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 Prepares musculo-skeletal system for work:
◦ Training
◦ Competition
 Enhance:
◦ Injury Prevention Qualities
 Injuries are generally the Coach’s fault
◦ General Athleticism
 Can make the athlete more injury resistant
◦ Sports-Specific Skill Development
 Reinforces certain skills related to performance
 Dynamic Performance needs a Dynamic Warm-Up
 Very important for sprinters/jumpers
◦
 Increase the athlete’s internal temperature:
◦ Physical
 Core Temperature
 Makes connective tissues more supple
 Heart Rate/Blood Flow
◦ Neural
 Excites the nervous system
 PAP
◦ Mental
 Psychologically prepares the athlete - FOCUS
Common Sequence
 Slow to moderate jog in one direction for
several minutes, followed by...
 Several minutes of static stretching
◦ Generally done in a seated or lying position
 General Drills
 Event-Specific Drills
 Performance
◦ Training
◦ Competition
 Too general in nature
◦ Slow jogging is non-specific to any event
 Reinforces incorrect neuro-motor patterns re:
 Speed/Power
 Dynamic event mechanics
 ALL T&F events are dynamic
 Increased core temperature is quickly lost:
◦ Minimal body movement during static stretching
 The athlete is generally seated or lying on the ground
◦ Time Consuming
 Athlete must re-warm prior to training/competition
◦ Static stretching has a calming effect on the muscles
 However, this is the time to prime them for action!
 Studies have shown no relationship between
static stretching and dynamic performance
◦ Can make the muscles weaker
 Fowles & Sale; 1997
◦ Promote neural inhibition
 Moore; 1984
◦ Limits maximum strength output
 Kokonen; 1998
 Recent studies support a “hybrid” approach:
◦ Static Stretching Can Be Included – However…
 Should be Limited in Scope/Duration
 Should Precede Dynamic Movement/Stretching
 The focus should still be on Dynamic Movement
 Utilizes
◦ Variable-speed movements/calisthenics
◦ Can include some jogging, but should stress
 Multi-directional running, skipping, lunging, etc.
 Can do drills within the warm-up
◦ Sequence:
 Begin with General Movements
 The entire team can benefit/participate
 Progress to Specific Movements
 Start slowly and build up the intensity
 As the body warms, functional flexibility
increases
 This warm-up is faster
◦ Saving 15 to 30 minutes a day (or over an hour a
week) for use elsewhere
 Such as weights, skill development, etc.
◦ However, you must monitor the pace…
 Kids will slack off/socialize too much if you let them
 Uses movement to prepare for and improve
movement-based physical performance
 The literature does not support the theory
that static stretching prior to performance
reduces injury
 Slow to Fast
 General to Specific
 Program Varieties:
◦ Partner Relays
◦ Movement Chains
 Partner Relays/Movement Chains are used
as the General Warm-Up
◦ Prior to strength training
◦ Preparation for Team Practices
◦ BEFORE event-specific warm-ups/drills
 Coach or Group Leader combines various:
◦ Speed/Running Drills
◦ Balance Drills
◦ Calisthenics, etc.
 “You Go, I Go” sequence
◦ After completion, jog across “no man’s land”
◦ Switch exercises with your partner
 The only limitation is creativity
◦ Implements can be used
 Medicine Balls or Weights (tossing, throwing, etc.)
 Resistance Bands (pulling, pushing, etc.)
 Body Weight (Push-ups, Burpies, etc)
 A combination of movements
◦ Similar form agility or running drill
◦ A short jog between sets
 Continuous Chain of Movements
◦ Each is performed for a specific distance
◦ Each is completed one after another
 WITHOUT STOPPING
 Until ALL 3 or 4 movements in the chain are done
 Example:
 Heel-to-Toe Walk
 High Knee Walk
 “A”-Skip
 Build-up Strides
 No set “formula” for exercises
◦ You are limited only by your imagination
◦ Be creative – use crawling, rolling, lunging, etc.
 Make the exercises “athletic”
◦ They should match the day’s theme
 Don’t do slow movements to prepare for a speed day!
◦ Slow-to-Fast; Inside-Out; Big-to-Small
 The Core of the Body is the Key – start there!
 Always be cognizant of the “firing order” of muscles
 Variety is the Spice of Life!
◦ Challenges the basic bio-motor abilities
 Speed, Strength, Flexibility, Coordination, Endurance
 What it IS (or at least should be…)
◦ Increases functional mobility
 Demands of gymnast are different from a shot putter
 Dynamic Stretching is for:
◦ Loosening muscles enough for efficient movement…
◦ Within the useable dynamic range
 NOT necessarily the maximum possible range
 Be conscious of micro-tearing
 Aforementioned strength/stability losses
 Need to Develop
◦ Stability and Strength (Functional Stiffness)
 At the extreme ranges of motion
 Easier said than done…
 Stretching is NOT a warm-up
 Muscles need to be warm prior to extensive
stretching**
 Static stretching is best suited for the end of the training
session
 **Some recent research is showing that one CAN stretch
a cold muscle (per Michael Boyle)
 Dynamic movements:
◦ Should NOT to be confused with high-intensity,
ballistic stretching of a “cold” muscle
 Hopefully we know better…
 Important to remember:
◦ “Performance is not a stretching contest”
 (Vern Gambetta)
 Dynamic Flexibility is:
◦ Combination of Motion and Stability
◦ “Mostability” (Gambetta)
◦ As opposed to Instability
 It IS possible to over-stretch before a session
 Especially as it relates to speed & power
 A certain amount of muscle rigidity is beneficial to
certain aspects of performance
 A good example is postural integrity
 Stretch-shortening movements
 How does it work?
◦ Reciprocal Inhibition
 Takes advantage of natural relaxation after contraction
 Is not under conscious control
 Allow Rest & Recovery
◦ At least 20-30 seconds per body part between reps
 Examples:
◦ Hold-Relax
◦ Hold-Relax-Contract
◦ CRAC (using agonist & antagonist muscles)
 Not age appropriate for pre-teen athletes
 Most appropriate early in the training
session
◦ One of the faster methods known for developing
functional mobility
◦ These mobility gains are intended for the session
at hand
 Not intended for long-term flexibility gains
 That is where static stretching is useful
 However, some studies have shown it to be
beneficial in the same manner as static
stretching
 Common methods
◦ A position is achieved and held at the end of the
range of motion
 No isometric contractions (agonist or antagonist)
 No bouncing
 Maintain correct skeletal alignment
◦ Great for long-term flexibility gains
◦ Body (muscles) should be WARM!
◦ Consider subsequent sessions, recovery, etc.
 The literature supports 20–30 second holds
◦ Most of the stress relaxation occurs in the first 15 -
20 seconds of the stretch
 Best done at the end of the training session
during the cool-down period
 Tends to have a calming effect on the athlete
 Helps the athlete restore their regular heart
rate and body temperature
 Helps the athlete recover from the workout
and eliminate waste products (lactic acid)
 Consistent (daily) stretching is more effective
than one large dose in a session
 A greater range of motion can be achieved
using a rope:
◦ Able to more effectively move a limb or body part
to its limit by applying external force through
pulling on the rope.
◦ Nearly any static stretch can be performed with a
rope (or belt)
 Demo
◦ Rope Stretch – Hamstring
◦ Rope Stretch – Hip/Torso
 Transitions the athlete from high-intensity
training back to “normal” – can include:
◦ Moderate mobility exercises
◦ Restorative massage/foam rolling
 Don’t forget about the fascia!
 Consider jogging/shuffling/walking
◦ Bare feet on a soft surface such as grass and soft sand
 Strengthen the athletes’ feet
◦ Consider various directions/types of movement
 This is the time for static stretching
◦ Develop significant tissue flexibility adaptations
◦ Make this the last part of the cool-down
Questions?
Comments?
A good joke?
Speed, Strength & Jump Coach
USATF Level 2 Certified
Jumps
Sprints, Hurdles, Relays
CTG Development
PO Box 211498
Chula Vista, CA
619-895-4699
www.ctgdevelopment.net
jumpmaster@ctgdevelopment.net

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The Basics of Stretching and Warm-Ups

  • 1.
  • 2.  Prepares musculo-skeletal system for work: ◦ Training ◦ Competition  Enhance: ◦ Injury Prevention Qualities  Injuries are generally the Coach’s fault ◦ General Athleticism  Can make the athlete more injury resistant ◦ Sports-Specific Skill Development  Reinforces certain skills related to performance  Dynamic Performance needs a Dynamic Warm-Up  Very important for sprinters/jumpers ◦
  • 3.  Increase the athlete’s internal temperature: ◦ Physical  Core Temperature  Makes connective tissues more supple  Heart Rate/Blood Flow ◦ Neural  Excites the nervous system  PAP ◦ Mental  Psychologically prepares the athlete - FOCUS
  • 4. Common Sequence  Slow to moderate jog in one direction for several minutes, followed by...  Several minutes of static stretching ◦ Generally done in a seated or lying position  General Drills  Event-Specific Drills  Performance ◦ Training ◦ Competition
  • 5.  Too general in nature ◦ Slow jogging is non-specific to any event  Reinforces incorrect neuro-motor patterns re:  Speed/Power  Dynamic event mechanics  ALL T&F events are dynamic  Increased core temperature is quickly lost: ◦ Minimal body movement during static stretching  The athlete is generally seated or lying on the ground ◦ Time Consuming  Athlete must re-warm prior to training/competition ◦ Static stretching has a calming effect on the muscles  However, this is the time to prime them for action!
  • 6.  Studies have shown no relationship between static stretching and dynamic performance ◦ Can make the muscles weaker  Fowles & Sale; 1997 ◦ Promote neural inhibition  Moore; 1984 ◦ Limits maximum strength output  Kokonen; 1998  Recent studies support a “hybrid” approach: ◦ Static Stretching Can Be Included – However…  Should be Limited in Scope/Duration  Should Precede Dynamic Movement/Stretching  The focus should still be on Dynamic Movement
  • 7.  Utilizes ◦ Variable-speed movements/calisthenics ◦ Can include some jogging, but should stress  Multi-directional running, skipping, lunging, etc.  Can do drills within the warm-up ◦ Sequence:  Begin with General Movements  The entire team can benefit/participate  Progress to Specific Movements  Start slowly and build up the intensity  As the body warms, functional flexibility increases
  • 8.  This warm-up is faster ◦ Saving 15 to 30 minutes a day (or over an hour a week) for use elsewhere  Such as weights, skill development, etc. ◦ However, you must monitor the pace…  Kids will slack off/socialize too much if you let them  Uses movement to prepare for and improve movement-based physical performance  The literature does not support the theory that static stretching prior to performance reduces injury
  • 9.  Slow to Fast  General to Specific  Program Varieties: ◦ Partner Relays ◦ Movement Chains  Partner Relays/Movement Chains are used as the General Warm-Up ◦ Prior to strength training ◦ Preparation for Team Practices ◦ BEFORE event-specific warm-ups/drills
  • 10.  Coach or Group Leader combines various: ◦ Speed/Running Drills ◦ Balance Drills ◦ Calisthenics, etc.  “You Go, I Go” sequence ◦ After completion, jog across “no man’s land” ◦ Switch exercises with your partner  The only limitation is creativity ◦ Implements can be used  Medicine Balls or Weights (tossing, throwing, etc.)  Resistance Bands (pulling, pushing, etc.)  Body Weight (Push-ups, Burpies, etc)
  • 11.  A combination of movements ◦ Similar form agility or running drill ◦ A short jog between sets  Continuous Chain of Movements ◦ Each is performed for a specific distance ◦ Each is completed one after another  WITHOUT STOPPING  Until ALL 3 or 4 movements in the chain are done  Example:  Heel-to-Toe Walk  High Knee Walk  “A”-Skip  Build-up Strides
  • 12.  No set “formula” for exercises ◦ You are limited only by your imagination ◦ Be creative – use crawling, rolling, lunging, etc.  Make the exercises “athletic” ◦ They should match the day’s theme  Don’t do slow movements to prepare for a speed day! ◦ Slow-to-Fast; Inside-Out; Big-to-Small  The Core of the Body is the Key – start there!  Always be cognizant of the “firing order” of muscles  Variety is the Spice of Life! ◦ Challenges the basic bio-motor abilities  Speed, Strength, Flexibility, Coordination, Endurance
  • 13.  What it IS (or at least should be…) ◦ Increases functional mobility  Demands of gymnast are different from a shot putter  Dynamic Stretching is for: ◦ Loosening muscles enough for efficient movement… ◦ Within the useable dynamic range  NOT necessarily the maximum possible range  Be conscious of micro-tearing  Aforementioned strength/stability losses  Need to Develop ◦ Stability and Strength (Functional Stiffness)  At the extreme ranges of motion  Easier said than done…
  • 14.  Stretching is NOT a warm-up  Muscles need to be warm prior to extensive stretching**  Static stretching is best suited for the end of the training session  **Some recent research is showing that one CAN stretch a cold muscle (per Michael Boyle)  Dynamic movements: ◦ Should NOT to be confused with high-intensity, ballistic stretching of a “cold” muscle  Hopefully we know better…
  • 15.  Important to remember: ◦ “Performance is not a stretching contest”  (Vern Gambetta)  Dynamic Flexibility is: ◦ Combination of Motion and Stability ◦ “Mostability” (Gambetta) ◦ As opposed to Instability  It IS possible to over-stretch before a session  Especially as it relates to speed & power  A certain amount of muscle rigidity is beneficial to certain aspects of performance  A good example is postural integrity  Stretch-shortening movements
  • 16.  How does it work? ◦ Reciprocal Inhibition  Takes advantage of natural relaxation after contraction  Is not under conscious control  Allow Rest & Recovery ◦ At least 20-30 seconds per body part between reps  Examples: ◦ Hold-Relax ◦ Hold-Relax-Contract ◦ CRAC (using agonist & antagonist muscles)
  • 17.  Not age appropriate for pre-teen athletes  Most appropriate early in the training session ◦ One of the faster methods known for developing functional mobility ◦ These mobility gains are intended for the session at hand  Not intended for long-term flexibility gains  That is where static stretching is useful  However, some studies have shown it to be beneficial in the same manner as static stretching
  • 18.  Common methods ◦ A position is achieved and held at the end of the range of motion  No isometric contractions (agonist or antagonist)  No bouncing  Maintain correct skeletal alignment ◦ Great for long-term flexibility gains ◦ Body (muscles) should be WARM! ◦ Consider subsequent sessions, recovery, etc.  The literature supports 20–30 second holds ◦ Most of the stress relaxation occurs in the first 15 - 20 seconds of the stretch
  • 19.  Best done at the end of the training session during the cool-down period  Tends to have a calming effect on the athlete  Helps the athlete restore their regular heart rate and body temperature  Helps the athlete recover from the workout and eliminate waste products (lactic acid)  Consistent (daily) stretching is more effective than one large dose in a session
  • 20.  A greater range of motion can be achieved using a rope: ◦ Able to more effectively move a limb or body part to its limit by applying external force through pulling on the rope. ◦ Nearly any static stretch can be performed with a rope (or belt)  Demo ◦ Rope Stretch – Hamstring ◦ Rope Stretch – Hip/Torso
  • 21.  Transitions the athlete from high-intensity training back to “normal” – can include: ◦ Moderate mobility exercises ◦ Restorative massage/foam rolling  Don’t forget about the fascia!  Consider jogging/shuffling/walking ◦ Bare feet on a soft surface such as grass and soft sand  Strengthen the athletes’ feet ◦ Consider various directions/types of movement  This is the time for static stretching ◦ Develop significant tissue flexibility adaptations ◦ Make this the last part of the cool-down
  • 23. Speed, Strength & Jump Coach USATF Level 2 Certified Jumps Sprints, Hurdles, Relays CTG Development PO Box 211498 Chula Vista, CA 619-895-4699 www.ctgdevelopment.net jumpmaster@ctgdevelopment.net