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Racial and Ethical Discrimination


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This presentation discusses the issue of Racial and Ethnical Discrimination in the Philippines.

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Racial and Ethical Discrimination

  2. 2. Definition of Terms Race – group of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits deemed by society to be socially significant Ethnicity – shared cultural practices, perspectives, and distinctions that set apart one group of people from another
  3. 3. Prejudice – a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority Discrimination – the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons
  4. 4. Racism – refers to attitudes, beliefs, or behaviours that favor one group over another Ethnic discrimination – treating a person differently based on the national/tribal culture they self- identify with Racist – believes that certain people are superior, or inferior, to others in light of racial differences; they approve of segregation
  5. 5. The Indigenous People’s Rights Act of 1997 Section 22, Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Chapter 1 of RA 8371 “...the State recognizes and promotes the rights of the indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development.” SOURCE: NCIP
  6. 6. Anti-Discrimination Act of 2011 Senate Bill 2814 - A bill that would prohibit and penalize racial discrimination in the workplace, educational institutions, and services
  7. 7. “The Philippines does not formally recognize the existence of racial discrimination in the country...We should be able to avoid unnecessary prejudice and other forms of intolerance and give equal opportunity to each individual to achieve his full potential as a person and as a Filipino citizen.” SOURCE: Sen. L. Legarda, Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 2008
  8. 8. - The procedures for the resolution, settlement, or prosecution of racial discrimination acts would be drawn up by: • Commission on Human Rights • Department of Labor and Employment • Department of Education • Department of Health • National Commission on Indigenous Peoples • National Commission on Muslim Filipinos • Civil Service Commission • Department of Trade and Industry
  9. 9. • A penalty of imprisonment of nine months to 12 years and/or a fine of P100,000 to P500,000 would be imposed on persons found guilty of committing acts of racial discrimination • Equal Opportunity Committees would also be established in public and private agencies, corporations and educational institutions
  10. 10. Philippines : Historical Development of Ethnic Identities Through centuries of intermarriage, Filipinos had become a unique blend of Malay, Chinese, Spanish, Negrito, and American.
  11. 11. During the fifteenth century, separate sultanates developed on Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago. By the middle of the sixteenth century, Islamic influence had spread as far north as Manila Bay. Philippine national identity emerged as a blend of diverse ethnic and linguistic groups, when lowland Christians, called indios by the Spaniards, began referring to themselves as "Filipinos“.
  12. 12. Philippine Racism by Manuel L. Quezon, Jr. “Many Filipinos still believe the “white” man is superior to the “brown” man.” “...Our national cohesion is also weakened by a very strange manifestation of the colonial mentality – racism...” “All subsequent scientific research has shown that the human races are equal in intelligence and potentialities.” SOURCE: The Philippine Graphic magazine (November 2, 1966)
  13. 13. THE FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE Sociologist Arnold Rose (1951) has outlined dysfunctions that are associated with racism: • A society that practices discrimination fails to use the resources of all individuals. Discrimination limits the search for talent and leadership to the dominant group.
  14. 14. THE CONFLICT THEORY PERSPECTIVE From a Marxist point of view: • Racism keeps minorities in low-paying jobs, thereby supplying the capitalist ruling class with a pool of cheap labor • Workers from the dominant group who demand higher wages can always be replaced by minorities who have no choice but to accept low-paying jobs.
  15. 15. THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE • The contact hypothesis states that in cooperative circumstances, interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon old stereotypes. • People begin to see one another as individuals and discard the broad generalizations characteristic of stereotyping.
  16. 16. “It is time we eliminated it by educating in the minds of our people and changing their attitudes, not by a adopting haughty making them realize the truth that we are all Filipinos, that as a people we have no inborn inferiority, that we have the same inborn potentialities as other people...what we shall become depends under God, on what we make of ourselves.” REFLECTION - Manuel L. Quezon Jr., on Philippine Racism
  17. 17. Thank you and God bless :D