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Outline Sex and Gender Essentialist and Constructionist Approaches Gender Inequality-Patriarchy Theoretical views-Functionalist, Conflict, Interactionist Gender Role Socialization Life Chances Women’s Movement Men’s Movement Sexual Diversity
Sex and Gender Sex-an individual’s membership in one of two distinct categories; male or female Based on biological factors (hormones, chromosomes, organs) Intersexed-(hermaphroditic)person whose chromosomes or sex characteristics are neither exclusively male or female 17 in 1,000 babies born intersexed Gender-the physical, behavioral, and personality traits that a group considers normal for its male and female members Culturally transmitted or learned Masculine or feminine?
Essentialist and Constructionist Approaches Gender identity-the roles and traits that a social group assigns to a particular gender Essentialists- gender roles have a genetic or biological origin, and therefore cannot be changed Culture plays no role Two category system Constructionists- notions of gender are socially determined (Berdaches and Hijra) Systems of gender inequality that result from labels are not natural or necessary
Gender Inequality Found in all societies, past and present Patriarchy- “rule of the father;” a male-dominated society Traced back to biological differences-division of labor Men valued for physical strength-needed for hunting & building Women faced demands of bearing and raising children- relegated to home *Why does gender inequality continue?
Gender Inequality Functionalist-social roles are still better suited to one gender or the other Instrumental role-position of family member who provides material support; often authority figure Breadwinner Expressive role-position of the family member who provides emotional support & nurturingGender segregation serves to uphold the traditional family
Gender Inequality Conflict theorists-men have historically had access to most of society’s material resources and privileges Gender is a manifestation of exploitation Women reproduce labor force-no compensation All men benefit from gender inequality Interactionists-focus on how gender is socially constructed in our everyday lives Gender identity is so important-one of first things we know when we interact with someone Transgendered-individual whose sense of gender identity is at odds with her or his physical sex
Gender Role Socialization Gender role socialization(GRS)- lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine Occurs through family, peers, school, media (agents of socialization) Families-the primary source of socialization Occurs before birth Clothes, rooms, toys differ Gender of baby affects way others relate to it
Gender Role Socialization Gendered ToysWhat are the differencesbetween toys for boys andtoys for girls?
Gender Role Socialization Social learning-process of learning behaviors and meanings through social interaction Schools-educational experiences of boys and girls will differ Gender norms, same-sex groups on playground Boys receive more instructional time, given more praise Peers-same-sex peer groups can create gendered behavior Boys-prestige from athletic ability, sense of humor Girls-prestige from social position and attractiveness
Gender Role Socialization Media-sex role behavior portrayed in highly stereotyped fashion Much of TV, video games, popular music and magazines aimed at adolescents Shapes our images of what is normal
Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Gender expectations shape our experiences in all areas of our lives Family – women more likely to be single parent. Women have “second shift” Crime – men more likely to be victims and die of violent crime. Women are more likely to be victimized by rape or intimate abuse. Education – women more likely to finish high school & go to college. Men more likely to finish college. Men get more money.
Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Work – single women work outside home than married women – men work more than women – See Table 10.5 – page 263 – “Pink Collar Jobs” – secretary, nurse, etc. Income & Poverty – 2004 – Men $40,798; Women $31,223 – 77 cents to the dollar men make Feminization of Poverty-economic trend showing that women are more likely than men to live in poverty Due to gendered gap in wages, higher amount of single moms taking on primary responsibility for kids, increasing costs of child care Language-double standard in sexual behavior “players” vs. “sluts”-men more likely to interrupt
The Women’s Movement Feminism-the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes + social movements organized around that belief Women’s Movement split into 3 waves First wave-1848 Seneca Falls- demanded right to vote Suffrage movement- movement organized around gaining voting rights for women (achieved in 1920)
The Women’s Movement Second Wave-1960s-70s-associated with equal access to education and employment Betty Friedan-The Feminine Mystique-described “the problem that has no name”-women not being fulfilled by their traditional roles because of cultural restrictions-norms or laws Achieved equal opportunity laws and sexual harassment legislation Third Wave-focus on diversity, include concerns of women of color, lesbians, and working-class women
The Men’s Movement What does it mean to be a man in post-feminism world? Is there a crisis of masculinity? Male liberationism-movement that originated in the 1970s to discuss the challenges of masculinity Greater stress, poorer health, shorter life expectancy Popular among middle-class heterosexual men Initially open to feminism, then later against it
The Men’s Movement Both movements are offshoots of male liberationism Men’s rights movement-because of feminism, men are discriminated against New kind of sexism Pro-feminist men’s movement-members support feminism and believe that sexism harms both men and women Men need to share in child care and end violence against women
Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation-inclination to be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual homosexuality-sexual attraction towards members of one’s own gender Is there a gay gene? Possessing a certain gene doesn’t guarantee that a person will have a particular sexual orientation Environment? Bisexuality?
Kinsey-we can best understand sexual orientation as a fluid continuum that can change over Sexual diversity the course of a person’s lifetimeKinsey-late Bisexuals, transsexuals, and a-1940s-people sexuals may reject such a modelnot Queer Theory-theory aboutnecessarily gender identity and sexuality thatexclusively emphasizes the importance ofhomosexual difference and rejects the idea of innate sexual identityor About possibilities, importance ofheterosexual differences