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www.sajetc.com
Presentation
on
Condition Monitoring Technology
Presented
By
Engr. Md. Shahin Manjurul Alam
Saj Engineering & Trading Company
Company Profile
www.sajetc.com
Saj Engineering & Trading Company is established in 1998 to provide the
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Condition Monitoring (CM) solution in
Bangladesh industrial Market. Since then we are providing the NDT and CM
solution in different types of industries like power generation, fertilizer, chemical,
aviation shipbuilding, gas production and distribution, cement, welding, paper,
sugar, pharmaceuticals, research and educational institutions. For the
automobile and industrial market we are supplying lubricants, filter, radiator and
spark plug. For our products we represent the most renowned manufacturers in
the world.
As we have all sorts of latest NDT and CM products we have developed an
industrial inspection service provider under the name of Saj Industrial &
Inspection Company. And till now we have completed 40 Projects
successfully and some projects is in our hand.
www.sajetc.com
Automobile & Heavy
Duty Filter
Different types of
Scientific
Equipments
Non Destructive
Testing (NDT)
Products
Lubricants/Engine
Oil/ Motor oil
Condition
Monitoring
Products
Predictive
Maintenance
Services
MRO & Packaging
Products
Cold Welding
Materials & Services
SAJ
SERVICES
Video-
Borescopic
Inspection
Phased Array
Ultrasonic
Testing
(PAUT)
Magnetic
Particle
Testing
Dye
Penetrant
Testing
Transformer
Oil Leakage
Repair
Hardness
Testing
Thermography
Inspection
Dynamic
Mass
Balancing
Vibration
Analysis
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.comObjective
• Condition Monitoring (CM)
• Condition Monitoring Techniques
• Vibration Analysis
• Oil Analysis
• Thermal Analysis
• Ultrasound Analysis
Types of machines
Motors
Pumps
Fans
Gearboxes
Engines
Compressors
Steam Turbines
Generators
Gas Turbines
Hydro Turbines
Rotating
Or
Reciprocating Machines
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.comWhat type of Maintenance
Do we Have
EquipmentPerformance
Time
FF
PP
Lubrication Excellence
Proactive
Precision Maintenance
Alignment, Balance, etc.
Select Suppliers
Supplier Specifications
Metrics
Equipment Ranking
RCM
TPM
RCA/FMEA
RCD
Training Programs
Written Procedures
Job Planning/Scheduling
CMMS
Predictive Reactive
We are in here
Machine Condition Chart
www.sajetc.com
Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring a
parameter of condition in machinery, such that a
significant change is indicative of a developing failure. It
is a major component of Predictive Maintenance
(PdM). The use of conditional monitoring allows
maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be
taken to avoid the consequences of failure, before the
failure occurs.
Condition Monitoring
www.sajetc.com
Condition Monitoring
Techniques
1) Vibration Analysis
2) Oil Analysis
3) Thermal Analysis
4) Ultrasound Analysis
A wide range of Condition monitoring techniques is
available in the industries over the world and some have
become standards in many industries. The "standard"
technologies are:
Condition Monitoring
For your Plant
Vibration
Analysis Oil Analysis
Ultrasound
Analysis
Thermal
Analysis
www.sajetc.com
If you think this is your plant, then your plant is stand on this 4 technologies
Vibration Analysis
What Is Vibration ? www.sajetc.com
Vibration is a "back and forth" movement of a structure. It can also be
referred to as a "cyclical" movement
Vibration Analysis
More than 20 years ago someone made the statement, “The
vibrations produced in a machine are the best indication of the
machine’s health.” This statement still holds true today. Of all the
predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies, vibration analysis
remains the best measure of machine health. This is true because
vibration monitoring can alert us to so many different conditions
that may indicate potential machine failures. Unbalance,
misalignment, bearing faults, resonance, looseness, cavitations and
electrical problems are just a few of the many problems that can be
detected with vibration monitoring.
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com
Common Problems that Generate
Vibration
1. Misalignment
2. Unbalance
3. Worn belts & pulleys
4. Bearing Defects
5. Hydraulic Forces
6. Aerodynamic Forces
7. Reaction Forces
8. Reciprocating Forces
9. Bent Shafts
10.Rubbing
11.Gear Problems
12.Housing Distortion
13.Certain Electrical Problems
14.Frictional Forces
www.sajetc.com
What we Measure for
Vibration Analysis
Amplitude: How Much Movement
Occurs or severity of the vibration.
Amplitude measures as
1. Displacement: mm, mils (0.001”)
2. Velocity: mm/sec, in/sec
3. Acceleration: G’s (1g= Force of
gravity) or rms (root mean square)
Frequency: How Often The
Movement Occurs. How many
"cycles" in a period of time: a
second or a minute
Unit: Cycle per second (Hz)
Cycle per Minute (CPM)
Phase: In What Direction Is
The Movement. It also called
phase angle.
Unit: Degree
www.sajetc.comVibration Transducer
Sensors…Transducers…Probes…What is it?
….It basically converts mechanical vibration to
an electrical signal
Accelerometer
Charge Type &
Line Drive
Constant Voltage &
Constant Current
Velocity
Transducer
Displacement
Shaft Riders
Proximity Probes
(Eddy Current Probes)
www.sajetc.com
How we Measure:
Probe Orientation
Axial: Axial direction is always on
the parallel to the shaft axis.
Vertical: A Transducer
Mounted Vertically "Sees“
Only Vertical Movement
Horizontal: A Transducer
Mounted Horizontally "Sees"
Only Horizontal Movement
www.sajetc.com
Radial Horizontal
Radial
Vertical
Vertical
Axial
Horizontal
Mounting Direction
www.sajetc.comMounting Direction
Vert.
Axial
Hori. Vert.
Axial
Hori.
For detail study of vibration dynamics of machine
– vertical, horizontal and axial at each bearing location
For monitoring – one point per bearing and add axial when
There is a thrust bearing or axial potential faults eg. misalignment
Machinery Health Monitoring
Strategy
~125 Machines
~1375 Machines
~500 Machines
~500 Machines
Total # Machines 2,500
Typical Industrial Process Plant
5%
Critical
25%
Essential
30%
Important
20%
Secondary
20%
Non-Essential
Turbines
Generators
Compressors
Motors
Pumps
Fans
Gears
Application at Typical Plant
Online Solutions for
critical machinery
Wireless
Transmitters
Multi Technologies
Portable Solutions
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.comDate Representation
Wave Form Plot or Domain Plot FFT Spectrum Plot
Orbit PlotWaterfall Plot
Mass
Unbalance
Misalignment Structural Looseness Bearing Looseness
Structural Resonance Sleeve Bearing
Looseness/Rubs
Gear Problem
Misalignment
Pump Cavitation
FFT Spectrum Plot for some
Problems www.sajetc.com
X=RPM=CPM CPM=Cycle per minute=60Hz
1X=1xRPM=1xCPM
2X=2xRPM=2xCPM
3X=3xRPM=3xCPM
Oil Analysis
Oil Analysis www.sajetc.com
OIL . . . your engine’s lifeblood . . .
can reveal its internal condition……
What is Oil Analysis
Oil analysis is a quick, nondestructive way to gauge the health
of an engine by looking at what's in the oil. It is as like as
medical blood test, where we can know about our diseases
from our blood.
Oil Analysis Blood Test
www.sajetc.com
All Test of Your Oil www.sajetc.com
1. Elemental Analysis (Spectral Analysis)
2. Particle count,
3. Particle Shape Analysis
4. Parts per million (PPM) distribution ,
5. ISO codes and ASTM standard
6. Ferrography
7. Oil Chemistry ( Dielectric, TBN, TAN, Oxydation,
Nitration, Sulfations, Glycol, Soot etc.)
8. Water-in-oil,
9. Viscosity
10.Wear Debris Analysis (WDA)
www.sajetc.com
Elemental Analysis
No. Element Symbol Readout
Range in PPM
1 Aluminum Al 0-1,000
2 Barium Ba 5-6,000
3 Boron B 0-1,000
4 Cadmium Cd 0-1,000
5 Calcium Ca 0-6,000
Carbon C Reference
6 Chromium Cr 0-1,000
7 Copper Cu 0-1,000
Hydrogen H Reference
8 Iron Fe 0-1,000
9 Lead Pb 0-1,000
10 Magnesium Mg 0-6,000
11 Manganese Mn 0-1,000
12 Molybdenum Mo 0-1,000
13 Nickel Ni 0-1,000
14 Phosphorus P 10-6,000
15 Potassium K 0-1,000
16 Silicon Si 0-1,000
17 Silver Ag 0-1,000
18 Sodium Na 0-6,000
19 Tin Sn 0-1,000
20 Titanium Ti 0-1,000
21 Vanadium V 0-1,000
22 Zinc Zn 0-6,000
23 Lithium Li 0-1,000
www.sajetc.com
Wear Metal Trends on F-15 F100-100 Engine
Hours Reason
Fe Ag Al Cr Ni Ti Action
424 R 4 0 0 0 1 1 A
426 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A
427 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A
428 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A
430 R 11 0 2 1 1 1 B
430 R 12 0 2 1 1 1 G
430 L 12 0 2 1 1 1 T
R = Routine; L = Lab Requested; B = Submit Special Sample ASAP
A = No Recommendation, Continue Routine Sampling
G = Sample After Each Flight - DO NOT FLY UNTIL RESULTS ARE KNOWN;
T = GROUND UNIT, Examine for Discrepancy,Advise Lab
No. 4 Bearing
Missing Parts
Failure detected based on
increase in
iron wear metal concentration
Elemental Analysis – Case Study
www.sajetc.com
Particle Count and Shape
Analysis
Sliding
WearCutting
Wear
NonmetallicFatigue
Wear
Particle Counting
Particle Shape
Analysis
www.sajetc.comFerrography
Oil Chemistry www.sajetc.com
Engine Hydraulic Synthetic Gas
Turbine
Compressor/
transmission
Gear/Turbine
Water (ppm)
Oxidation
(abs/mm2)
TAN (mg KOH/g)
TBN (mg KOH/g)
Alien fluid (%)
Anti-Oxidant
Additive (%)
Anti-wear Additive
(%)
Nitration (abs/mm2)
Sulfation (abs/mm2)
Soot (%)
Glycol (%)
Wear Debris Analysis www.sajetc.com
PLATELETS:
Two dimensional particles produced by
metal to metal sliding.
SPHERICAL:
Produced by bearing fatigue or by lubrication
failure resulting in local overheating.
SPIRALS:
Similar in appearance to machining
swarf, and are produced by a harder
surface abrading into a softer
CHUNCKY:
Produced by a fatigue mechanism
WDA Images
www.sajetc.com
Infra-Red Thermography
Thermography
Infra Red Thermography is a technique for producing a visible
image of invisible (to our eyes). Infra red radiation emitted by
objects due to their thermal conditions. The amount of radiation
emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore,
thermography allows one to see variations in temperature.
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com
Why Thermography?
• Non Contact
• Rapid Scanning
• Data can be recorded in differing formats
• Images produced are comprehensive & reliable
Advantages
• Non Contact
• Non Intrusive
• Can work at a distance
• Fast and Reliable
• Portable
• Convincing Results
www.sajetc.com
SEE THE IMAGE,
SEE THE TEMPERATURE
SEE THE TEMPERATURE,
SEE THE PROBLEM
www.sajetc.com
The Motto of Thermal Imaging
Thermal Images
www.sajetc.com
Thermal image showing water ingress (dark areas) on illustrated
section of aircraft
Boeing 737 Turbine. Shows the heat pattern in the turbine of
this jet.
www.sajetc.com
Boeing 737 front wheel. Thermal imaging provided by the
Camera shows no uneven wear or heating on this plane wheel.
www.sajetc.com
Jet Engine analysis
www.sajetc.com
Electrical
• Switch Gear
• Fuse boxes
• Cable runs
• Electrical connectors
• Insulation
• Transformers
www.sajetc.com
Fan
1
3
2
2
3
3
R 0 1
www.sajetc.com
Fuse Box
2
3
2
3
3
L I 0
www.sajetc.com
Electrical Connections
Used for the detection of;
• Corroded connections
• Slack / loose connectors
• Connectors at too high an
operating temperature
• Hot spots
www.sajetc.com
Electronics www.sajetc.com
Electric Motor Bearing www.sajetc.com
Electrical Motor www.sajetc.com
High Voltage Substation www.sajetc.com
Process Plant
• Hot spots
• Cold spots (Cryogenics)
• Damaged or missing
insulation
• Tank levels
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com
Ultrasound Analysis
www.sajetc.comWhat is Ultrasound
High frequency (ultrasound) sound Waves range in size
from 1/8” (0.34 cm) To 5/8” (1.7 cm)
(Assuming ultrasound range from 20 khz-100khz)
Low frequency sound waves range in size from 3/4” (1.88
cm) to 56’ (16.9 m)
(Assuming the average hearing range from 20Hz to 20KHz)
www.sajetc.com
Advantages of Ultrasound
•Directional
•Locatable
•Multiple applications
•Utilizable in all environments
•Early warning failure indication
•Supports other technologies
www.sajetc.com
Application Groups
• Leak detection
– Compressed air
– Specialty gasses
– Vacuum
– Steam traps / valves
• Electrical Inspection
• Mechanical Inspection
– Slow speed bearings
– Lubrication
www.sajetc.com
59
Ultrasonic Leak Detector
• Locate the leak
• Measure the Leak
• Calculate costs
• Calculate Greenhouse Gas
emission reduction
How Leaks Develop
• Fluid: Liquid or gas
• Turbulent Flow Produces
Ultrasound
PRESSURE
VACUUM
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com
Good Valve – Bad Valve
Electric Inspection
• Switchgear
• Transformers
• Insulators
• Relays
• Breakers
26.8
24.4
*>28.4°F
*<23.0°F
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
www.sajetc.com
Electric inspection
• Corona
• Tracking
• Arcing
• Good for medium and high voltage
26.8
24.4
*>28.4°F
*<23.0°F
23.0
24.0
25.0
26.0
27.0
28.0
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com
Bearing Inspection
• Very effective on S L O W S P E E D !
• 3 Types of testing performed
– Comparison
– Historical Trending
– Spectrum Analysis:
• Fault frequency identification
UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved
Levels of Severity
Db levels over baseline
8 db LUBRICATION
12 db minor damage-microscopic faults
16 db damage-visual faults
35+ db catastrophic failure imminent
UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved
www.sajetc.com
What’s In Your PDM Toolbox?
• One Technology CAN NOT do
Everything!!!!!!
• Successful Integration is the key to getting
the most out of your resources:
– Awareness
– Proper training
– Documentation
www.sajetc.com
www.sajetc.com

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Presentation on Condition Monitoring

  • 1.
  • 2. www.sajetc.com Presentation on Condition Monitoring Technology Presented By Engr. Md. Shahin Manjurul Alam Saj Engineering & Trading Company
  • 3. Company Profile www.sajetc.com Saj Engineering & Trading Company is established in 1998 to provide the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Condition Monitoring (CM) solution in Bangladesh industrial Market. Since then we are providing the NDT and CM solution in different types of industries like power generation, fertilizer, chemical, aviation shipbuilding, gas production and distribution, cement, welding, paper, sugar, pharmaceuticals, research and educational institutions. For the automobile and industrial market we are supplying lubricants, filter, radiator and spark plug. For our products we represent the most renowned manufacturers in the world. As we have all sorts of latest NDT and CM products we have developed an industrial inspection service provider under the name of Saj Industrial & Inspection Company. And till now we have completed 40 Projects successfully and some projects is in our hand.
  • 4. www.sajetc.com Automobile & Heavy Duty Filter Different types of Scientific Equipments Non Destructive Testing (NDT) Products Lubricants/Engine Oil/ Motor oil Condition Monitoring Products Predictive Maintenance Services MRO & Packaging Products Cold Welding Materials & Services
  • 6. www.sajetc.comObjective • Condition Monitoring (CM) • Condition Monitoring Techniques • Vibration Analysis • Oil Analysis • Thermal Analysis • Ultrasound Analysis
  • 7. Types of machines Motors Pumps Fans Gearboxes Engines Compressors Steam Turbines Generators Gas Turbines Hydro Turbines Rotating Or Reciprocating Machines www.sajetc.com
  • 8. www.sajetc.comWhat type of Maintenance Do we Have
  • 9. EquipmentPerformance Time FF PP Lubrication Excellence Proactive Precision Maintenance Alignment, Balance, etc. Select Suppliers Supplier Specifications Metrics Equipment Ranking RCM TPM RCA/FMEA RCD Training Programs Written Procedures Job Planning/Scheduling CMMS Predictive Reactive We are in here Machine Condition Chart
  • 10. www.sajetc.com Condition monitoring is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery, such that a significant change is indicative of a developing failure. It is a major component of Predictive Maintenance (PdM). The use of conditional monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to avoid the consequences of failure, before the failure occurs. Condition Monitoring
  • 11. www.sajetc.com Condition Monitoring Techniques 1) Vibration Analysis 2) Oil Analysis 3) Thermal Analysis 4) Ultrasound Analysis A wide range of Condition monitoring techniques is available in the industries over the world and some have become standards in many industries. The "standard" technologies are:
  • 12. Condition Monitoring For your Plant Vibration Analysis Oil Analysis Ultrasound Analysis Thermal Analysis www.sajetc.com If you think this is your plant, then your plant is stand on this 4 technologies
  • 14. What Is Vibration ? www.sajetc.com Vibration is a "back and forth" movement of a structure. It can also be referred to as a "cyclical" movement
  • 15. Vibration Analysis More than 20 years ago someone made the statement, “The vibrations produced in a machine are the best indication of the machine’s health.” This statement still holds true today. Of all the predictive maintenance (PdM) technologies, vibration analysis remains the best measure of machine health. This is true because vibration monitoring can alert us to so many different conditions that may indicate potential machine failures. Unbalance, misalignment, bearing faults, resonance, looseness, cavitations and electrical problems are just a few of the many problems that can be detected with vibration monitoring. www.sajetc.com
  • 16. www.sajetc.com Common Problems that Generate Vibration 1. Misalignment 2. Unbalance 3. Worn belts & pulleys 4. Bearing Defects 5. Hydraulic Forces 6. Aerodynamic Forces 7. Reaction Forces 8. Reciprocating Forces 9. Bent Shafts 10.Rubbing 11.Gear Problems 12.Housing Distortion 13.Certain Electrical Problems 14.Frictional Forces
  • 17. www.sajetc.com What we Measure for Vibration Analysis Amplitude: How Much Movement Occurs or severity of the vibration. Amplitude measures as 1. Displacement: mm, mils (0.001”) 2. Velocity: mm/sec, in/sec 3. Acceleration: G’s (1g= Force of gravity) or rms (root mean square) Frequency: How Often The Movement Occurs. How many "cycles" in a period of time: a second or a minute Unit: Cycle per second (Hz) Cycle per Minute (CPM) Phase: In What Direction Is The Movement. It also called phase angle. Unit: Degree
  • 18. www.sajetc.comVibration Transducer Sensors…Transducers…Probes…What is it? ….It basically converts mechanical vibration to an electrical signal Accelerometer Charge Type & Line Drive Constant Voltage & Constant Current Velocity Transducer Displacement Shaft Riders Proximity Probes (Eddy Current Probes)
  • 19. www.sajetc.com How we Measure: Probe Orientation Axial: Axial direction is always on the parallel to the shaft axis. Vertical: A Transducer Mounted Vertically "Sees“ Only Vertical Movement Horizontal: A Transducer Mounted Horizontally "Sees" Only Horizontal Movement
  • 21. www.sajetc.comMounting Direction Vert. Axial Hori. Vert. Axial Hori. For detail study of vibration dynamics of machine – vertical, horizontal and axial at each bearing location For monitoring – one point per bearing and add axial when There is a thrust bearing or axial potential faults eg. misalignment
  • 22. Machinery Health Monitoring Strategy ~125 Machines ~1375 Machines ~500 Machines ~500 Machines Total # Machines 2,500 Typical Industrial Process Plant 5% Critical 25% Essential 30% Important 20% Secondary 20% Non-Essential Turbines Generators Compressors Motors Pumps Fans Gears Application at Typical Plant Online Solutions for critical machinery Wireless Transmitters Multi Technologies Portable Solutions www.sajetc.com
  • 23. www.sajetc.comDate Representation Wave Form Plot or Domain Plot FFT Spectrum Plot Orbit PlotWaterfall Plot
  • 24. Mass Unbalance Misalignment Structural Looseness Bearing Looseness Structural Resonance Sleeve Bearing Looseness/Rubs Gear Problem Misalignment Pump Cavitation FFT Spectrum Plot for some Problems www.sajetc.com X=RPM=CPM CPM=Cycle per minute=60Hz 1X=1xRPM=1xCPM 2X=2xRPM=2xCPM 3X=3xRPM=3xCPM
  • 26. Oil Analysis www.sajetc.com OIL . . . your engine’s lifeblood . . . can reveal its internal condition……
  • 27. What is Oil Analysis Oil analysis is a quick, nondestructive way to gauge the health of an engine by looking at what's in the oil. It is as like as medical blood test, where we can know about our diseases from our blood. Oil Analysis Blood Test www.sajetc.com
  • 28. All Test of Your Oil www.sajetc.com 1. Elemental Analysis (Spectral Analysis) 2. Particle count, 3. Particle Shape Analysis 4. Parts per million (PPM) distribution , 5. ISO codes and ASTM standard 6. Ferrography 7. Oil Chemistry ( Dielectric, TBN, TAN, Oxydation, Nitration, Sulfations, Glycol, Soot etc.) 8. Water-in-oil, 9. Viscosity 10.Wear Debris Analysis (WDA)
  • 29. www.sajetc.com Elemental Analysis No. Element Symbol Readout Range in PPM 1 Aluminum Al 0-1,000 2 Barium Ba 5-6,000 3 Boron B 0-1,000 4 Cadmium Cd 0-1,000 5 Calcium Ca 0-6,000 Carbon C Reference 6 Chromium Cr 0-1,000 7 Copper Cu 0-1,000 Hydrogen H Reference 8 Iron Fe 0-1,000 9 Lead Pb 0-1,000 10 Magnesium Mg 0-6,000 11 Manganese Mn 0-1,000 12 Molybdenum Mo 0-1,000 13 Nickel Ni 0-1,000 14 Phosphorus P 10-6,000 15 Potassium K 0-1,000 16 Silicon Si 0-1,000 17 Silver Ag 0-1,000 18 Sodium Na 0-6,000 19 Tin Sn 0-1,000 20 Titanium Ti 0-1,000 21 Vanadium V 0-1,000 22 Zinc Zn 0-6,000 23 Lithium Li 0-1,000
  • 30. www.sajetc.com Wear Metal Trends on F-15 F100-100 Engine Hours Reason Fe Ag Al Cr Ni Ti Action 424 R 4 0 0 0 1 1 A 426 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 427 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 428 R 4 0 2 1 1 1 A 430 R 11 0 2 1 1 1 B 430 R 12 0 2 1 1 1 G 430 L 12 0 2 1 1 1 T R = Routine; L = Lab Requested; B = Submit Special Sample ASAP A = No Recommendation, Continue Routine Sampling G = Sample After Each Flight - DO NOT FLY UNTIL RESULTS ARE KNOWN; T = GROUND UNIT, Examine for Discrepancy,Advise Lab No. 4 Bearing Missing Parts Failure detected based on increase in iron wear metal concentration Elemental Analysis – Case Study
  • 31. www.sajetc.com Particle Count and Shape Analysis Sliding WearCutting Wear NonmetallicFatigue Wear Particle Counting Particle Shape Analysis
  • 33. Oil Chemistry www.sajetc.com Engine Hydraulic Synthetic Gas Turbine Compressor/ transmission Gear/Turbine Water (ppm) Oxidation (abs/mm2) TAN (mg KOH/g) TBN (mg KOH/g) Alien fluid (%) Anti-Oxidant Additive (%) Anti-wear Additive (%) Nitration (abs/mm2) Sulfation (abs/mm2) Soot (%) Glycol (%)
  • 34. Wear Debris Analysis www.sajetc.com
  • 35. PLATELETS: Two dimensional particles produced by metal to metal sliding. SPHERICAL: Produced by bearing fatigue or by lubrication failure resulting in local overheating. SPIRALS: Similar in appearance to machining swarf, and are produced by a harder surface abrading into a softer CHUNCKY: Produced by a fatigue mechanism WDA Images www.sajetc.com
  • 37. Thermography Infra Red Thermography is a technique for producing a visible image of invisible (to our eyes). Infra red radiation emitted by objects due to their thermal conditions. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. www.sajetc.com
  • 38. www.sajetc.com Why Thermography? • Non Contact • Rapid Scanning • Data can be recorded in differing formats • Images produced are comprehensive & reliable
  • 39. Advantages • Non Contact • Non Intrusive • Can work at a distance • Fast and Reliable • Portable • Convincing Results www.sajetc.com
  • 40. SEE THE IMAGE, SEE THE TEMPERATURE SEE THE TEMPERATURE, SEE THE PROBLEM www.sajetc.com The Motto of Thermal Imaging
  • 42. www.sajetc.com Thermal image showing water ingress (dark areas) on illustrated section of aircraft
  • 43. Boeing 737 Turbine. Shows the heat pattern in the turbine of this jet. www.sajetc.com
  • 44. Boeing 737 front wheel. Thermal imaging provided by the Camera shows no uneven wear or heating on this plane wheel. www.sajetc.com
  • 46. Electrical • Switch Gear • Fuse boxes • Cable runs • Electrical connectors • Insulation • Transformers www.sajetc.com
  • 48. Fuse Box 2 3 2 3 3 L I 0 www.sajetc.com
  • 49. Electrical Connections Used for the detection of; • Corroded connections • Slack / loose connectors • Connectors at too high an operating temperature • Hot spots www.sajetc.com
  • 51. Electric Motor Bearing www.sajetc.com
  • 53. High Voltage Substation www.sajetc.com
  • 54. Process Plant • Hot spots • Cold spots (Cryogenics) • Damaged or missing insulation • Tank levels www.sajetc.com
  • 56. www.sajetc.comWhat is Ultrasound High frequency (ultrasound) sound Waves range in size from 1/8” (0.34 cm) To 5/8” (1.7 cm) (Assuming ultrasound range from 20 khz-100khz) Low frequency sound waves range in size from 3/4” (1.88 cm) to 56’ (16.9 m) (Assuming the average hearing range from 20Hz to 20KHz)
  • 57. www.sajetc.com Advantages of Ultrasound •Directional •Locatable •Multiple applications •Utilizable in all environments •Early warning failure indication •Supports other technologies
  • 58. www.sajetc.com Application Groups • Leak detection – Compressed air – Specialty gasses – Vacuum – Steam traps / valves • Electrical Inspection • Mechanical Inspection – Slow speed bearings – Lubrication
  • 59. www.sajetc.com 59 Ultrasonic Leak Detector • Locate the leak • Measure the Leak • Calculate costs • Calculate Greenhouse Gas emission reduction
  • 60. How Leaks Develop • Fluid: Liquid or gas • Turbulent Flow Produces Ultrasound PRESSURE VACUUM www.sajetc.com
  • 62. Electric Inspection • Switchgear • Transformers • Insulators • Relays • Breakers 26.8 24.4 *>28.4°F *<23.0°F 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 www.sajetc.com
  • 63. Electric inspection • Corona • Tracking • Arcing • Good for medium and high voltage 26.8 24.4 *>28.4°F *<23.0°F 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 www.sajetc.com
  • 64. www.sajetc.com Bearing Inspection • Very effective on S L O W S P E E D ! • 3 Types of testing performed – Comparison – Historical Trending – Spectrum Analysis: • Fault frequency identification UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved
  • 65. Levels of Severity Db levels over baseline 8 db LUBRICATION 12 db minor damage-microscopic faults 16 db damage-visual faults 35+ db catastrophic failure imminent UE SYSTEMS INC. All Rights Reserved www.sajetc.com
  • 66. What’s In Your PDM Toolbox? • One Technology CAN NOT do Everything!!!!!! • Successful Integration is the key to getting the most out of your resources: – Awareness – Proper training – Documentation www.sajetc.com