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#languageofdiscovery
#ageofinsight
Discovery &
The Age of Insight
Joe Lamantia
Product Strategy and Design: Oracle
@moJoe
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe
Oracle.com/goto/EndecaDiscoveryPatterns
Endeca Discovery Pattern Library
designed many
discovery solutions
“In the next ten
years, digital data
alone is expected
to grow 44 times.
By 2020, there
will be 4 billion
people online
creating 50
trillion gigabytes
of data.”
HP Intelligent Research
Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta
Varied data ‘materials’
social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific
Full spectrum of granularity
Real-time & historical perspectives
Commoditized infrastructure
storage, processing, distribution, publishing
Data ecosystem(s)
“‘Big Data’ always make[s]
me think of some weird
Star Trek: TNG fan fiction
pron.”
Dan Saffer
value!data
value!data
PHASE1 PHASE 3PHASE 2
?
“The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to
process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to
communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the
next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for
elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we
really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the
complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand
that data and extract value from it.”
Hal Varian
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
“the ...scarce factor is the ability
to understand that data...”
http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
insight!discoverydata +
discovery is...?
not just search
more than
visualization
discovery is
making sense
of the world
search
visualization
analysis
prediction
Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
Sensemaking
Discovery
Act or experience of seeing, finding,
learning, or solving something.
Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
Sense making
activity whose
purpose is
achieving insight.
Insight
Grasping or understanding meaning,
significance, and/or a solution.
A valuable change in perspective or
understanding that enables or guides
further action.
Welcome to
The Age of Insight
Everything is
discoverable
http://citydashboard.org/london/
urban status
W Antwerp WT?
influence
data journalism
cultural analytics
‘Cliodynamics’ is a
transdisciplinary area of
research integrating
historical macrosociology,
economic history/
cliometrics, mathematical
modeling of long-term
social processes, and the
construction and analysis of
historical databases.
scientific disciplines
who gets your vote
your secret
identity
we know you’re a dog
Everyone
discovers
ready data
interaction tools
management tools
engagement models
consumer devices
“The datasexual looks a lot like
you and me, but what’s different is
their preoccupation with personal
data.
They are relentlessly digital, they
obsessively record everything
about their personal lives, and
they think that data is sexy. In
fact, the bigger the data, the sexier
it becomes.
Their lives - from a data
perspective, at least - are perfectly
groomed.”
data as lifestyle
social exchange
Horizon of Discoverability
present
soon
future
past
discovery capability is expected
in all sense making contexts
As I was waiting for a table at a
local restaurant the other day, I
flipped through a couple of the
free classified papers.
I was shocked to realize how
dependent I’ve grown on
three simple features that just
aren’t available in the analog
world: search, sort and filter.
http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
Discovery is Everyware
multi-channel experiences
networked devices & places
ubicomp
environments
information
shadows
product, service, personal avatars
mixed realities
Discovery is the most
important organizational
capability in the Age of
Insight
age of reason
“Its purpose was to reform society using reason,
challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and
advance knowledge through the scientific method.
It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and
intellectual interchange...”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_reason
“Its purpose was to reform society using reason,
challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and
advance knowledge through the scientific method.
It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and
intellectual interchange...”
Zeitgeist
Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes
evidence, especially as discovered in experiments.
It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that
all hypotheses and theories must be tested against
observations of the natural world rather than resting
solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism
Methods
Instruments
Jacopo Zabarella
Giacomo (or Jacopo) Zabarella (5
September 1533 – 15 October 1589)
was an Italian Aristotelian philosopher
and logician.
In 1577 he was promoted to the first
extraordinary chair of natural philosophy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacopo_Zabarella
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_philosopher
Roles
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k57198h.image.langES
CommunitiesCommunities
Data Science
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/DataScienceDisciplines.png
http://nirvacana.com/thoughts/wp-content/uploads/
2013/07/RoadToDataScientist1.png
Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge
ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and
advance insight through data science.
Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge
ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and
advance insight through data science.
Empirical
Augmented
Accelerated
Cooperative
“leveraging of existing concepts and
approaches from multiple disciplines to
derive new concepts and approaches,
which in turn enable new ways to
achieve and utilize understanding. 
...an integration-driven emergence
of new disciplines, not just ad hoc
collaborations.”
“leveraging of existing concepts and
approaches from multiple disciplines to
derive new concepts and approaches,
which in turn enable new ways to
achieve and utilize understanding. 
...an integration-driven emergence
of new disciplines, not just ad hoc
collaborations.”
http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2013/06/21/data-science-and-
the-changing-nature-of-research-and-innovation/
“Quite possibly, data
science can be a
catalyst for the
reorganization of the
research and
innovation enterprise,”
Empirical
AugmentedAugmented
AcceleratedAccelerated
Cooperative
How to enable discovery?
mediated sense making
information retrieval
precursors
Bates - tactics & categories
O’Day & Jeffries - categories
Cool & Belkin
Ellis - behaviors & modes
Marchionini - IR framework
Spencer - Modes
Lamantia - Modes & patterns
Patterns of form
are inadequate.
Need & context vary wildly
Task patterns = vague...
insight!activitydata +
Activity Centered Design
The same thing
we do every night...
Research
Research
Develop &
Produce
Market
Sell &
Deliver
Operations
& Planning
Digital Asset
Mgmt
Financial
Analysis
Enterprise Search
& Knowledge Mgmt
Spend
Analysis
Market
Intelligence
Product
Information
Mgmt
Inventory &
DeliverySales &
Customer
Analysis
Field Service
Analysis
Warranty
Analysis
Maintenance
Repair &
Overhaul
Call Centers &
Knowledge
Mgmt
Customer
Risk Analysis
Part, Commodity
& Supplier
Analysis
Manufacturing
& Quality Inventory &
Demand Visibility
Human Capital
Management
Program & Portfolio
Mgmt
Data Quality &
Governance
Pricing
Analysis
Claims Analysis
Service
Support &
Maintain
Measure
Plan &
Operate
solution contexts
scenario analysis
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in
manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace
that part.”
- Engineering
“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the
quality of the investment opportunity.”
“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level
investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager
“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can
negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk
based on market indices.”
- Procurement
User Scenarios
The Language of Discovery:
A concrete descriptive language for
human discovery activity in diverse
contexts.
A simple and consistent vocabulary that
is independent of domain, role,
information type, etc.
The Language of Discovery:
A concrete descriptive language for
human discovery activity in diverse
contexts.
A simple and consistent vocabulary that
is independent of domain, role,
information type, etc.
activity grammar
Leverages what is common
in human discovery.
Allows for what varies in
contexts of discovery.
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experiences
visual grammars
DISCOVERY S
Literary Modes
“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or
manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular
form or genre.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
Argumentation
The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity
of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and
argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Rhetorical Modes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_modes
Exposition
The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information
by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
Discovery Modes
“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is
not tied exclusively to a particular context or
domain.”
Identifying Modes
“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the
best part possible for my assembly.”
- Engineering
“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding
based on performance problems.”
- Account Rep
“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”
- SVP Sales
“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/
products.”
- Brand Manager
Identifying Modes
“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing
and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”
- Engineering
“Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the
investment opportunity.”
“Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”
- Portfolio Manager
“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”
- Procurement
Comprehending
‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or
meaning of something’
e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform
brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”
– Engineer
domain independent
scale independent
structurally consistent
semantically distinct
orthogonal
conceptually connected
sequencable
combinable
Modes seem to be
internalized & common.
they work like
music notes
MODE
Exploring
‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the
purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’
e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better
terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”
– Procurement
Monitoring
‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for
purposes of management or control’
e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account
Reps to fix the problems”
– Sales Manager
Locating
‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’
e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from
the most qualified supplier”
– Engineer
Evaluate
‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value
of something with respect to a specific benchmark’
e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price
variation to negotiate a better price”
– Procurement
Verify
‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some
specific criterion’
e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”
– Supply Chain Specialist
Compare
‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and
differences’
e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown
information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”
– Engineer
best route is?
Locate
Verify
Monitor
Compare
Comprehend
Explore
Analyze
Evaluate
Synthesize
9 modes
Locate
To find a specific (possibly known) thing
e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier -
Engineering
Verify
‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets
some specific criterion’
e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist
Monitor
‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for
purposes of management or control’
e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales
Manager
Compare
To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences
e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying
competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering
Comprehend
To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of
something
e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications
plan – Director, Brand Image
Explore
To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of
knowledge discovery
e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and
forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement
Analyze
To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns &
relationships
e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or
step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering
Evaluate
To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with
respect to a specific benchmark or model
e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better
price - Procurement
Synthesize
To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create
a novel artifact or composite view
e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep
grammatical
structure & behavior
Modes are the verbs of
discovery scenarios.
Explore
something
to effect
result or goal.
verb
object
predicate
Discovery Goal
You can explore:
people
places
events
objects
data
topics
processes
...??
you said they
work like music?
Mode
Monitor
Explore
...currently popular colors over useful
intervals
...currently popular colors, or colors
popular in the past
Verify
That a color is popular now or in the
past
When I use the tool, I can...
Monitor
Explore
...articles to see what is new and
available.
...available articles and topics to
identify those of interest to me.
Locate
... and read articles of interest,
supporting information, and
related materials.
As a reader, I can...
Monitor
Explore
...the tweets of people I follow, my
followers, community interactions.
...trends and active topics, and
suggestions for people to follow.
..tweets, people, hashtags / topics
My twitter home page allows me to...
Locate
Synthesize
...new tweets via composition,
retweet, or favorite tweets.
The profile snapshot lets me...
...the author of a tweet to decide if I
am interested in them
...the profile and homepage of the
author of a tweet
Locate
Evaluate
Comprehend
Explore
Evaluate
A twitter profile page lets me...
...the authors profile to learn more
about them
...their activity, followers, tweets,
relevance to me
...the author’s interests, point of view,
you said they
work like music?
scenario analysis: multiple /
sequential modes
Chains
Comparative Search
1. Replace a problematic part
(from sourcing, cost or technical
perspective)
2. ...with an equivalent or better
part
3. ...without compromising quality
and cost.
Analyze
Compare
Evaluate
Comparative Search
1. Analyze
2. and understand gaps between
current cost of commodity
3. versus best in class
manufacturing costs.
Analyze
Compare
Evaluate
enterprise
scenario chains
Comparative Search
Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer
Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without
compromising quality and cost. - Engineering
Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,
quality and functionality. - Engineering
Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager
See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between
actual PO and should costs). - Procurement
Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost
Estimators
Analyze Compare Evaluate
Exploratory Search
Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer
Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager
Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager
Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager
Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer
Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Explore Analyze Evaluate
Strategic Oversight
Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales
Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector
Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core
Engineer
Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager
Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager
Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
Monitor Analyze Evaluate
Strategic Insight
Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering
Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I
should replace that part. - Engineering
Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio
Manager
Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager
I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast
business risk based on market indices. - Procurement
Analyze Comprehend Evaluate
Comparative Synthesis
Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -
Director, Brand Image
Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering
Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer
Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand
strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
Analyze Compare Synthesize
Explore Analyze Evaluate
Analyze Comprehend Evaluate
Monitor Analyze Evaluate
Analyze Compare Synthesize
Comparative
Synthesis
Strategic
Oversight
Exploratory
Search
Strategic
Insight
Comparative
Search
Analyze Compare Evaluate
Enterprise Scenario Chains
consumer scenario
chains
http://www.flickr.com/photos/t_zero/7350565830/in/photostream/
consumer scenario
chains
277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the
end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to
achieve it.
• Find best offers before the others do so I can have
a high margin.
• Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely
so that I can achieve a good price.
• Understand what is selling by area/region so I can
source the correct stock.
• See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online
to supply to the Head of Global Media.
Qualified Search
A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required:
“Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances)
Locate Verify
A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Insight-driven Search
An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need:
“Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances)
Explore Analyze Comprehend
A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Opportunity-driven Search
A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery:
“Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances)
Explore Locate Evaluate
A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour"
Tony	
  Russell-­‐Rose	
  and	
  Stephann	
  Makri
http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
Explore Analyze
Evaluate
Insight-driven
Search
Opportunity-
driven Search
Comprehend
Explore Locate
Qualified
Search
Locate Verify
Consumer Scenario Chains
Mode
recognizable mode chains
Analyze
Evaluate
Comparative Search
1. Analyze the popularity
and importance of colors
over time to see patterns
2. Compare colors in terms
of importance and
popularity at various
cycles, trends, and
moments.
3. Evaluate colors vs. their
current and historic
importance and popularity.
Color Forecast users can...
...of colors I may use for my purposes
Compare
Analyze
Comprehend
Evaluate
Strategic Insight
1. Analyze events and
topics using the data and
tools provided
2. Understand the events
and topics using the
Guardian’s perspective
and my own.
3. Evaluate all perspectives,
as well as the actions and
decisions based on them.
Data blog readers can...
into events & actions of government & society
Analyze
Comparative synthesis
1. Analysis of the causes,
participants and events of
the UK riots
2. Comparison of
suggested causes,
insights and explanations
into the events.
3. Synthesis of these
insights into a coordinated
perspective on the riots
Data blog readers can...
of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
Compare
Synthesize
Evaluate
Exploratory search
1. Explore the author’s
profile, activity and
community interactions.
2. Analyze the author’s
followers, activity, tweets,
community interaction,
who they follow.
3. Evaluate the author to
decide their relevance and
value.
Twitter users can...
... for valuable people streams to follow
Explore
Analyze
mode networks
Analyze
AnalyzeMonitor
Explore
Compare
Comprehend Synthesize
Evaluate
Verify
Mode Networks
AnalyzeExplore Comprehend
Evaluate
Verify
Locate
Mode Networks
Exploratory Search
Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer
Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager
Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager
Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager
Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer
Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Explore Analyze Evaluate
Initial SummaryOperative
Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer
Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross
sell; promotional targets - District Manager
Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we
be making/selling? - Category Manager
Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager
Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer
Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program
Administrator
Explore Analyze Evaluate
Initial SummaryOperative
Analyze
AnalyzeMonitor
Explore
Compare
Comprehend Synthesize
Evaluate
Verify
Initial SummaryOperative
Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology
Sensemaking
Initial SummaryOperative
Using the languageUsing the language
To inform the core principles for the user experience
of the product
To coordinate the design of product features and
functions across channels and form-factors
To evaluate the quality and success of product
designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value,
etc.
To establish a roadmap for the product's evolution
and determine development efforts
To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by
understanding the value proposition of current and
potential new products
Product
Strategy,
Definition
& Design
Value
Proposition
Fully specified,
known
Predictable,
repeatable, linear,
known
Uncertain, ambiguous,
subjective
Unpredictable, iterative,
adaptive, looped,
opportunity driven
Fully specified,
known
Uncertain, unknown
changeable,
multi-faceted
Ill DefinedWell Defined
Wicked
Are we hitting
our revenue
targets?
Which is the
best product
for my
category?
What are our
best market
opportunities?
GOAL
PATH
INFO
Ill-Defined & Wicked Problems: A range of examples
What are the
main causes of
returns & dis-
satisfaction?
What & where are
the best market
opportunities ?
How can we
quickly detect
cases of fraud?
What are the
major risk/causal
factors for X
disease?How can we
improve the fuel
efficiency, safety
etc. of our vehicle
fleet?
How can we
optimize our
market
campaigns,
portfolio, etc.?
How can we
identify potential
terror cells?
Well defined & stable problem
statement
Definite stopping point/solution
Solution can be evaluated as
right or wrong
Belongs to a class of similar
problems which are all solved in
a similar way
Comes with a limited set of
alternative solutions
Don’t understand problem until you’ve
developed a solution; solutions reveal new
facets of or redefine the problem
No stopping rule; “satisficing”, stopping
when solution is judged as “good enough”
Solutions are not right or wrong ; solutions
assessed in social context
Essentially unique or novel, no standardized
solution path or well defined “best practice”
No given alternative solutions; no
predefined boundaries on solution
Tame Wicked
Discovery Spectrum: Simple Answers to Complex Insights
Awareness
Facts &
Answers
Insight*
Meaning &
Context
Knowing that Knowing how &
why
Locating
Verifying
Monitoring
Exploring
Analyzing
Synthesizing
Simple Complex
These regions
are below
target..
This is the best
product for my
category
These are the
best market
opportunities…..
* Insight:
• Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution
• A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides
further action
To guide the deployment of the product as part of
a solution for customers
Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution
specification tools
Crafting functional requirements and interaction
designs for deployed applications
To describe and publish patterns and best
practices in implementation of the product -
workspace, application, application suite
solution
design for
product
customers
To guide the deployment of the product as part of
a solution for customers
Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution
specification tools
Crafting functional requirements and interaction
designs for deployed applications
To describe and publish patterns and best
practices in implementation of the product -
workspace, application, application suite
Mode-based design
discovery application
template
Supply Chain Management
Analytics and Forecasting
Enables understanding of
discovery needs and context
Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context
Goals & Scenarios
§Plan
§Optimize
§Launch
§Build
User
Types
§Knowledgeable
§Enthusiast
§Uncertain Explorer
§Manager
Business
Goals
§Engagement
§Conversion
§Cross-Sell
§Adoption
§Acquisition
Discovery Assets
§Product info
§Rich Media
§Textual Info
§Social Media
§Metrics
What decision-
discovery
support and
information
assets will help
them achieve their
goals?
What are business-
user critical goals &
scenarios? What
do they need to
know to succeed?
What are the
business
strategies,
objectives, &
priorities?
Modes & Chains
§Locate
§Explore
§Strategic Insight
§Qualified Search
How do people
need to interact
with information
assets & each
other to achieve
their goals?
Who are the
critical users and
how do their
discovery needs
& behaviors
vary?
Supply Chain Process
Source ManufacturePlan Distribute Replenish
Planning Team Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
Planners: Needs & Goals
Planner / Analyst
•
Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a
very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each
product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve
through several iterations before reaching their final state,
allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales,
inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real
time.
•
Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods
by understanding the nature, degree, and source of
forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined
metrics and performance measures.
•
Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting
forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to
reflect these changes.
Planning Manager
•
Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to
assess individual and team performance
•
Determine the specific metrics and performance
measurements that Planning teams use for reference,
based on the long-term goals of the organization.
•
Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting
practices and tools used by planning teams
Managers: Needs & Goals
•
Achieve 100% forecast accuracy
•
Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all
situations.
Planning Team
recognizable mode chains
Synthesize
Analyze
To create new forecasts, Planners:
Analyze their previous forecasts and newly
identified causal factors
Compare them to accuracy baselines and
the expected impact of correlating factors
such as seasonal events or weather
Create new forecasts that reflect insights
from analytical activities
Planners: Mode Chains
Comparative Synthesis
Compare
Demand
Forecast
activitydata +
To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners:
Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy
and error rates to
Understand the factors affecting forecasts
Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of
newly identified causal factors by
retrospectively including them in previous
forecasts
Planners: Mode Chains
Analyze
Comprehend
Evaluate
Strategic Insight
Causal Factor
activitydata +
Analyze
Managers assessing Planner performance:
Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by
individual analysts and the team
Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in
variance and accuracy
Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and
forecasting methods.
Planning Managers: Mode Chains
Evaluate
Strategic Oversight
Monitor
Forecasting
Method
activitydata +
Location Forecast
Causal Factor
Forecasting
Methodology
Item Forecast
Discovery scope
???
Generative tool for discovery
capability and experiences
how much?
when & where?
what behavior?
Information in workspaces:
3 screen types composed of
defined components (portlets)
offering discovery ‘functions’
• faceted navigation
• data visualization
• application navigation
• tabular data
• search
• context management
• metrics
• alerts
• filtering
Application Structure
Dashboard Screen
Planners Monitor the
accuracy of their own
forecasts compared
with established
baselines and targets.
Planning Managers
Monitor the accuracy
of all the forecasts
made by the Planning
team.
Dashboard Screen
Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
Monitor Analyze Evaluate
Strategic Oversight
One pane enables
monitoring of each
major area of supply
chain activity, such as
Inventory or Capacity.
Provides summary
status of processes via
KPIs and
measurements.
Dashboard Screen
A chart presents historical
values of these measures
for Analysis.
Alerts allow Planners to monitor,
analyze, and evaluate changes to
supply chain flow.
Initiate the Strategic Insight chain:
follow linked data points in charts,
metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the
information space.
Dashboard Screen
Focused on one sub-function of the supply
chain: forecasts and activity for
‘restocking’ of products in retail settings
through stages of the supply chain.
Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted
Navigation components allow the user to
understand & manage the data that is
presented in the workspace tables, charts,
while analyzing the information.
Summarize and communicate
workspace context to users to provide
orientation and comprehension.
Analysis Screen
‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators
identified on the Dashboard,
Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the
supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate).
Analysis Screen
Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data
grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product
type) to enable analysis.
These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors
contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider
range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone.
Analysis Screen
Supporting tables provide lists of the individual
transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation.
Analysis Screen
Analysis Screen
Analyze Comprehend Evaluate
Strategic
Insight
Analyze Compare Synthesize
Comparative
Synthesis
Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and
understand the state of the supply chain, and the
accuracy of their forecasts over time.
For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed
to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze-
Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze-
Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and
Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and
supply chain activity and suggest potential causal
factors.
The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the
context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic
Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or
Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic
Insight.
Trends Screen
Analyze Compare Synthesize
Comparative
Synthesis
Explore Analyze Evaluate
Exploration-driven
Search
Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
Sequences
Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for
visibility into the status of their published final forecasts
vs. actual activity in the supply chain;
When errors or variances beyond an acceptable
threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will
switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to
understand the new situation.
They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis
chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly
generated insights and improved understanding.
They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to
maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and
effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time.
Strategic
Insight
Comparative Synthesis
Strategic
Oversight
Strategic
Oversight
Planners: Mode Sequences
Planner / Analyst
Strategic
Insight
Comparative Synthesis
Strategic
Oversight
Strategic
Oversight
Mode Sequences
Business Process Optimization
“Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified
set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing
cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in
industrial decision making.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization
A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks
that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or
customers.
Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting
practices and methods of their teams will employ a
sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory
driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong
or weak forecasts and forecasting practices.
They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how
and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness.
Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate
new or improved measurements and forecasting
practices.
They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the
effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect.
Strategic
Insight
Comparative
Synthesis
Exploratory
Search
Strategic
Oversight
Managers: Mode Sequences
Planning Manager
Strategic
Insight
Comparison-driven
Synthesis
Exploration-driven
Search
Strategic
Oversight
Mode Sequences
Business Process Re-Engineering / Design
“Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes
within an organization.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering
language for business-
level dialog around sense
making
Enterprise
Information
Usage
Enterprise
Information
Usage
Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario
Manage My Benefits
Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and
wants to modify her benefits elections.
Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the dependent care spending account offered by her
employer's benefit plan.  
Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts 'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing
reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan.
Simone needs to find information answering these questions.  
Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up and managing a dependent care spending
account.
Mode Group
Specific Modes of Engagement
Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape
Information Source
Specific examples
System / physical sources
Tools / systems people use
Usage profile
Interaction type
Specific relationships
Data structure
Sources
Form of data
Summary of users’ activities
“Kind of insight”
Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario
Manage My Benefits
Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel
seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and wants to
modify her benefits elections.
Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the
dependent care spending account offered by her employer's
benefit plan.  
Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts
'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing
reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan.
Simone needs to find information answering these questions.  
Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up
and managing a dependent care spending account.
Lookup
Locate
Verify
Monitor
Seeking definitive answers
“Knowing that __”
Structured data
Internal sources
Data point / factoid
Procedural
Business <-> Staff
Self-service tools
Universal usage
Transactional systems
HR, payroll, IT, procurement,
expenses, travel, corporate
directories, etc.
Records, standard policies and
procedures
Self-Service Scenario
Join A Project Team
Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital group -- is newly attached to a long-running
project to improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within the hospital group.  
He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the project to date, understand who is part of the
project and their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's ongoing activities.  
Avery needs to find and secure access to active project-related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's
collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project team and understand their roles on the project as
well as within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and locate numerous collections of project-
specific information residing in a number of specialized applications used by the various groups that facilitate
the billing process.
Self-Service Scenario
Join A Project Team
Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital
group -- is newly attached to a long-running project to
improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within
the hospital group.  
He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the
project to date, understand who is part of the project and
their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's
ongoing activities.  
Avery needs to find and secure access to active project-
related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's
collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project
team and understand their roles on the project as well as
within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and
locate numerous collections of project-specific information
residing in a number of specialized applications used by the
various groups that facilitate the billing process.
Learn
Explore
Compare
Comprehend
Collaboration tools
Similar usage
Groupware
Wikis, group / team / project sites &
workspaces, employee forums,
Enterprise 2.0, email
Document repositories, file shares,
ECM, sharepoint
Qualitative info
Internal sources
Assets / containers
Communicative
Business <-> Staff
Staff <-> Staff
Unit <-> Unit
Learning from diverse assets
“Knowing about __”
Self-Service Scenario
Take Over Customer Accounts
Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the
client accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave.
Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on leave, but has to begin working directly with
clients before she has the opportunity to study them in depth.  
Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts she is taking over, understand and communicate
the firm's plans for the various products and services clients purchase from the firm, and identify and pursue
the firm's sales and relationship goals for these clients based on the importance of each client to the firm.  
Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications, collaboration tools, and information repositories
used by customer accounts managers to service clients, and work with other teams inside the firm.  
However, she has little guidance on which specific resources, documents, artifacts, and collections of data
can most effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and which tools and pieces of information
usefully communicate the history of the firm's relationships with these clients.
Self-Service Scenario
Take Over Customer Accounts
Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training
and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the client
accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave.
Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on
leave, but has to begin working directly with clients before
she has the opportunity to study them in depth.  
Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts
she is taking over, understand and communicate the firm's
plans for the various products and services clients purchase
from the firm, and identify and pursue the firm's sales and
relationship goals for these clients based on the importance
of each client to the firm.  
Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications,
collaboration tools, and information repositories used by
customer accounts managers to service clients, and work
with other teams inside the firm.  
However, she has little guidance on which specific resources,
documents, artifacts, and collections of data can most
effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and
which tools and pieces of information usefully communicate
the history of the firm's relationships with these clients.
Investigate
Analyze
Evaluate
Synthesize
Investigating data for insight
“Knowing why __”
Analytical
Unit <-> Unit
Business <-> Market
Poly-structured data
Internal & external sources
Data sets & graphs
Operational systems
R&D, product development, ERP,
financials and EPM, sales & marketing,
CRM
operational data, 3rd party data &
public data
Discovery tools
Idiosyncratic usage
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
Lookup
Locate
Verify
Monitor
Learn
Explore
Compare
Comprehend
Investigate
Analyze
Evaluate
Synthesize
Simple
??’s
Complex
??’s
Self-service Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape
Transactional systems
HR, payroll, IT, procurement,
expenses, travel, corporate
directories, etc.
Records, standard policies and
procedures
Groupware
Wikis, group / team / project sites &
workspaces, employee forums,
Enterprise 2.0, email
Document repositories, file shares,
ECM, sharepoint
Operational systems
R&D, product development, ERP,
financials and EPM, sales & marketing,
CRM
operational data, 3rd party data &
public data
Self-service tools
Universal usage
Collaboration tools
Similar usage
Discovery tools
Idiosyncratic usage
Analytical
Unit <-> Unit
Business <-> Market
Procedural
Business <-> Staff
Communicative
Business <-> Staff
Staff <-> Staff
Unit <-> Unit
Structured data
Internal sources
Data point / factoid
Qualitative info
Internal sources
Assets / containers
Poly-structured data
Internal & external sources
Data sets & graphs
Seeking definitive answers
“Knowing that __”
Learning from diverse assets
“Knowing about __”
Investigating data for insight
“Knowing why __”
Twitter.comTwitter.com
Monitor Synthesize
Locate
Explore
Monitor
• New tweets by people the user follows
• Interactions with other twitter users
• Activity related to the user’s profile
• People, topics, or items recommended
• New tweets by people the user follows
• Interactions with other twitter users
• Activity related to the user’s profile
• People, topics, or items recommended
Monitor Analyze Evaluate
Strategic Oversight
Analyze
AnalyzeMonitor
Explore
Compare
Comprehend Synthesize
Evaluate
Verify
Mode Networks
Explore Analyze
Evaluate
Insight-driven
Search
Opportunity-
driven Search
Comprehend
Explore Locate
Qualified
Search
Locate Verify
Consumer Scenario Chains
AnalyzeExplore Comprehend
Evaluate
Verify
Locate
Mode Networks
Header
Stream
CoreSecondary
Monitoring
consoles
Monitoring
consoles
Search results
Home
Me
#Discover@Connect
Favorites Lists
Following Followers
Mentions
Activity
Who to
follow
Find
friends
Browse
categories
Tweet
Shared asset
Exploration
& extension
workspaces
Best Practices
• Using the modes as a generative design tool requires
mapping of information assets.
• Not a one-to-one correspondence between a composite of
modes such as a chain, and an interaction component of
any size or scope.
• Modes are useful as alignment tool for product’s concept
model and users’ mental models.
• Well designed interaction components combine modes
together into compact functions that accomplish more than
one ‘micro-task’ at the same time – e.g. Show conversation
link locates and presents info for exploration /
comprehension/ analysis.
• Every individual system will have its own idiosyncratic network of
modes and chains that arises from the particular user journeys it
needs to support.  Designers must understand and reference this
local map to create effective systems, and specifically to define
the right UX architecture.
• Local mode networks should be analyzed along three axes: for
recurring modes and mode chains, for intersecting or overlapping
modes and mode chains, and for sequences of modes and
chains.
• Constructive units need ‘linkages’ – not sure what / how to
represent linkage using current language. Continuity is one thing
linkages address and enable. Need an understanding / definition
of continuity.
• Scope of information needed for an activity and the interaction
component that enables it can be addressed via density of info,
or scope of interaction component.
•
learn hearts & minds
rely on known modes & sequences
parsimonious composition
hunt cross-channel flows
optimize for core scenarios
every interaction enhances insight
References & Resources
Language of Discovery
Publications
Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf
Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery.
Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer?
a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ
Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012,
Nijmegen, NL.
Designing the Search Experience: http://www.amazon.com/Designing-Search-Experience-Information-
Architecture/dp/0123969816
References & Resources
The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task
analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)
https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf
Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume
49 Issue 4, April 2006
http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf
Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences
Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns
Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).
http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions
Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:
http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them
Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science
30: 205-214
Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search
Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424.
Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).
Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New
York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and
technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)
Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.
Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46
Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6
O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from
here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445
Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th
international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA
Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by
Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with
Computers, 10:321–351.
References & Resources
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).
Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging
Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of
Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).
Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation,
45(3), pp. 171-212.
Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the
Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369.
Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research
Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403.
Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic
Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634.
Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study
Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
Joe Lamantia
Product Strategy and Design: Oracle
@moJoe
Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com
http://slideshare.net/mojoe

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Discovery and the Age of Insight: Walmart EIM Open House 2013

  • 2. Joe Lamantia Product Strategy and Design: Oracle @moJoe Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7. “In the next ten years, digital data alone is expected to grow 44 times. By 2020, there will be 4 billion people online creating 50 trillion gigabytes of data.” HP Intelligent Research
  • 8. Volume: yotta, yotta, yotta Varied data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientific Full spectrum of granularity Real-time & historical perspectives Commoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishing Data ecosystem(s)
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. “‘Big Data’ always make[s] me think of some weird Star Trek: TNG fan fiction pron.” Dan Saffer
  • 16. “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, to process it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, to communicate it's going to be a hugely important skill in the next decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level for elementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now we really do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So the complimentary scarce factor is the ability to understand that data and extract value from it.” Hal Varian http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 17. “the ...scarce factor is the ability to understand that data...” http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • 22. discovery is making sense of the world search visualization analysis prediction
  • 23. Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology Sensemaking
  • 24. Discovery Act or experience of seeing, finding, learning, or solving something. Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • 26. Insight Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution. A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action.
  • 27.
  • 28. Welcome to The Age of Insight
  • 35. ‘Cliodynamics’ is a transdisciplinary area of research integrating historical macrosociology, economic history/ cliometrics, mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, and the construction and analysis of historical databases. scientific disciplines
  • 45. “The datasexual looks a lot like you and me, but what’s different is their preoccupation with personal data. They are relentlessly digital, they obsessively record everything about their personal lives, and they think that data is sexy. In fact, the bigger the data, the sexier it becomes. Their lives - from a data perspective, at least - are perfectly groomed.” data as lifestyle
  • 48. discovery capability is expected in all sense making contexts
  • 49. As I was waiting for a table at a local restaurant the other day, I flipped through a couple of the free classified papers. I was shocked to realize how dependent I’ve grown on three simple features that just aren’t available in the analog world: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • 50. Discovery is Everyware multi-channel experiences networked devices & places ubicomp environments information shadows product, service, personal avatars mixed realities
  • 51. Discovery is the most important organizational capability in the Age of Insight
  • 53. “Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and intellectual interchange...” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Age_of_reason “Its purpose was to reform society using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and faith, and advance knowledge through the scientific method. It promoted scientific thought, skepticism and intellectual interchange...” Zeitgeist
  • 54. Empiricism in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world rather than resting solely on a priori reasoning, intuition, or revelation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empiricism Methods
  • 56. Jacopo Zabarella Giacomo (or Jacopo) Zabarella (5 September 1533 – 15 October 1589) was an Italian Aristotelian philosopher and logician. In 1577 he was promoted to the first extraordinary chair of natural philosophy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacopo_Zabarella http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_philosopher Roles
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 63. Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and advance insight through data science. Its purpose is to reform using reason, challenge ideas grounded in tradition and intuition, and advance insight through data science.
  • 64. Empirical Augmented Accelerated Cooperative “leveraging of existing concepts and approaches from multiple disciplines to derive new concepts and approaches, which in turn enable new ways to achieve and utilize understanding.  ...an integration-driven emergence of new disciplines, not just ad hoc collaborations.” “leveraging of existing concepts and approaches from multiple disciplines to derive new concepts and approaches, which in turn enable new ways to achieve and utilize understanding.  ...an integration-driven emergence of new disciplines, not just ad hoc collaborations.”
  • 65. http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2013/06/21/data-science-and- the-changing-nature-of-research-and-innovation/ “Quite possibly, data science can be a catalyst for the reorganization of the research and innovation enterprise,”
  • 70. How to enable discovery?
  • 73. precursors Bates - tactics & categories O’Day & Jeffries - categories Cool & Belkin Ellis - behaviors & modes Marchionini - IR framework Spencer - Modes Lamantia - Modes & patterns
  • 74. Patterns of form are inadequate. Need & context vary wildly
  • 75. Task patterns = vague...
  • 78. The same thing we do every night...
  • 80. Research Develop & Produce Market Sell & Deliver Operations & Planning Digital Asset Mgmt Financial Analysis Enterprise Search & Knowledge Mgmt Spend Analysis Market Intelligence Product Information Mgmt Inventory & DeliverySales & Customer Analysis Field Service Analysis Warranty Analysis Maintenance Repair & Overhaul Call Centers & Knowledge Mgmt Customer Risk Analysis Part, Commodity & Supplier Analysis Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Demand Visibility Human Capital Management Program & Portfolio Mgmt Data Quality & Governance Pricing Analysis Claims Analysis Service Support & Maintain Measure Plan & Operate solution contexts
  • 82. “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement User Scenarios
  • 83. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc. The Language of Discovery: A concrete descriptive language for human discovery activity in diverse contexts. A simple and consistent vocabulary that is independent of domain, role, information type, etc.
  • 85. Leverages what is common in human discovery. Allows for what varies in contexts of discovery.
  • 87. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 89.
  • 91. Literary Modes “a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • 92. Argumentation The purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • 93. Rhetorical Modes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhetorical_modes Exposition The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion.
  • 94. Discovery Modes “a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • 95. Identifying Modes “I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find the best part possible for my assembly.” - Engineering “I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems.” - Account Rep “I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.” - SVP Sales “I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/ products.” - Brand Manager
  • 96. Identifying Modes “Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.” - Engineering “Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity.” “Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.” - Portfolio Manager “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.” - Procurement
  • 97. Comprehending ‘To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something’ e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • 98. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 99.
  • 100. domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distinct orthogonal conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • 101. Modes seem to be internalized & common.
  • 103.
  • 104. MODE
  • 105. Exploring ‘To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’ e.g. “I need to identify the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices” – Procurement
  • 106.
  • 107. Monitoring ‘To maintain awareness of the status of something for purposes of management or control’ e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems” – Sales Manager
  • 108.
  • 109. Locating ‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’ e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier” – Engineer
  • 110.
  • 111. Evaluate ‘To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark’ e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price” – Procurement
  • 112.
  • 113. Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that something meets some specific criterion’ e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?” – Supply Chain Specialist
  • 114.
  • 115. Compare ‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities and differences’ e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality” – Engineer
  • 118. Locate To find a specific (possibly known) thing e.g. I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it from the most qualified supplier - Engineering Verify ‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of items meets some specific criterion’ e.g. How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier? - Supply Chain Specialist Monitor ‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data set for purposes of management or control’ e.g. I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my Account Reps to fix the problems - Sales Manager
  • 119. Compare To examine two or more things to identify similarities & differences e.g. I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality - Engineering Comprehend To generate insight by understanding the nature or meaning of something e.g. I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan – Director, Brand Image Explore To proactively investigate or examine something for the purpose of knowledge discovery e.g. I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices - Procurement
  • 120. Analyze To critically examine the detail of something to identify patterns & relationships e.g. I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is the relationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver? - Engineering Evaluate To use judgement to determine the significance or value of something with respect to a specific benchmark or model e.g. I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have price variation to negotiate a better price - Procurement Synthesize To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverse inputs to create a novel artifact or composite view e.g. I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going - Account Rep
  • 122. Modes are the verbs of discovery scenarios.
  • 123. Explore something to effect result or goal. verb object predicate Discovery Goal
  • 125. you said they work like music?
  • 126. Mode
  • 127.
  • 128. Monitor Explore ...currently popular colors over useful intervals ...currently popular colors, or colors popular in the past Verify That a color is popular now or in the past When I use the tool, I can...
  • 129.
  • 130. Monitor Explore ...articles to see what is new and available. ...available articles and topics to identify those of interest to me. Locate ... and read articles of interest, supporting information, and related materials. As a reader, I can...
  • 131. Monitor Explore ...the tweets of people I follow, my followers, community interactions. ...trends and active topics, and suggestions for people to follow. ..tweets, people, hashtags / topics My twitter home page allows me to... Locate Synthesize ...new tweets via composition, retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • 132. The profile snapshot lets me... ...the author of a tweet to decide if I am interested in them ...the profile and homepage of the author of a tweet Locate Evaluate
  • 133. Comprehend Explore Evaluate A twitter profile page lets me... ...the authors profile to learn more about them ...their activity, followers, tweets, relevance to me ...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • 134. you said they work like music?
  • 135. scenario analysis: multiple / sequential modes
  • 136. Chains
  • 137. Comparative Search 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) 2. ...with an equivalent or better part 3. ...without compromising quality and cost. Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 138. Comparative Search 1. Analyze 2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity 3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 140. Comparative Search Identify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core Engineer Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part without compromising quality and cost. - Engineering Compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality. - Engineering Compare a lead's performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the lead's claims - Portfolio Manager See the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (between actual PO and should costs). - Procurement Analyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - Cost Estimators Analyze Compare Evaluate
  • 141. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate
  • 142. Strategic Oversight Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP Sales Monitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/Inspector Monitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - Core Engineer Monitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District Manager Monitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand Manager Financial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target Monitor Analyze Evaluate
  • 143. Strategic Insight Track module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - Engineering Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part. - Engineering Understand a lead's underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - Portfolio Manager Understand a portfolio's exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio Manager I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices. - Procurement Analyze Comprehend Evaluate
  • 144. Comparative Synthesis Analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan - Director, Brand Image Find out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - Engineering Formulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core Buyer Analyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brand strategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst Analyze Compare Synthesize
  • 145. Explore Analyze Evaluate Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Monitor Analyze Evaluate Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Exploratory Search Strategic Insight Comparative Search Analyze Compare Evaluate Enterprise Scenario Chains
  • 147. 277 ‘micro-scenarios’ - brief narratives that illustrate the end user’s goal and the primary task/ action they take to achieve it. • Find best offers before the others do so I can have a high margin. • Get help and guidance on how to sell my car safely so that I can achieve a good price. • Understand what is selling by area/region so I can source the correct stock. • See year-on-year ad spend trends for TV and online to supply to the Head of Global Media.
  • 148. Qualified Search A variant of the stereotypical findability task in which immediate verification is required: “Find trucks that I am eligible to drive” (29 instances) Locate Verify A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 149. Insight-driven Search An exploratory search for insight to resolve an explicit information need: “Assess the proper market value for my car” (45 instances) Explore Analyze Comprehend A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 150. Opportunity-driven Search A semi-directed exploration aiming at serendipitous discovery: “Find useful stuff on my subject topic”(31 instances) Explore Locate Evaluate A"Model"of"Consumer"Search"Behaviour" Tony  Russell-­‐Rose  and  Stephann  Makri http://red.cs.nott.ac.uk/~mlw//EuroHCIR2012-­‐Proceedings.pdf
  • 151. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains
  • 152. Mode
  • 154. Analyze Evaluate Comparative Search 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their current and historic importance and popularity. Color Forecast users can... ...of colors I may use for my purposes Compare
  • 155. Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them. Data blog readers can... into events & actions of government & society
  • 156. Analyze Comparative synthesis 1. Analysis of the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Comparison of suggested causes, insights and explanations into the events. 3. Synthesis of these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riots Data blog readers can... of all insights into the causes of the UK riots Compare Synthesize
  • 157. Evaluate Exploratory search 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value. Twitter users can... ... for valuable people streams to follow Explore Analyze
  • 161.
  • 162. Exploratory Search Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate
  • 164. Identify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core Engineer Identify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-cross sell; promotional targets - District Manager Evaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should we be making/selling? - Category Manager Identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand Manager Determine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core Buyer Identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - Program Administrator Explore Analyze Evaluate Initial SummaryOperative
  • 166. Source: The Sensemaking Process & Leverage Points For Analyst Technology Sensemaking
  • 168. Using the languageUsing the language
  • 169. To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factors To evaluate the quality and success of product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc. To establish a roadmap for the product's evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products Product Strategy, Definition & Design
  • 171. Fully specified, known Predictable, repeatable, linear, known Uncertain, ambiguous, subjective Unpredictable, iterative, adaptive, looped, opportunity driven Fully specified, known Uncertain, unknown changeable, multi-faceted Ill DefinedWell Defined Wicked Are we hitting our revenue targets? Which is the best product for my category? What are our best market opportunities? GOAL PATH INFO
  • 172. Ill-Defined & Wicked Problems: A range of examples What are the main causes of returns & dis- satisfaction? What & where are the best market opportunities ? How can we quickly detect cases of fraud? What are the major risk/causal factors for X disease?How can we improve the fuel efficiency, safety etc. of our vehicle fleet? How can we optimize our market campaigns, portfolio, etc.? How can we identify potential terror cells?
  • 173. Well defined & stable problem statement Definite stopping point/solution Solution can be evaluated as right or wrong Belongs to a class of similar problems which are all solved in a similar way Comes with a limited set of alternative solutions Don’t understand problem until you’ve developed a solution; solutions reveal new facets of or redefine the problem No stopping rule; “satisficing”, stopping when solution is judged as “good enough” Solutions are not right or wrong ; solutions assessed in social context Essentially unique or novel, no standardized solution path or well defined “best practice” No given alternative solutions; no predefined boundaries on solution Tame Wicked
  • 174. Discovery Spectrum: Simple Answers to Complex Insights Awareness Facts & Answers Insight* Meaning & Context Knowing that Knowing how & why Locating Verifying Monitoring Exploring Analyzing Synthesizing Simple Complex These regions are below target.. This is the best product for my category These are the best market opportunities….. * Insight: • Grasping or understanding meaning, significance, and/or a solution • A valuable change in perspective or understanding that enables or guides further action
  • 175. To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite solution design for product customers To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customers Identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification tools Crafting functional requirements and interaction designs for deployed applications To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • 177.
  • 178. discovery application template Supply Chain Management Analytics and Forecasting
  • 180. Define & Review the Goals, Problems, & User Context Goals & Scenarios §Plan §Optimize §Launch §Build User Types §Knowledgeable §Enthusiast §Uncertain Explorer §Manager Business Goals §Engagement §Conversion §Cross-Sell §Adoption §Acquisition Discovery Assets §Product info §Rich Media §Textual Info §Social Media §Metrics What decision- discovery support and information assets will help them achieve their goals? What are business- user critical goals & scenarios? What do they need to know to succeed? What are the business strategies, objectives, & priorities? Modes & Chains §Locate §Explore §Strategic Insight §Qualified Search How do people need to interact with information assets & each other to achieve their goals? Who are the critical users and how do their discovery needs & behaviors vary?
  • 181. Supply Chain Process Source ManufacturePlan Distribute Replenish Planning Team Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 182. Planners: Needs & Goals Planner / Analyst • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures. • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes.
  • 183. Planning Manager • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams Managers: Needs & Goals • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • 185. Synthesize Analyze To create new forecasts, Planners: Analyze their previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors Compare them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather Create new forecasts that reflect insights from analytical activities Planners: Mode Chains Comparative Synthesis Compare
  • 187. To improve forecasting accuracy, Planners: Analyze cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to Understand the factors affecting forecasts Evaluate the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts Planners: Mode Chains Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight
  • 189. Analyze Managers assessing Planner performance: Monitor the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team Analyze forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy Evaluate the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Planning Managers: Mode Chains Evaluate Strategic Oversight Monitor
  • 192. Generative tool for discovery capability and experiences
  • 193. how much? when & where? what behavior? Information in workspaces:
  • 194. 3 screen types composed of defined components (portlets) offering discovery ‘functions’ • faceted navigation • data visualization • application navigation • tabular data • search • context management • metrics • alerts • filtering Application Structure
  • 196. Planners Monitor the accuracy of their own forecasts compared with established baselines and targets. Planning Managers Monitor the accuracy of all the forecasts made by the Planning team. Dashboard Screen Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight
  • 197. One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supply chain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity. Provides summary status of processes via KPIs and measurements. Dashboard Screen A chart presents historical values of these measures for Analysis.
  • 198. Alerts allow Planners to monitor, analyze, and evaluate changes to supply chain flow. Initiate the Strategic Insight chain: follow linked data points in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into the information space. Dashboard Screen
  • 199.
  • 200. Focused on one sub-function of the supply chain: forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’ of products in retail settings through stages of the supply chain. Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigation components allow the user to understand & manage the data that is presented in the workspace tables, charts, while analyzing the information. Summarize and communicate workspace context to users to provide orientation and comprehension. Analysis Screen
  • 201. ‘Metric summary’, which follows on from the performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, Visibility into the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supply chain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts (compare & evaluate). Analysis Screen
  • 202. Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization and data grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantity by product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ help Planners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the status of each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysis methods than either presentation method supports alone. Analysis Screen
  • 203. Supporting tables provide lists of the individual transactions for detailed analysis and evaluation. Analysis Screen
  • 204. Analysis Screen Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Strategic Insight Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 205. Planning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand the state of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time. For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support the Exploratory Search (Explore-Analyze- Evaluate) and Comparative Synthesis (Analyze- Compare-Synthesize) chains, in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in time and supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors. The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context of sequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companion with Comparative Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search in companion to Strategic Insight. Trends Screen Analyze Compare Synthesize Comparative Synthesis Explore Analyze Evaluate Exploration-driven Search Planner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • 207. Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts vs. actual activity in the supply chain; When errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation. They will move on to the Comparative Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly generated insights and improved understanding. They will then switch back to Strategic Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Planners: Mode Sequences Planner / Analyst
  • 208. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Strategic Oversight Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Optimization “Process optimization is the discipline of adjusting a process so as to optimize some specified set of parameters without violating some constraint. The most common goals are minimizing cost, maximizing throughput, and/or efficiency. This is one of the major quantitative tools in industrial decision making. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process_optimization A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers.
  • 209. Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploratory driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices. They will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness. Comparative Synthesis will help Managers formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices. They will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect. Strategic Insight Comparative Synthesis Exploratory Search Strategic Oversight Managers: Mode Sequences Planning Manager
  • 210. Strategic Insight Comparison-driven Synthesis Exploration-driven Search Strategic Oversight Mode Sequences Business Process Re-Engineering / Design “Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_reengineering
  • 211. language for business- level dialog around sense making
  • 213. Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario Manage My Benefits Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and wants to modify her benefits elections. Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the dependent care spending account offered by her employer's benefit plan.   Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts 'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan. Simone needs to find information answering these questions.   Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up and managing a dependent care spending account.
  • 214. Mode Group Specific Modes of Engagement Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape Information Source Specific examples System / physical sources Tools / systems people use Usage profile Interaction type Specific relationships Data structure Sources Form of data Summary of users’ activities “Kind of insight”
  • 215. Enterprise Information Engagement Scenario Manage My Benefits Simone -- a marketing director working for a discount travel seller -- had her first child earlier in the year, and wants to modify her benefits elections. Specifically she wants to begin depositing money in the dependent care spending account offered by her employer's benefit plan.   Simone does not know how the dependent care accounts 'work' (depositing funds, claiming funds, directing reimbursements, filing taxes, etc.) under her benefits plan. Simone needs to find information answering these questions.   Simone also needs to locate and use the tools for setting up and managing a dependent care spending account. Lookup Locate Verify Monitor Seeking definitive answers “Knowing that __” Structured data Internal sources Data point / factoid Procedural Business <-> Staff Self-service tools Universal usage Transactional systems HR, payroll, IT, procurement, expenses, travel, corporate directories, etc. Records, standard policies and procedures
  • 216. Self-Service Scenario Join A Project Team Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital group -- is newly attached to a long-running project to improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within the hospital group.   He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the project to date, understand who is part of the project and their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's ongoing activities.   Avery needs to find and secure access to active project-related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project team and understand their roles on the project as well as within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and locate numerous collections of project- specific information residing in a number of specialized applications used by the various groups that facilitate the billing process.
  • 217. Self-Service Scenario Join A Project Team Avery -- a medical billing supervisor for a regional hospital group -- is newly attached to a long-running project to improve customer satisfaction around billing processes within the hospital group.   He needs to get 'up to speed' on what has happened with the project to date, understand who is part of the project and their roles, and begin participating directly in the project's ongoing activities.   Avery needs to find and secure access to active project- related areas and artifacts in the hospital network's collaboration tools, identify the other embers of the project team and understand their roles on the project as well as within the hospital network's organizational landscape, and locate numerous collections of project-specific information residing in a number of specialized applications used by the various groups that facilitate the billing process. Learn Explore Compare Comprehend Collaboration tools Similar usage Groupware Wikis, group / team / project sites & workspaces, employee forums, Enterprise 2.0, email Document repositories, file shares, ECM, sharepoint Qualitative info Internal sources Assets / containers Communicative Business <-> Staff Staff <-> Staff Unit <-> Unit Learning from diverse assets “Knowing about __”
  • 218. Self-Service Scenario Take Over Customer Accounts Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the client accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave. Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on leave, but has to begin working directly with clients before she has the opportunity to study them in depth.   Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts she is taking over, understand and communicate the firm's plans for the various products and services clients purchase from the firm, and identify and pursue the firm's sales and relationship goals for these clients based on the importance of each client to the firm.   Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications, collaboration tools, and information repositories used by customer accounts managers to service clients, and work with other teams inside the firm.   However, she has little guidance on which specific resources, documents, artifacts, and collections of data can most effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and which tools and pieces of information usefully communicate the history of the firm's relationships with these clients.
  • 219. Self-Service Scenario Take Over Customer Accounts Stuti -- a customer accounts manager working for a training and development firm -- needs to 'take over' the client accounts handled by a co-worker going on leave. Stuti receives a cursory briefing before her co-worker goes on leave, but has to begin working directly with clients before she has the opportunity to study them in depth.   Stuti has to learn the status and history of all the accounts she is taking over, understand and communicate the firm's plans for the various products and services clients purchase from the firm, and identify and pursue the firm's sales and relationship goals for these clients based on the importance of each client to the firm.   Stuti has comprehensive access to the all the applications, collaboration tools, and information repositories used by customer accounts managers to service clients, and work with other teams inside the firm.   However, she has little guidance on which specific resources, documents, artifacts, and collections of data can most effectively tell her the current state of her new accounts, and which tools and pieces of information usefully communicate the history of the firm's relationships with these clients. Investigate Analyze Evaluate Synthesize Investigating data for insight “Knowing why __” Analytical Unit <-> Unit Business <-> Market Poly-structured data Internal & external sources Data sets & graphs Operational systems R&D, product development, ERP, financials and EPM, sales & marketing, CRM operational data, 3rd party data & public data Discovery tools Idiosyncratic usage
  • 220. Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Lookup Locate Verify Monitor Learn Explore Compare Comprehend Investigate Analyze Evaluate Synthesize Simple ??’s Complex ??’s Self-service Enterprise Information Engagement Landscape Transactional systems HR, payroll, IT, procurement, expenses, travel, corporate directories, etc. Records, standard policies and procedures Groupware Wikis, group / team / project sites & workspaces, employee forums, Enterprise 2.0, email Document repositories, file shares, ECM, sharepoint Operational systems R&D, product development, ERP, financials and EPM, sales & marketing, CRM operational data, 3rd party data & public data Self-service tools Universal usage Collaboration tools Similar usage Discovery tools Idiosyncratic usage Analytical Unit <-> Unit Business <-> Market Procedural Business <-> Staff Communicative Business <-> Staff Staff <-> Staff Unit <-> Unit Structured data Internal sources Data point / factoid Qualitative info Internal sources Assets / containers Poly-structured data Internal & external sources Data sets & graphs Seeking definitive answers “Knowing that __” Learning from diverse assets “Knowing about __” Investigating data for insight “Knowing why __”
  • 222.
  • 224. Monitor • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended
  • 225. • New tweets by people the user follows • Interactions with other twitter users • Activity related to the user’s profile • People, topics, or items recommended Monitor Analyze Evaluate Strategic Oversight
  • 227. Explore Analyze Evaluate Insight-driven Search Opportunity- driven Search Comprehend Explore Locate Qualified Search Locate Verify Consumer Scenario Chains
  • 230. Monitoring consoles Monitoring consoles Search results Home Me #Discover@Connect Favorites Lists Following Followers Mentions Activity Who to follow Find friends Browse categories Tweet Shared asset Exploration & extension workspaces
  • 232. • Using the modes as a generative design tool requires mapping of information assets. • Not a one-to-one correspondence between a composite of modes such as a chain, and an interaction component of any size or scope. • Modes are useful as alignment tool for product’s concept model and users’ mental models. • Well designed interaction components combine modes together into compact functions that accomplish more than one ‘micro-task’ at the same time – e.g. Show conversation link locates and presents info for exploration / comprehension/ analysis.
  • 233. • Every individual system will have its own idiosyncratic network of modes and chains that arises from the particular user journeys it needs to support.  Designers must understand and reference this local map to create effective systems, and specifically to define the right UX architecture. • Local mode networks should be analyzed along three axes: for recurring modes and mode chains, for intersecting or overlapping modes and mode chains, and for sequences of modes and chains. • Constructive units need ‘linkages’ – not sure what / how to represent linkage using current language. Continuity is one thing linkages address and enable. Need an understanding / definition of continuity. • Scope of information needed for an activity and the interaction component that enables it can be addressed via density of info, or scope of interaction component. •
  • 234. learn hearts & minds rely on known modes & sequences parsimonious composition hunt cross-channel flows optimize for core scenarios every interaction enhances insight
  • 235.
  • 237.
  • 238. Publications Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2011, London, UK. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/paper4.pdf Russell-Rose, T., Lamantia, J. and Burrell, M. 2011. A Taxonomy of Enterprise Search and Discovery. Proceedings of HCIR 2011, California, USA. https://docs.google.com/a/kent.edu/viewer? a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxoY2lyd29ya3Nob3B8Z3g6NzdmYjc3OWY2ZjQ2Zjg4MQ Russell-Rose, T. and Makri, S. 2012 A Model of Consumer Search Behavior. Proceedings of EuroHCIR 2012, Nijmegen, NL. Designing the Search Experience: http://www.amazon.com/Designing-Search-Experience-Information- Architecture/dp/0123969816
  • 239. References & Resources The sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive task analysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005) https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdf Exploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume 49 Issue 4, April 2006 http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdf Lamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiences Lamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patterns Lamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006). http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitions Spencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_them Bates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 30: 205-214 Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface." Online Review 13: 407-424. Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • 240. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004) Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the user's perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371. Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46 Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6 O'Day, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get from here to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445 Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USA Salton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information by Computer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting with Computers, 10:321–351.
  • 241. References & Resources Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Cool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), Emerging Frameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15). Ellis, D. 1989. A Behavioural Approach to Information Retrieval System Design. Journal of Documentation, 45(3), pp. 171-212. Ellis, D., Cox, D. & Hall, K. 1993. A Comparison of the Information-seeking Patterns of Researchers in the Physical and Social Sciences. Journal of Documentation 49(4), pp. 356-369. Ellis, D. & Haugan, M. 1997. Modelling the Information-seeking Patterns of Engineers and Research Scientists in an Industrial Environment. Journal of Documentation 53(4), pp. 384-403. Makri, S., Blandford, A. & Cox, A.L. 2008. Investigating the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Academic Lawyers: From Ellis’s Model to Design. Information Processing and Management 44(2), pp. 613-634. Meho, L. & Tibbo, H. 2003. Modeling the Information-seeking Behavior of Social Scientists: Ellis’s Study Revisited. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 54(6), pp. 570-587.
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  • 243.
  • 244. Joe Lamantia Product Strategy and Design: Oracle @moJoe Joe.Lamantia@oracle.com http://slideshare.net/mojoe