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Chapter 9
Outline
 Social Construction of Race
 Defining Race and Ethnicity
 Minority groups and Racism
 Prejudice and Discrimination
 Theoretical Approaches
 Life Chances
 Conflict and Cooperation in Race Relations
Social Construction of Race
 Race and ethnicity are socially constructed categories
    Meanings are created over time
 Race is also a means of stratification
 19th century shema-3 races
    Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasoid
 Modern scientists-there are no “pure” races
Race and Ethnicity
 Race-social category, based on real or perceived biological
  differences between groups of people
 Ethnicity-social category based on common language,
  religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor
 How do we show our racial/ethnic group membership?
 Symbolic ethnicity-enactments of ethnic identity that
  occur only on special occasions
    Ex.: St. Patrick’s Day
 Situational ethnicity-ethnic identity can either be
  displayed or concealed depending on its usefulness in a
  given situation
    In U.S., if you are non-white you don’t get a chance for
     symbolic/situational ethnicity – your ethnicity usually shows
Minority groups and Racism
 Minority group-members of a social group that’s
 systematically denied same access to power and
 resources available to the dominant groups of a society
   Not necessarily fewer in number
   Minority status is not about numbers!! It’s about social
    inequalities!
   May serve as a master status
 Racism-ideology about the superiority of one racial or
 ethnic group used to justify inequality
   Often rooted in assumption that differences between
    groups are genetic
Prejudice and Discrimination
 Prejudice-“Pre-judgment”-inflexible attitude about a
 group of people rooted in generalizations or
 stereotypes
   Applied to all members of the group, unlikely to change
    unless evidence against it (usually negative)
 Discrimination-unequal treatment of individuals
 based on their membership in a social group, usually
 motivated by prejudice
Prejudice and Discrimination
 Individual Discrimination-discrimination carried
  out by one person against another
 Institutional Discrimination-discrimination carried
  out systematically by institutions (political, economic,
  educational) that affects all members of a group who
  come into contact with it
   1944-G.I. Bill- advantages were institutionally blocked
    for blacks
   Loans granted to those only buying in all-white
    neighborhoods
Why does race still play such a
      critical role in society?
 Functionalist-Groups have a tendency toward
  ethnocentrism and social bonds toward their own
  group-can lead them to view other groups unfavorably
 Conflict-Struggle for scarce resources drives society.
  Split along racial lines. One group is routinely paid less
  than others
   Ideas like Manifest Destiny helped to justify the taking
    of lands from Indians (heathens) and justified killing
    them
Interactionism
 Passing-presenting yourself as a member of a
 different racial/ethnic group than you were born into
   Light-skinned blacks try to avoid consequences of being
    black in a racist society
       Occurred via marrying other whites, having no children, using
        make-up to lighten skin
   “Doing white” still occurs
       Bleaching, make-up
Race, Ethnicity and Life Chances
 Health-Disparities in life expectancy rates of men and
  women of different races
 Education-High dropout rates are associated with
  those from economically disadvantaged and non-
  English speaking backgrounds
 Among high school dropouts:
   11.8%-Whites
   14.2%-Blacks
   28.4%-Hispanics
Work and Life Chances
 Work and Income-People of color carry burden of
  most difficult jobs
   Many minorities in semi-skilled or unskilled
    occupations-fill bottom tier of job market
   Minorities also compete with each other for those jobs
 Class and race often intersect, influencing life chances
    In 2001, below poverty level:
       7.9% of whites
       23.1% of blacks
       24.9% of Hispanics
Criminal Justice and Life Chances
 U.S. population is 69%
  white, 13% black, 13%
  Hispanic, but 40% of
  prisoners are African-
  American, 34% are
  white, 21% are Hispanic
 Half of all hate crimes
  related to racial
  discrimination; 2/3
  targeted towards blacks
Race Relations: Conflict
 Genocide-deliberate and systematic extermination of a
 racial, ethnic, national or cultural group “Ethnic cleansing”
   Ex.: Holocaust: 6 million Jews, millions of other
    undesirables (Gypsies, people with disabilities, political
    enemies, gays, etc…)
 Population Transfer-forcible removal of people from
 the territory they have occupied
   Native Americans forced to move onto Indian
    reservations in early 19th century
   1838-9:“Trail of Tears”-17,000 Cherokees moved 800 mi.
       4,000 people died on the way
Race Relations: Conflict
 Internal Colonialism-the exploitation of a minority
 group within the dominant group’s own borders
   Takes form of economic exploitation
   Includes physical segregation
   Segregation-formal and legal separation of groups by
    race
   Ex.: Blacks in the American South up to the 1960s
       Separate neighborhoods, sections of buses, restaurants, etc…
       Separate and unequal
Race Relations: Cooperation
 Assimilation-the minority group is absorbed into the
 mainstream or dominant group
   America as “melting pot”
   Society becomes more homogenous-immigrants lose
    sense of “foreign-ness”
   Racial assimilation-minority groups absorbed into
    dominant group through intermarriage
   Cultural assimilation-minority groups adopting the
    dominant group’s culture
       May be forced-results in loss of previous cultural identity
Race Relations: Cooperation
 Pluralism-(multiculturalism)-encourages racial and
 ethnic variation within a society
   Tolerates and celebrates racial/ethnic identities
   America as “salad bowl”
   Switzerland-French, German, Italian
       1848-constitution makes sure power is shared among all
        groups
   How can the U.S. gain a more multicultural national
    identity?

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Soc. 101 real world ch. 9

  • 2. Outline  Social Construction of Race  Defining Race and Ethnicity  Minority groups and Racism  Prejudice and Discrimination  Theoretical Approaches  Life Chances  Conflict and Cooperation in Race Relations
  • 3. Social Construction of Race  Race and ethnicity are socially constructed categories  Meanings are created over time  Race is also a means of stratification  19th century shema-3 races  Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasoid  Modern scientists-there are no “pure” races
  • 4. Race and Ethnicity  Race-social category, based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people  Ethnicity-social category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor  How do we show our racial/ethnic group membership?  Symbolic ethnicity-enactments of ethnic identity that occur only on special occasions  Ex.: St. Patrick’s Day  Situational ethnicity-ethnic identity can either be displayed or concealed depending on its usefulness in a given situation  In U.S., if you are non-white you don’t get a chance for symbolic/situational ethnicity – your ethnicity usually shows
  • 5. Minority groups and Racism  Minority group-members of a social group that’s systematically denied same access to power and resources available to the dominant groups of a society  Not necessarily fewer in number  Minority status is not about numbers!! It’s about social inequalities!  May serve as a master status  Racism-ideology about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group used to justify inequality  Often rooted in assumption that differences between groups are genetic
  • 6. Prejudice and Discrimination  Prejudice-“Pre-judgment”-inflexible attitude about a group of people rooted in generalizations or stereotypes  Applied to all members of the group, unlikely to change unless evidence against it (usually negative)  Discrimination-unequal treatment of individuals based on their membership in a social group, usually motivated by prejudice
  • 7. Prejudice and Discrimination  Individual Discrimination-discrimination carried out by one person against another  Institutional Discrimination-discrimination carried out systematically by institutions (political, economic, educational) that affects all members of a group who come into contact with it  1944-G.I. Bill- advantages were institutionally blocked for blacks  Loans granted to those only buying in all-white neighborhoods
  • 8. Why does race still play such a critical role in society?  Functionalist-Groups have a tendency toward ethnocentrism and social bonds toward their own group-can lead them to view other groups unfavorably  Conflict-Struggle for scarce resources drives society. Split along racial lines. One group is routinely paid less than others  Ideas like Manifest Destiny helped to justify the taking of lands from Indians (heathens) and justified killing them
  • 9. Interactionism  Passing-presenting yourself as a member of a different racial/ethnic group than you were born into  Light-skinned blacks try to avoid consequences of being black in a racist society  Occurred via marrying other whites, having no children, using make-up to lighten skin  “Doing white” still occurs  Bleaching, make-up
  • 10. Race, Ethnicity and Life Chances  Health-Disparities in life expectancy rates of men and women of different races  Education-High dropout rates are associated with those from economically disadvantaged and non- English speaking backgrounds  Among high school dropouts:  11.8%-Whites  14.2%-Blacks  28.4%-Hispanics
  • 11. Work and Life Chances  Work and Income-People of color carry burden of most difficult jobs  Many minorities in semi-skilled or unskilled occupations-fill bottom tier of job market  Minorities also compete with each other for those jobs  Class and race often intersect, influencing life chances  In 2001, below poverty level:  7.9% of whites  23.1% of blacks  24.9% of Hispanics
  • 12. Criminal Justice and Life Chances  U.S. population is 69% white, 13% black, 13% Hispanic, but 40% of prisoners are African- American, 34% are white, 21% are Hispanic  Half of all hate crimes related to racial discrimination; 2/3 targeted towards blacks
  • 13. Race Relations: Conflict  Genocide-deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, national or cultural group “Ethnic cleansing”  Ex.: Holocaust: 6 million Jews, millions of other undesirables (Gypsies, people with disabilities, political enemies, gays, etc…)  Population Transfer-forcible removal of people from the territory they have occupied  Native Americans forced to move onto Indian reservations in early 19th century  1838-9:“Trail of Tears”-17,000 Cherokees moved 800 mi.  4,000 people died on the way
  • 14. Race Relations: Conflict  Internal Colonialism-the exploitation of a minority group within the dominant group’s own borders  Takes form of economic exploitation  Includes physical segregation  Segregation-formal and legal separation of groups by race  Ex.: Blacks in the American South up to the 1960s  Separate neighborhoods, sections of buses, restaurants, etc…  Separate and unequal
  • 15. Race Relations: Cooperation  Assimilation-the minority group is absorbed into the mainstream or dominant group  America as “melting pot”  Society becomes more homogenous-immigrants lose sense of “foreign-ness”  Racial assimilation-minority groups absorbed into dominant group through intermarriage  Cultural assimilation-minority groups adopting the dominant group’s culture  May be forced-results in loss of previous cultural identity
  • 16. Race Relations: Cooperation  Pluralism-(multiculturalism)-encourages racial and ethnic variation within a society  Tolerates and celebrates racial/ethnic identities  America as “salad bowl”  Switzerland-French, German, Italian  1848-constitution makes sure power is shared among all groups  How can the U.S. gain a more multicultural national identity?