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Chapter 10
Outline   Sex and Gender   Essentialist and Constructionist Approaches   Gender Inequality-Patriarchy   Theoretical vi...
Sex and Gender Sex-an individual’s membership in one of two distinct  categories; male or female    Based on biological ...
Essentialist and Constructionist            Approaches Gender identity-the roles and traits that a social  group assigns ...
Gender Inequality Found in all societies, past and present Patriarchy- “rule of the father;” a male-dominated  society  ...
Gender Inequality Functionalist-social roles are still better suited to one  gender or the other   Instrumental role-pos...
Gender Inequality Conflict theorists-men have historically had access to most of society’s material resources and privile...
Gender Role Socialization Gender role socialization(GRS)- lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine   Occ...
Gender Role Socialization                            Gendered ToysWhat are the differencesbetween toys for boys andtoys fo...
Gender Role Socialization Social learning-process of learning behaviors and  meanings through social interaction Schools...
Gender Role Socialization Media-sex role behavior portrayed in highly stereotyped fashion   Much of TV, video    games, ...
Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Gender expectations shape our experiences in all areas  of our lives Family – women more l...
Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Work – single women work outside home than married  women – men work more than women – See...
The Women’s Movement               Feminism-the belief in the                social, political, and economic             ...
The Women’s Movement Second Wave-1960s-70s-associated with equal access  to education and employment Betty Friedan-The F...
The Men’s Movement What does it mean to be a man in post-feminism  world? Is there a crisis of masculinity? Male libera...
The Men’s Movement Both movements are offshoots of male liberationism Men’s rights movement-because of feminism, men are...
Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation-inclination to be heterosexual,  homosexual, or bisexual    homosexuality-sexual a...
 Kinsey-we can best understand                       sexual orientation as a fluid                       continuum that c...
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Soc. 101 rw ch. 10

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Soc. 101 rw ch. 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10
  2. 2. Outline Sex and Gender Essentialist and Constructionist Approaches Gender Inequality-Patriarchy Theoretical views-Functionalist, Conflict, Interactionist Gender Role Socialization Life Chances Women’s Movement Men’s Movement Sexual Diversity
  3. 3. Sex and Gender Sex-an individual’s membership in one of two distinct categories; male or female  Based on biological factors (hormones, chromosomes, organs)  Intersexed-(hermaphroditic)person whose chromosomes or sex characteristics are neither exclusively male or female  17 in 1,000 babies born intersexed Gender-the physical, behavioral, and personality traits that a group considers normal for its male and female members  Culturally transmitted or learned  Masculine or feminine?
  4. 4. Essentialist and Constructionist Approaches Gender identity-the roles and traits that a social group assigns to a particular gender Essentialists- gender roles have a genetic or biological origin, and therefore cannot be changed  Culture plays no role  Two category system Constructionists- notions of gender are socially determined (Berdaches and Hijra)  Systems of gender inequality that result from labels are not natural or necessary
  5. 5. Gender Inequality Found in all societies, past and present Patriarchy- “rule of the father;” a male-dominated society  Traced back to biological differences-division of labor  Men valued for physical strength-needed for hunting & building  Women faced demands of bearing and raising children- relegated to home *Why does gender inequality continue?
  6. 6. Gender Inequality Functionalist-social roles are still better suited to one gender or the other  Instrumental role-position of family member who provides material support; often authority figure  Breadwinner  Expressive role-position of the family member who provides emotional support & nurturingGender segregation serves to uphold the traditional family
  7. 7. Gender Inequality Conflict theorists-men have historically had access to most of society’s material resources and privileges  Gender is a manifestation of exploitation  Women reproduce labor force-no compensation  All men benefit from gender inequality Interactionists-focus on how gender is socially constructed in our everyday lives  Gender identity is so important-one of first things we know when we interact with someone  Transgendered-individual whose sense of gender identity is at odds with her or his physical sex
  8. 8. Gender Role Socialization Gender role socialization(GRS)- lifelong process of learning to be masculine or feminine  Occurs through family, peers, school, media (agents of socialization) Families-the primary source of socialization  Occurs before birth  Clothes, rooms, toys differ  Gender of baby affects way others relate to it
  9. 9. Gender Role Socialization Gendered ToysWhat are the differencesbetween toys for boys andtoys for girls?
  10. 10. Gender Role Socialization Social learning-process of learning behaviors and meanings through social interaction Schools-educational experiences of boys and girls will differ  Gender norms, same-sex groups on playground  Boys receive more instructional time, given more praise Peers-same-sex peer groups can create gendered behavior  Boys-prestige from athletic ability, sense of humor  Girls-prestige from social position and attractiveness
  11. 11. Gender Role Socialization Media-sex role behavior portrayed in highly stereotyped fashion  Much of TV, video games, popular music and magazines aimed at adolescents  Shapes our images of what is normal
  12. 12. Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Gender expectations shape our experiences in all areas of our lives Family – women more likely to be single parent. Women have “second shift” Crime – men more likely to be victims and die of violent crime. Women are more likely to be victimized by rape or intimate abuse. Education – women more likely to finish high school & go to college. Men more likely to finish college. Men get more money.
  13. 13. Sex, Gender, and Life Chances Work – single women work outside home than married women – men work more than women – See Table 10.5 – page 263 – “Pink Collar Jobs” – secretary, nurse, etc. Income & Poverty – 2004 – Men $40,798; Women $31,223 – 77 cents to the dollar men make Feminization of Poverty-economic trend showing that women are more likely than men to live in poverty  Due to gendered gap in wages, higher amount of single moms taking on primary responsibility for kids, increasing costs of child care Language-double standard in sexual behavior “players” vs. “sluts”-men more likely to interrupt
  14. 14. The Women’s Movement  Feminism-the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes + social movements organized around that belief  Women’s Movement split into 3 waves  First wave-1848 Seneca Falls- demanded right to vote  Suffrage movement- movement organized around gaining voting rights for women (achieved in 1920)
  15. 15. The Women’s Movement Second Wave-1960s-70s-associated with equal access to education and employment Betty Friedan-The Feminine Mystique-described “the problem that has no name”-women not being fulfilled by their traditional roles because of cultural restrictions-norms or laws Achieved equal opportunity laws and sexual harassment legislation Third Wave-focus on diversity, include concerns of women of color, lesbians, and working-class women
  16. 16. The Men’s Movement What does it mean to be a man in post-feminism world? Is there a crisis of masculinity? Male liberationism-movement that originated in the 1970s to discuss the challenges of masculinity  Greater stress, poorer health, shorter life expectancy  Popular among middle-class heterosexual men  Initially open to feminism, then later against it
  17. 17. The Men’s Movement Both movements are offshoots of male liberationism Men’s rights movement-because of feminism, men are discriminated against  New kind of sexism Pro-feminist men’s movement-members support feminism and believe that sexism harms both men and women  Men need to share in child care and end violence against women
  18. 18. Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation-inclination to be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual  homosexuality-sexual attraction towards members of one’s own gender Is there a gay gene?  Possessing a certain gene doesn’t guarantee that a person will have a particular sexual orientation  Environment? Bisexuality?
  19. 19.  Kinsey-we can best understand sexual orientation as a fluid continuum that can change over Sexual diversity the course of a person’s lifetimeKinsey-late  Bisexuals, transsexuals, and a-1940s-people sexuals may reject such a modelnot  Queer Theory-theory aboutnecessarily gender identity and sexuality thatexclusively emphasizes the importance ofhomosexual difference and rejects the idea of innate sexual identityor  About possibilities, importance ofheterosexual differences

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