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Chapter 4
The Multicultural
Society
Where are you from?
 Primordial ties (language, culture, place of
birth)
 We tend to identify ourselves with a particular
group
 We also tend to distinguish ourselves from the
rest of the population.
 WHY DO WE DO THIS?
 What benefits does this have for us?
 Does it cause us to be seen different by the rest of
society?
Social Hierarchies
 Social hierarchies (e.g. Tutsi/Hutu in
Rwanda)
 Tutsi above Hutu
 Hutu revolted and committed genocide
against the Tutsi
Cultural Conflict/Genocide
 Ghosts of Rwanda
 http://digital.films.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=44271&loid=1139
73&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Ghosts of
Rwanda&IsSearch=Y&parentSeriesID=
 This video is just a few minutes of a
documentary on the Rwanda cultural
conflict/war/genocide
 What are your feelings, perceptions about
this?
 Access to power, wealth and status
(Colonialism) (Rwanda)
 Globalization of culture
 “She is an illegal ‘alien’ “ - ALIEN?
 “African American” vs. “African”
 Africans do not share an identity, or cultural ties
to “African Americans”.. Very different identity
Immigration/Migration and Refugees
 Immigration is …………..
 Migration is ……………..
 Refugee movements
 All create “Identity Crises”
 We see : transnational identities, political
identities and identities of struggle
 Palestinian Christian, Africans etc.
Do you, or do you know people who would
identify with these?
Globalization and Culture
 Culture is LEARNED, is SHARED (not
individual) behavior, and includes both
ABSTRACT (language, religion) and
MATERIAL elements (architecture,
technology)
 Culture is the social glue that binds
people
 Culture is dynamic, not static
Cultural Diversity
 Cultural diversity refers to variation in
institutions, language, customs, beliefs,
traditions and values
 Ethnic groups (USA, Canada)
 13% of the USA is foreign born
 20% of Canadians are
foreign born (2006 Census)
Assimilation
 Assimilation refers to the merging of
different groups and their cultures into a
single common culture (e.g. melting pot
in USA)
 Integration refers to adoption of “certain”
ways of life from the “host society”
 Different ethnic cultures do not simply
"blend in” – Aboriginals, Africans
Pluralism
 Ethnic and racial differences should thrive
(as long they are not a threat to dominant
culture)
 This happened in the 70s in the US
 African Americans
 Hispanics
 All gaining momentum in labour force.
 Civil Rights Movement
 Focus is on tolerance of diversity
 Really? What do you think about this?
Pluralism - continued
 Social Darwinism underlies pluralism
 Survival of the fittest
 Social groups compete for resources and
power
 Stereotypes assuming strengths and
weaknesses of a particular group
 East Indians – ambitious
 Mexican Americans – family orientation
Multiculturalism
 Multiculturalism :
 Recognizes multiple cultural cores
 Acknowledges culture beyond ancestry
or nationality
 Promotes democratization among
groups
Multiculturalism
 An expression of a need to belong
 On the rise in North America
 Product of globalization
 Commercialization of MC (e.g. gay
market, Hispanic market, senior market)
 Multiculturalism in Canada – perspective
of youth
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mU2A
9avgHmY
Multiculturalism – Affinity Groups
 Affinity Groups:
 The common thread of identity for culturally defined
groups
 These groups rival biological family,
neighbourhoods for importance/influence
 Powerful, and rival unions, political parties, religious
affiliations
 Seen as the “nursery of human nature”
 Often have emerged from subcultures
 Examples: Meetup.com, reading/book clubs…..
Subcultures
 What is a subculture?
 A group, that is part of the dominant
culture, yet clearly differentiates
themselves from the dominant culture…
for many reasons, in many ways. They
exist within mainstream culture
Connotes subservient population
‘less than’ the dominant
culture/population
Subcultures - Continued
 Examples of Subcultures:
Example:
Example:
 Many academics prefer the term:
 Co-culture : connotes a standard of
unity/equality, rather than substandard
perception (SUB = inferior)
- this is more of a MC perspective
Counterculture
 Countercultures – group that tends to react
against/resist the directives of the dominant
culture… most often to elicit some change/shift
in thinking in the dominant culture. Causes
the cultural pendulum to swing in the other
direction.
 Example: cultural pendulum we talked about
Counterculture - continued
 Countercultures: openly oppose the
dominant culture
 Actively seek to change the dominant
culture.
 Example: Black Panthers
 In Oakland Bobby Seale and Huey P.
Newton founded the Black Panthers in
1966 with a ten-point platform for
addressing racial and economic inequality
in America.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLzIsJqxC5I
Counterculture - continued
 Example: Hippies – Opposition to social
norms, hair, clothes, etc. and politics – war
in Viet Nam
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR_HLlR
P1ro
Identity Politics
 Identity politics-refers to beliefs,
behaviour and action of culturally diverse
groups
 Power of culture- to transform society
 Identity politics threaten the
“conventional nation-state” (minorities)
Mobilizing Agents
 What is a mobilizing agent?
 Who do you/we know in our current
culture that would be considered a
mobilizing agent?
 Why?
 How can they effect change?
 Do we need them? Why?
Multicultural Paradox
 Refers to the interplay between:
 Homogeneity- biological and social
similarities of a group
 Heterogeneity – biological and social
differences of a group

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Chapter 4- The Multicultural Society-1.pptx

  • 2. Where are you from?  Primordial ties (language, culture, place of birth)  We tend to identify ourselves with a particular group  We also tend to distinguish ourselves from the rest of the population.  WHY DO WE DO THIS?  What benefits does this have for us?  Does it cause us to be seen different by the rest of society?
  • 3. Social Hierarchies  Social hierarchies (e.g. Tutsi/Hutu in Rwanda)  Tutsi above Hutu  Hutu revolted and committed genocide against the Tutsi
  • 4. Cultural Conflict/Genocide  Ghosts of Rwanda  http://digital.films.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=44271&loid=1139 73&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Ghosts of Rwanda&IsSearch=Y&parentSeriesID=  This video is just a few minutes of a documentary on the Rwanda cultural conflict/war/genocide  What are your feelings, perceptions about this?
  • 5.  Access to power, wealth and status (Colonialism) (Rwanda)  Globalization of culture  “She is an illegal ‘alien’ “ - ALIEN?  “African American” vs. “African”  Africans do not share an identity, or cultural ties to “African Americans”.. Very different identity
  • 6. Immigration/Migration and Refugees  Immigration is …………..  Migration is ……………..  Refugee movements  All create “Identity Crises”  We see : transnational identities, political identities and identities of struggle  Palestinian Christian, Africans etc. Do you, or do you know people who would identify with these?
  • 7. Globalization and Culture  Culture is LEARNED, is SHARED (not individual) behavior, and includes both ABSTRACT (language, religion) and MATERIAL elements (architecture, technology)  Culture is the social glue that binds people  Culture is dynamic, not static
  • 8. Cultural Diversity  Cultural diversity refers to variation in institutions, language, customs, beliefs, traditions and values  Ethnic groups (USA, Canada)  13% of the USA is foreign born  20% of Canadians are foreign born (2006 Census)
  • 9. Assimilation  Assimilation refers to the merging of different groups and their cultures into a single common culture (e.g. melting pot in USA)  Integration refers to adoption of “certain” ways of life from the “host society”  Different ethnic cultures do not simply "blend in” – Aboriginals, Africans
  • 10. Pluralism  Ethnic and racial differences should thrive (as long they are not a threat to dominant culture)  This happened in the 70s in the US  African Americans  Hispanics  All gaining momentum in labour force.  Civil Rights Movement  Focus is on tolerance of diversity  Really? What do you think about this?
  • 11. Pluralism - continued  Social Darwinism underlies pluralism  Survival of the fittest  Social groups compete for resources and power  Stereotypes assuming strengths and weaknesses of a particular group  East Indians – ambitious  Mexican Americans – family orientation
  • 12. Multiculturalism  Multiculturalism :  Recognizes multiple cultural cores  Acknowledges culture beyond ancestry or nationality  Promotes democratization among groups
  • 13. Multiculturalism  An expression of a need to belong  On the rise in North America  Product of globalization  Commercialization of MC (e.g. gay market, Hispanic market, senior market)  Multiculturalism in Canada – perspective of youth  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mU2A 9avgHmY
  • 14. Multiculturalism – Affinity Groups  Affinity Groups:  The common thread of identity for culturally defined groups  These groups rival biological family, neighbourhoods for importance/influence  Powerful, and rival unions, political parties, religious affiliations  Seen as the “nursery of human nature”  Often have emerged from subcultures  Examples: Meetup.com, reading/book clubs…..
  • 15. Subcultures  What is a subculture?  A group, that is part of the dominant culture, yet clearly differentiates themselves from the dominant culture… for many reasons, in many ways. They exist within mainstream culture Connotes subservient population ‘less than’ the dominant culture/population
  • 16. Subcultures - Continued  Examples of Subcultures: Example: Example:  Many academics prefer the term:  Co-culture : connotes a standard of unity/equality, rather than substandard perception (SUB = inferior) - this is more of a MC perspective
  • 17. Counterculture  Countercultures – group that tends to react against/resist the directives of the dominant culture… most often to elicit some change/shift in thinking in the dominant culture. Causes the cultural pendulum to swing in the other direction.  Example: cultural pendulum we talked about
  • 18. Counterculture - continued  Countercultures: openly oppose the dominant culture  Actively seek to change the dominant culture.  Example: Black Panthers  In Oakland Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton founded the Black Panthers in 1966 with a ten-point platform for addressing racial and economic inequality in America.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mLzIsJqxC5I
  • 19. Counterculture - continued  Example: Hippies – Opposition to social norms, hair, clothes, etc. and politics – war in Viet Nam  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZR_HLlR P1ro
  • 20. Identity Politics  Identity politics-refers to beliefs, behaviour and action of culturally diverse groups  Power of culture- to transform society  Identity politics threaten the “conventional nation-state” (minorities)
  • 21. Mobilizing Agents  What is a mobilizing agent?  Who do you/we know in our current culture that would be considered a mobilizing agent?  Why?  How can they effect change?  Do we need them? Why?
  • 22. Multicultural Paradox  Refers to the interplay between:  Homogeneity- biological and social similarities of a group  Heterogeneity – biological and social differences of a group

Editor's Notes

  1. Social hierarchy established by the Belgians under colonialism put the Tutsi above the Hutu UN attempt to resolve issues recommended a government where Tutsi and Hutu would work together the Hutu Racial extremists the Interahamwe systematically slaughtered the Tutsi people and non-racist Hutu's
  2. We talk about Africans as if it were one country and one culture
  3. Immigration is the act of people or animals moving and settling in a country or region to which they are not native.[1] Immigration is made for many reasons, including temperature, breeding, economic, political, family re-unification, natural disaster, poverty or the wish to change one's surroundings voluntarily. Migration is physical movement by humans from one area to another
  4. Recent settlers of North America trace their origins to Europe,Africa, Asioa, and Latin America Many groups claim a particular heritage that distinguishes them from other such groups and from a mainstream dominant culture In 2011, Canada welcomed 156,077 economic immigrants and 56,419 family class immigrants. Canada’s per-capita immigration rate remains one of the highest in the world 2006 census figures analyzed by Statistics Canada show that one in five people living in Canada are foreign-born, the highest proportion in 75 years.
  5. ssimilation applies mostly to the White Anglo Saxon Protestants – WASPS Aboriginals and enslaved Africans were not candidates for assimilation because they stand out in physical appearance compared to White Ethnics such as Greeks, Italians, etc.
  6. Empasis is on moral relativism, a social ethic rooted in tolerance of diversity, rather than acceptance and appreciation of collective behaviour that may contradict or threaten a dominant culture