personas associated with conflicts
Enumerate any singular features / functions
Map persona landscape to show relationships
and conflicts with other personas




                                                                                        81
                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Identify conflicts relevant to individual personas
                        Chen Xiang                                                 Surveyor: Emerging Market Development >
                                                                                                                 Corporate User
                        Investment Banker, Shanghai, China                                                    Subsidiary Seeker
                         “I’m looking for a ratings agency I can partner with.”




    General Description                                          Critical User Needs
                                                                  Learn about Client.com and their operations in China
    Chen is a recent graduate and a new employee of the
    Bank of China. In his role as an investment banker he         Select the agency he feels will be best for his clients
    will be helping to structure debt offerings and sell them
    in China’s emerging capital markets. He knows that a
                                                                 Key Job Functions
    respected and authoritative third party assessment of
                                                                  Assist corporations in raising funds in China’s emerging capital
    the debt will increase its liquidity and improve its price
                                                                   markets
    in the marketplace.
                                                                  Provides strategic advisory services for mergers, acquisitions
    As such he is working to assess the relative
                                                                   and other types of corporate financial transactions
    advantages and disadvantages of using the emerging
    local ratings agencies versus the internationally
                                                                 Conflicts and Opportunities
    established agencies such as Client.com. He is looking
    to find the highest levels of transparency, so that he
                                                                  Highlight the breadth and depth of information offered in each
    can be confident in whom he chooses to work with
                                                                   country / region
    moving forward.
                                                                  Support localization, allowing content, search parameters,
                                                                   currency, reference indices, and formatting styles to be
    By gaining Chen as a client, Client.com would likely
                                                                   targeted to user’s preferred region and language
    gain the issuers he’ll eventually bring to market.




                                                                                                                                      82
                                                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007                            Joe Lamantia
Goals and Needs Matrices
Itemizes goals and needs by type of user



How To Address Conflict:
Identify specific instances of conflict between
groups or goals
Score conflicts on a heat scale to highlight
trouble spots
Total the conflicts associate with each goal and
user type to prioritize resolution efforts




                                                                                            83
                                                  Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Functional Requirements
Synthesize findings of discovery activities for
business, user and system perspectives



How To Address Conflict:
Cross-reference conflicting requirements by
owner / sponsor
‘Narrow the funnel’: reduce # of allowed
conflicts at each review / revision
Auction limited set of conflict slots
Owners can bid’ on requirements with fixed
number of points




                                                                                           84
                                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Scenarios
Scenarios should narrate aspects of the user
experience and vision



How To Address Conflict:
Label scenarios that contain internal conflicts
Cross reference scenarios that conflict with
one another
Identify which personas agree with / conflict
with each scenario




                                                                                           85
                                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings




                                                                                                  !
           !                          !                                !
           Detail page contains       Related Research tab shows     Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site
           assorted links and tabs;   a seemingly random list        number of ill-defined doc    first, because competitor’s
           content not on one page    of assorted documents          types, published at          site is easier to use
                                                                     different times




                                                                                                                                86
                                                           Italian IA Summit : 2007                        Joe Lamantia
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings

 Example Scenario: View Latest Research

  Ratings
  Advisory




                                                                                                     !
              !                          !                                !
             Detail page contains        Related Research tab shows     Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site
             assorted links and tabs;    a seemingly random list        number of ill-defined doc    first, because competitor’s
             content not on one page     of assorted documents          types, published at          site is easier to use
                                                                        different times




   “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…”
   — Director, Global Ratings Advisory




                                                                                                                                   86
                                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007                        Joe Lamantia
Share the experience of conflict via scenarios
A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings

 Example Scenario: View Latest Research

  Ratings
  Advisory




                                                                                                     !
              !                          !                                !
             Detail page contains        Related Research tab shows     Research is split across a   Goes to competitor’s site
             assorted links and tabs;    a seemingly random list        number of ill-defined doc    first, because competitor’s
             content not on one page     of assorted documents          types, published at          site is easier to use
                                                                        different times




   “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…”
   — Director, Global Ratings Advisory


  User Conflicts
                                                                        Business Conflicts
   Research content is inconsistent
                                                                         Hampers deepening of relationships
   Related research functions are ineffective
                                                                          with established clients
   Sites are difficult for users to understand
                                                                         Detracts from the company’s reputation as
   and navigate
                                                                          an authoritative source of high quality info




                                                                                                                                   86
                                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007                        Joe Lamantia
Concept Maps
Define key conceptual objects and map
relationships



How To Address Conflict:
Begin with simplified single view
Create additional views to reflect conflicting
understandings
Document conflicts via color and annotation
layers
List contested objects / concepts
Require resolution for signoff
Use mapping tool that can track and show
dependencies in relationships




                                                                                         87
                                               Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Site Maps
Summarizes structure and flow through information
space / environment



How To Address Conflict:
Compare / contrast conflicting high-level structures
Build modularly, highlight areas of conflict
Document conflicts in navigation model separately
Flag conflicts in content structure and detailed IA
discussed in other artifacts - topic maps, taxonomies,
etc.
Cross-reference to alternative functional interactions
and flows (use cases and process flows)




                                                                                          88
                                                Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Wire Frames
Schematics capture function, layout, interaction



How To Address Conflict:
Identify screen components affected by conflict
Cross-reference to conflicting personas / scenarios




                                                                                           89
                                                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Use Cases
Document behavior of system and actors



How To Address Conflict:
Write use cases for all understandings
Cross-reference alternate / conflicting use cases




                                                                                        90
                                              Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Designing Different Things



                                                               91
                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
platforms and frameworks
networks
  (social, conceptual, ??)
processes and services
  (public, private)
games and self-teaching systems
physical and emotional environments
communities
systems
                                                           92
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Pattern:
Higher level of abstraction




                                                           93
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Designing Things Differently



                                                               94
                     Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Design Feedback Methods
 social dynamics
 network effects
 gamelike interactions
 realtime analytics
 simultaneous variations
 parallel iteration



                                                           95
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Pattern:
Diverse and rapid insights




                                                           96
                 Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Principles For the DIY Future



                                                                97
                      Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Control is now negotiation




                                                      98
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Solutions are now frameworks




                                                       99
             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Designs are now templates




                                                     100
           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Discovery is now facilitation




                                                       101
             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Advocacy is now empowerment




                                                      102
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Demographics is now self-
       definition



                                                     103
           Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Change is now transformation




                                                       104
             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Production is now creation




                                                      105
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Feeds are now streams




                                                   106
         Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Destinations are now nodes




                                                      107
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Structures are now networks




                                                      108
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Architectures are now systems




                                                       109
             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Systems are now ecosystems




                                                      110
            Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Ecosystems are now ecologies




                                                       111
             Italian IA Summit : 2007   Joe Lamantia
Full version: www.slideshare.net/MoJoe




                  Domande?




                                             Grazie!




                                                                      112
                           Italian IA Summit : 2007    Joe Lamantia

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The DIY Future: What Happens When Everyone Is a Designer

  • 1. The DIY Future 2007 Italian IA Summit
  • 2. Joe Lamantia Involved in user experience / Internet since 1996 In 2000, became an entrepreneur and started my own company Creator of the leading freely available tool for card sort analysis Creator of the Building Blocks design framework for portals and user experiences Currently based in New York - but enjoys Europe a great deal… On the Web JoeLamantia.com Boxesandarrows.com Tagsonomy.com Email to joe (at) joelamantia.com Where to get a good bowl of noodles Your favorite kind of hot sauce 2 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 3. IA means? design means? 3 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 4. Big tent! (all inclusive) 4 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 5. 7 Years Ago functional requirements content templates site map branding card sort style guide content inventory form design wire frames taxonomy / controlled vocabulary navigation model task flow usability evaluation category structure personas metadata 5 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 6. Traditional Model of Information Architecture 6 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 7. netNumina User Experience Development Process Wireframes Mental Model Site Map Content Matrix User Creative Brief User Personas Scenarios User Needs Matrix Visual Design Direction Typography and Visual Design User-centered final Branding Options Options Screen design Business Requirements Document Business Requirements Functionality Matrix 7 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 8. Wireframe (UI Concept) 8 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 9. User Experience Design Concept 9 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 10. How about you? 10 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 11. Now service design multivariate testing brand resonance behavior analytics emotional triggers enterprise architecture design ethnography conceptual modeling social metadata systems collaboration environments ontology / semantic networks mobile experience metadata repositories knowledge management organizational culture rich internet business transformation social media information value chains innovation pipelines scenario based visioning network mechanisms enterprise 2.0 adoption 11 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 12. And now...? 12 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 13. What’s changed? Why are things different? 13 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 14. We’re designing different things. We’re designing things differently. 14 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 16. Integration = increased complexity ...experiential impact of design ...challenges for design(ers) 16 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 17. 2 Cycles 17 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 18. The Centralization Pendulum Technologies oscillate from centralized to decentralized architectures Centralized Mainframe Client-server PC Internet De-centralized 18 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 19. Permeability Networks and systems are more or less permeable (open) Permeable Red Cross Volunteers U.S. Supreme Court Impermeable Permeable: A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of water. Permeable: A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of information. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permeable 19 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 20. Permeable From Wiktionary: A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of water. A substance, substrate, membrane or material that absorbs or allows the passage of information. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/permeable 15 20 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 21. Why does this matter? 21 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 22. New models = de-centralized, permeable Centralized FaceBook Green Zone YouTube in Baghdad Amazon Permeable Impermeable Blogosphere Virus P2P De-centralized Sometimes both... 22 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 23. Amazon Tags Reviews Lists Ratings Registries Stores Used Books Author Pages Author Blogs API S3 service 23 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 24. Others? 24 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 25. 3 Shifts 25 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 26. 3 shifts in culture show growing technology permeation 26 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 27. quot;According to Moor, the computer revolution is occurring in two stages. The first stage was that of quot;technological introductionquot; in which computer technology was developed and refined. This already occurred in America during the first forty years after the Second World War. The second stage -- one that the industrialized world has only recently entered -- is that of quot;technological permeationquot; in which technology gets integrated into everyday human activities and into social institutions, changing the very meaning of fundamental concepts, such as quot;moneyquot;, quot;educationquot;, quot;workquot;, and quot;fair electionsquot;. Computer Ethics http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ 27 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 28. Design decisions now affect more people, in more ways. 28 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 29. 1.Social shift 2.DIY shift 3.Rise of the SPIME 29 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 30. 1. Social Shift 30 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 31. Product / Service + Social Elements Identity Presence Relationships Group Structures Direct Communication Membership Criteria Lifecycles Reputation Tokens Public speech Arbitration / Negotiation 31 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 32. Network mechanisms amplify the effects of design decisions to include whole communities! 32 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 33. More than social networking Diverse user groups Self-defined user communities Shifting user communities Overlapping identities (personal / professional) New group and community dynamics Social memory Social identity mechanisms Reputation banking & influence trading Cultural differences Power distance indexes Shifting organizational contexts Knowledge markets Tagging / folksonomies 33 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 34. Unilateral is now multilateral 34 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 35. 2. DIY (Do It Yourself) Shift 35 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 36. New economic and production models? “Small Pieces Loosely Joined” Lowered barriers to entry Commoditized design and development Empowered amateurs Business designers ‘Shadow IT’ Free or low-cost tools and data sources Open source APIs Web Services / SOA Public data sets Public infrastructure for mashups Yahoo Pipes Google Gadgets 36 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 37. In DIY everyone designs / co-creates 37 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 38. iPad Touch Product Concept Renderings From: http://factoryjoe.com 38 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 39. 3. Rise of the SPIME 39 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 40. When Blobjects Rule the Earth “Scenario: You buy a Spime with a credit card. Your account info is embedded in the transaction, including a special email address set up for your Spimes. After the purchase, a link is sent to you with customer support, relevant product data, history of ownership, geographies, manufacturing origins, ingredients, recipes for customization, and bluebook value. The spime is able to update its data in your database (via radio-frequency ID), to inform you of required service calls, with appropriate links to service centers. This removes guesswork and streamlines recycling. 40 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 41. When Blobjects Rule the Earth “So …you would be able to swiftly understand: • where it was • when you got it • how much it cost • who made it • what it was made of • where those resources came from • what a better model looked like • what a cheaper model looked like • who to thank for making it • who to complain to about its inadequacies • what previous kinds of Spime used to look like • why this Spime is better than earlier ones what you could do to help that happen • what people think the Spime of Tomorrow might look like • the history of the Spime's ownership 41 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 42. When Blobjects Rule the Earth what it had been used for where and when it was used what other people who own this kind of Spime think about it how other people more or less like you have altered or fancied-up or modified their Spime • what most people use Spimes for • the entire range of unorthodox uses of Spimes by the world's most extreme Spime geek fandom • and how much your Spime is worth on an auction site And especially -- absolutely critically -- where to get rid of it safely.” SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August 2004 42 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 43. Emerging SPIME ecology: • RFID • GIS / geo-location • tagging • white-label social networking • smart objects • ubiquitous connectivity • PLM (Product Life Cycle Management) New niche: Collective services >> GetSatisfaction.com 43 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 44. SPIMEs bridge physical and virtual worlds “Mostly virtual, occasionally physical” Physical manifestation Temporal persistence Real in all worlds at the same time Geolocatable Semantically interconnected Tied to deep pools of collective metadata Findable Full lifecycle awareness Must be sustainable / green 44 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 45. Virtual experiences now affect the physical realm, and vice versa. 45 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 46. Design = multi-dimensional 46 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 47. Traditional Model of Information Architecture 47 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 48. New Model for Information Architecture / UX (Still 3 circles...) 48 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 49. New Audiences 49 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 50. DIY Audiences: contributor (architect, designer, builder) remixer aggregator (editor, synthesizer) commenter, rater recommender consumer 50 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 51. New Environments 51 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 52. socially sensitive legally regulated contextually ambiguous physically uncomfortable cognitively stressful erratically connected biologically / medically sensitive ecologically constrained 52 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 53. New Challenges 53 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 54. Integration = increased complexity ...experiential impact of design ...challenges for design(ers) 54 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 55. 55 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 56. 56 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 57. 57 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 58. 58 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 59. Designing Web Applications for Use By Larry Constantine, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd. - Dec 11, 2006 “A third problem with users is that there are so many of them. And they are all different. They want different things and like different things and react differently. I have watched teams run in circles as they redesign for each new user who gives them feedback on a paper prototype or each new group passing through the usability lab. The genuine diversity of real people can distract designers from the commonality of their needs and interests.” http://www.uie.com/articles/designing_web_applications_for_use/ 59 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 60. Does the integrated experience mean design must resolve new kinds of conflict? 60 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 61. Multilateral = potential conflicts 61 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 62. Co-creation = conflicting agendas 62 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 63. New dimensions = new conflicts 63 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 64. Integration = many new conflicts 64 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 65. Possible conflicts in integrated experience Name and Branding Open / Closed Architecture Privacy Language Cultural Concepts Function Ownership and rights Interaction Pace and delivery Materials and makeup Lifecycle Time place of use Emotion Mental Model Identity Ecological Impact Confidentiality Shipping, storage, and handling Legality Energy Consumption Symbolic value / role Price Transparency Information Needs Meaning Labeling & terminology 65 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 66. The New Designer / Architect 66 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 67. business savvy technologically capable skilled analyst & visualizer narrative communicator holistic thinker strategic innovator customer empath tool maker mediator 67 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 68. business modeling financial analysis technologically selection organizational network analysis change management business anthropology knowledge management industrial design systems analysis 68 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 69. and ? 69 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 70. Conflict: The Missing Ingredient 70 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 71. Current design approaches do not adequately address conflict. 71 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 72. Many frameworks, theories, methods... Elements of Experience Emotional Design Forces of User Experience Experience Design Design Maturity Model Making Meaning User Centered Design User Experience Honeycomb User Centric Design Contextual Design Activity Centered Design Participatory Design 72 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 73. What can we do? 73 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 74. Treat conflict as a natural element of context Conflict = “new layer” of context Advantages Use existing design tools and methods No disruption to stakeholder models No new artifacts or deliverables 74 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 75. How to address conflict as context? Adapt common design methods and tools Include conflict as a subject from the start Address conflicts as they arise Insist on resolution 75 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 76. 4 Step process to resolve ethical conflicts 1. Discover 2. Understand 3. Communicate 4. Resolve 76 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 77. Address conflict throughout the design cycle. “Bake it in…” User Roles + Interviews & User Needs Personas Scenarios Findings = Matrix Search for Relevant Research Learn about Client.com Surveyor View Latest Research Evaluate New Product Understand Methodology Monitor Portfolio Track 1: Researching Complex Topic Information Respond to Customer Call Retrieval Evaluate/Rate New Issue Monitor credit risk over time Learn about Client.com Understand the rating agency Track 2: Identify and compare entities Unified Service Access ratings, research & opinion Delivery Perform customer service Perform credit risk analysis 77 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 78. Vision Themes ‘Talking points’ for design vision Allow stakeholders to communicate shared vision How To Address Conflict: Prioritize themes for importance to vision Treat conflicting themes as optional Require unanimous vote to include themes 78 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 79. Stakeholder / Business Goals Defined as part of vision phase Translate business needs into aspects and capabilities of solution How To Address Conflict: Track active disagreements in documentation Map relationships between conflicting items Use Delphi process to resolve 79 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 80. Map conflicts to business strategy and goals Barriers to Product Adoption Data & Employees  Limited integration of data and features Analytics  Lack of common user experience Data & Analytics Markets Quantitative Users Barriers to Ratings and Research Xyz Ratings & Expansion Adjacent Markets Research Equity Investors, Hedge Fund Managers  Ineffective Basic & Advanced Search  Limited related research navigation Traditional Markets Issuers, Intermediaries & Fixed Barriers to Emerging Market Income Investors Development Global  Numerous barriers to getting basic information Expansion Emerging Markets  Lack of integration between the main website and New Issuers, Intermediaries, & Investors local content Non-Client Users Barriers to Value Perception Maintain Co Shareholders, Regulators, Recruits  Inconsistent research content & Journalists Integrity &  Sub-standard user experience Reputation 80 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 81. Personas Describes types of user / customer / person How To Address Conflict: Flag personas associated with conflicts Enumerate any singular features / functions Map persona landscape to show relationships and conflicts with other personas 81 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 82. Identify conflicts relevant to individual personas Chen Xiang Surveyor: Emerging Market Development > Corporate User Investment Banker, Shanghai, China Subsidiary Seeker “I’m looking for a ratings agency I can partner with.” General Description Critical User Needs  Learn about Client.com and their operations in China Chen is a recent graduate and a new employee of the Bank of China. In his role as an investment banker he  Select the agency he feels will be best for his clients will be helping to structure debt offerings and sell them in China’s emerging capital markets. He knows that a Key Job Functions respected and authoritative third party assessment of  Assist corporations in raising funds in China’s emerging capital the debt will increase its liquidity and improve its price markets in the marketplace.  Provides strategic advisory services for mergers, acquisitions As such he is working to assess the relative and other types of corporate financial transactions advantages and disadvantages of using the emerging local ratings agencies versus the internationally Conflicts and Opportunities established agencies such as Client.com. He is looking to find the highest levels of transparency, so that he  Highlight the breadth and depth of information offered in each can be confident in whom he chooses to work with country / region moving forward.  Support localization, allowing content, search parameters, currency, reference indices, and formatting styles to be By gaining Chen as a client, Client.com would likely targeted to user’s preferred region and language gain the issuers he’ll eventually bring to market. 82 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 83. Goals and Needs Matrices Itemizes goals and needs by type of user How To Address Conflict: Identify specific instances of conflict between groups or goals Score conflicts on a heat scale to highlight trouble spots Total the conflicts associate with each goal and user type to prioritize resolution efforts 83 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 84. Functional Requirements Synthesize findings of discovery activities for business, user and system perspectives How To Address Conflict: Cross-reference conflicting requirements by owner / sponsor ‘Narrow the funnel’: reduce # of allowed conflicts at each review / revision Auction limited set of conflict slots Owners can bid’ on requirements with fixed number of points 84 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 85. Scenarios Scenarios should narrate aspects of the user experience and vision How To Address Conflict: Label scenarios that contain internal conflicts Cross reference scenarios that conflict with one another Identify which personas agree with / conflict with each scenario 85 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 86. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times 86 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 87. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory 86 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 88. Share the experience of conflict via scenarios A poor user experience lowers perceptions of services and offerings Example Scenario: View Latest Research Ratings Advisory ! ! ! ! Detail page contains Related Research tab shows Research is split across a Goes to competitor’s site assorted links and tabs; a seemingly random list number of ill-defined doc first, because competitor’s content not on one page of assorted documents types, published at site is easier to use different times “I’ll go to (a competitor’s site) first, then I’ll go to (the company’s) if I have the time…” — Director, Global Ratings Advisory User Conflicts Business Conflicts  Research content is inconsistent  Hampers deepening of relationships  Related research functions are ineffective with established clients  Sites are difficult for users to understand  Detracts from the company’s reputation as and navigate an authoritative source of high quality info 86 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 89. Concept Maps Define key conceptual objects and map relationships How To Address Conflict: Begin with simplified single view Create additional views to reflect conflicting understandings Document conflicts via color and annotation layers List contested objects / concepts Require resolution for signoff Use mapping tool that can track and show dependencies in relationships 87 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 90. Site Maps Summarizes structure and flow through information space / environment How To Address Conflict: Compare / contrast conflicting high-level structures Build modularly, highlight areas of conflict Document conflicts in navigation model separately Flag conflicts in content structure and detailed IA discussed in other artifacts - topic maps, taxonomies, etc. Cross-reference to alternative functional interactions and flows (use cases and process flows) 88 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 91. Wire Frames Schematics capture function, layout, interaction How To Address Conflict: Identify screen components affected by conflict Cross-reference to conflicting personas / scenarios 89 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 92. Use Cases Document behavior of system and actors How To Address Conflict: Write use cases for all understandings Cross-reference alternate / conflicting use cases 90 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 93. Designing Different Things 91 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 94. platforms and frameworks networks (social, conceptual, ??) processes and services (public, private) games and self-teaching systems physical and emotional environments communities systems 92 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 95. Pattern: Higher level of abstraction 93 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 96. Designing Things Differently 94 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 97. Design Feedback Methods social dynamics network effects gamelike interactions realtime analytics simultaneous variations parallel iteration 95 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 98. Pattern: Diverse and rapid insights 96 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 99. Principles For the DIY Future 97 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 100. Control is now negotiation 98 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 101. Solutions are now frameworks 99 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 102. Designs are now templates 100 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 103. Discovery is now facilitation 101 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 104. Advocacy is now empowerment 102 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 105. Demographics is now self- definition 103 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 106. Change is now transformation 104 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 107. Production is now creation 105 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 108. Feeds are now streams 106 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 109. Destinations are now nodes 107 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 110. Structures are now networks 108 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 111. Architectures are now systems 109 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 112. Systems are now ecosystems 110 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 113. Ecosystems are now ecologies 111 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia
  • 114. Full version: www.slideshare.net/MoJoe Domande? Grazie! 112 Italian IA Summit : 2007 Joe Lamantia