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GS 138: Introduction to Sociology




                                    1
 How   is race “socially constructed” in
  society?
 What is the difference between
  prejudice and discrimination?
 Wh...
 Race  and Ethnicity
 Prejudice
 Discrimination
 Sociological Perspectives on Race
  and Ethnic Relations
 Racial and...
 Some people view race as:
  • Skin color: the Caucasian “race”,
  • Religion: the Jewish “race”
  • Nationality: the Bri...
   A race is a category of people who have been
    singled out as inferior or superior, on the
    basis of real or alle...
 Monogenism (14th – 18th century) Racial
  classification by origin
 Polygenism (18th – 19th century) – Focus on
  inher...
Historical Conceptions of Race
Taken from Baron Cuvier‟s Natural History (1890)




                                      ...
 Itis generally agreed among sociologists
  that race is socially constructed based
  on the social realities, norms and ...
John F. Kennedy    Albert Einstein    Rudy Guiliani        Sonia Sotomayor
 Irish Ancestry   Jewish Ancestry    Italian An...
Dr. Michael O’Malley, professor
at George Mason University, had
 an Irish great-grandfather and a
      native Virginian g...
 Unique  cultural traits.
 A sense of community.
 A feeling of ethnocentrism.
 Ascribed membership from birth.
 Tende...
A dominant group is one that is advantaged
 and has superior resources and rights in a
 society.
A  subordinate group is...
A negative attitude based on
 generalizations about members of
 selected racial, ethnic, or other groups.
  • Ethnocentri...
Term             Definition                                 Related Concepts

Racism           Set of attitudes, beliefs, ...
 Frustration–aggression          (scapegoat)
 hypothesis
  • People who are frustrated in their efforts to
   achieve a h...
Example of Indirect:
1937 Map of Philadelphia
developed by Homeowners Loan
Corporation, a New Deal effort to
salvage distr...
Jennifer Lee and Immigration




                               17
Previous racial categories included:      2010 Census, Race Section

1790:
Free white males
Free white females
All other f...
The 2010 Census lumps diverse groups into
one race category:
  • Hispanics may choose „White‟ as race or any other
    (mo...
   When asked to indentify racial groups in America, most
    people will list White, African-American, Native
    Americ...
Subgroups of Whites




                             Cast of the Jersey Shore, which depicts the ‘guido’
                 ...
   Latino/Hispanic-The only ethnic group recognized by the Census, not a
    race
   Hispanic refers to Spanish language...
Asians

The Census asks for
certain major
nationalities, but often
lumps Southeast Asians,
„Orientals‟, Indians, and
nativ...
24
25
Overview of Theoretical Perspectives




                                       26
 Contact  theory - contact between
  divergent groups should, in theory,
  reduce racism
 Interactionists would study ho...
How Does This Ad Exemplify the
     Interactionist Perspective?




                                   28
 Assimilation
  A process by which members of subordinate
  racial and ethnic groups become absorbed
  into the dominant ...
 The Caste Perspective views racial and
 ethnic inequality as a permanent feature
 of U.S. society.

 Class perspectives...
 Internal Colonialism occurs when
 members of a racial or ethnic group are
 forcibly placed under the control of the
 dom...
Gendered Racism




                  32
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Race & ethnicity

  1. 1. GS 138: Introduction to Sociology 1
  2. 2.  How is race “socially constructed” in society?  What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?  What evidence is there that race relations are improving in the society? 2
  3. 3.  Race and Ethnicity  Prejudice  Discrimination  Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations  Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States  2010 Census and its Definitions of Race 3
  4. 4.  Some people view race as: • Skin color: the Caucasian “race”, • Religion: the Jewish “race” • Nationality: the British “race” • Entire human species: the human “race”  Sociological definition of race: “A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes”1 4
  5. 5.  A race is a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributes.  Race has little meaning biologically due to interbreeding in the human population.  Only 6% of DNA differences in humans can be attributed to racial differences and thus many social and natural scientists have dismissed race as a category 5
  6. 6.  Monogenism (14th – 18th century) Racial classification by origin  Polygenism (18th – 19th century) – Focus on inheritance of traits/hierarchy of races  Evolutionism (late 19th century) – Races evolved over time, explained the dominance of Europeans  Race as Class, Culture (19th cent.)- Race was though to determine social standing and culture  Race as Ethnicity, Nation (19- 20th century) – Racial mixing blurs fixed categories, race used as a political strategy 6
  7. 7. Historical Conceptions of Race Taken from Baron Cuvier‟s Natural History (1890) 7
  8. 8.  Itis generally agreed among sociologists that race is socially constructed based on the social realities, norms and group experiences within society at a particular time. (Remember the Thomas Theorem)  Race became significant only after the transatlantic economy emerges in the 1400‟s 8
  9. 9. John F. Kennedy Albert Einstein Rudy Guiliani Sonia Sotomayor Irish Ancestry Jewish Ancestry Italian Ancestry Puerto Rican Ancestry Who would you consider white? Why? 9
  10. 10. Dr. Michael O’Malley, professor at George Mason University, had an Irish great-grandfather and a native Virginian great grandmother . His grandfather was listed as colored on their wedding certificate. 10
  11. 11.  Unique cultural traits.  A sense of community.  A feeling of ethnocentrism.  Ascribed membership from birth.  Tendency to occupy a geographic area. Example: Irish Americans were historically united by a common faith (Catholicism), lived in ethnic enclaves in cities like NYC and Boston, preferred the folkways of Irish over the WASP culture, and remained in Irish neighborhoods due to discrimination. 11
  12. 12. A dominant group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society. A subordinate group is one whose members are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. Why would sociologists use dominant/subordinate rather than majority/minority? 12
  13. 13. A negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups. • Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to regard one‟s own culture and group as the standard. • Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories.  Racism-attitudes, beliefs, and practices that justify the superior treatment of one group 13
  14. 14. Term Definition Related Concepts Racism Set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices that is used to justify the treatment of another racial or ethnic group. Discrimination Actions or practices of dominant group Isolated vs. members that have a harmful impact on Instituationalized a subordinate group Indirect vs. Direct Prejudice Negative attitude based on faulty Stereotypes generalizations about members of Ethnocentrism specific ethnic, racial, or other groups 14
  15. 15.  Frustration–aggression (scapegoat) hypothesis • People who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a highly desired goal will respond with a pattern of aggression toward others.  CULTURE OF PREJUDICE • THE SOCIALIZATION EXPERIENCE • IT’S “NORMAL” FOR PEOPLE TO PREJUDGE OTHERS 15
  16. 16. Example of Indirect: 1937 Map of Philadelphia developed by Homeowners Loan Corporation, a New Deal effort to salvage distressed properties Sections of the city were given grades according to their properties and the racial ‘infiltrations’. The red and yellow areas were predominantly minority, while blue and green were ‘safer’ areas for lending. 16
  17. 17. Jennifer Lee and Immigration 17
  18. 18. Previous racial categories included: 2010 Census, Race Section 1790: Free white males Free white females All other free persons (included Native Americans who paid taxes and free blacks) Slaves 1890: „Mulattos‟, Quadroons, Octoroons, Chinese, Japanese, 20th century: “Hindu”, “South Americans” Census categories from other nations 18
  19. 19. The 2010 Census lumps diverse groups into one race category: • Hispanics may choose „White‟ as race or any other (most choose white) • Arabs are instructed to mark their race as white • Beginning in 2000, people are allowed to choose a „two or more races‟ 19
  20. 20.  When asked to indentify racial groups in America, most people will list White, African-American, Native American, Asian, Latino/Hispanic, but there are other groups/subgroups worth mentioning  White Ethnics • Non-British Europeans-Czechs, Poles, Italians, Irish, Russians, entered the U.S. between 1880-1920  WASPs • White Anglo-Saxon Protestants-the upper class for most of US history has been described as WASP, usually attend mainline churches, members of country clubs, send children to elite prep schools 20
  21. 21. Subgroups of Whites Cast of the Jersey Shore, which depicts the ‘guido’ lifestyle of young, Northeastern Italian-Americans Do you think that white subgroups, like WASPS or white ethnics still exist? Or George H.W. Bush, a WASP do they simply exist in popular media prototype depictions? 21
  22. 22.  Latino/Hispanic-The only ethnic group recognized by the Census, not a race  Hispanic refers to Spanish language (and thus excludes Brazilians and Surinamese) while Latino includes people from Latin-speaking countries Javier Weyler Celia Cruz (Argentinean) (Cuban) 22
  23. 23. Asians The Census asks for certain major nationalities, but often lumps Southeast Asians, „Orientals‟, Indians, and native of the Pacific islands together What „Asians‟ are not included in this Census category? 23
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Overview of Theoretical Perspectives 26
  27. 27.  Contact theory - contact between divergent groups should, in theory, reduce racism  Interactionists would study how people define themselves along racial & ethnic lines and how they perceive people of other races  Interactionists would also study the daily encounters between people of different races 27
  28. 28. How Does This Ad Exemplify the Interactionist Perspective? 28
  29. 29.  Assimilation A process by which members of subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture.  Ethnic Pluralism The coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society.  Functionalists focus on unequal opportunities and achievement of subordinate groups, racism is merely a dysfunction (not an overt set of obstacles) 29
  30. 30.  The Caste Perspective views racial and ethnic inequality as a permanent feature of U.S. society.  Class perspectives emphasize the role of the capitalist class in racial exploitation. • William Julius Wilson‟s The Truly Disadvantaged explain racism as limited life chances for inner city blacks 30
  31. 31.  Internal Colonialism occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are forcibly placed under the control of the dominant group.  SplitLabor Market - The division of the economy into a primary sector composed of higher paid workers in more secure jobs, and a secondary sector of lower-paid workers in jobs with little security. 31
  32. 32. Gendered Racism 32
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