SlideShare a Scribd company logo
UNIT 4
                  Environmental Biotechnology
                      4.2. Biomass Utilization
4.2.4. Production of Single Cell Proteins by using Biomass as raw
                               material.
SYNOPSIS
•   Introduction
•   History
•   SCP production in India
•   Raw materials
•   SCP production
•   Advantages and Disadvantages
•   Applications
•   Conclusion
•   References
Environmental Biotechnology may be referred as application of
   biotechnological techniques to solve the problems and issues
   of environment.
 Biomass as the name suggests consists of all organic matter that
   grows by photosynthetic conversion of solar energy.
This biomass is available abundantly and is estimated to contain
   3x 10²¹ joules of energy, some 10 times the yearly worldwide
   consumption.
 Utilization of Biomass would lead to-
       a. Help solve modern waste disposal problems.
       b. Decrease in environmental pollution.
       c. Help activate shortage of food and animal feed.
WHAT ARE SINGLE CELL PROTEINS ?
• SCP are dried cells of micro organisms which can be used as
  dietary protein supplement.
• They are used as animal feed & can be used for human feed as
  protein supplement.
• Also called ‘Novel Food’ & ‘Minifood’.
HISTORY

• Part of our diet since ancient times.
• Earlier known as ‘Microbial Protein’.
• Name was introduced by Prof. Scrimshow of MIT in 1967
• In 1950’s British Petroleum initiated production of SCP on
  commercial basis.
• Pruteen was the 1st commercial SCP used as animal feed
  additive
• Pruteen was produced from bacteria Methylophilus
  methylotrophus cultured on methanol & had 72 % protein
  content.
SCP PRODUCTION IN INDIA
• National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI).
• Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI).
• In CFTRI, SCP is produced from algae cultured on
  sewage.
RAW MATERIALS
• Production of SCP requires micro-organisms that serve as the
  protein source and the substrate that is biomass on which they
  grow.
• There is a variety of both the sources that can be used for the
  production of SCP.
• The biomass used can be plant biomass or organic biomass.
• The micro-organisms used belong to the group of Algae, Fungi
  and Bacteria.
MICRO ORGANISMS
•Micro-organisms used are fungi , yeast, algae & bacteria.
•The following table shows average different compositions of main groups of
micro– organisms (% dry wt.)


COMPOSITON     FUNGI          ALGAE          YEAST          BACTERIA


PROTEIN        30- 40 %       40- 60 %       45- 55 %       50- 65 %


FAT            9-14 %         8-10 %         5-10 %         3-7 %


NUCLEIC ACID   7-10 %         3-8 %          6-12 %         8-12 %
A list of the micro-organisms used for SCP production
Fungi
• Aspergillus fumigatus
• Aspergillus niger
• Rhizopus cyclopium
Yeast
• Saccharomyces cerevisae
• Candida tropicalis
• Candida utilis             FUNGI          YEAST
Algae
• Spirulina sps.
• Chlorella pyrenoidosa
• Chondrus crispus
Bacteria
• Pseudomonas fluroescens
• Lactobacillus
• Bacillus megaterium

                            ALGAE          BACTERIA
COMPARISION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS
           ADVANTAGES                        DIS ADVANTAGES
FUNGI      Easy to grow & harvest            Lower growth rates & lower
                                             protein content


ALGAE      Easy to grow & harvest & high     Non –digestible cellulosic cell
           quality protein                   wall, concentrate heavy
                                             metals


YEAST      Larger in size, lower NA content Poor digestibility, low protein
           , familiarity & acceptability    content, slow growth rate


BACTERIA   High protein content, digestible High NA content, small in
           cell wall                        size, low density
Biomass
• Biomass also plays a very important role in the
  production of SCP.
• Selection of biomass depends on the micro-organisms
  used for the production.
• For eg. Algae are cultivated on sewage whereas Yeast
  are cultured on agro-industrial wastes.
Algal Biomass
• Algae grows auto-
  tropically.
• Requires low intensity of
  light.
• Temperature – 35 - 40
  C & pH – 8. 5 -10.5
• Cultivated in large
  trenches of sewage
  oxidation ponds.
Bacterial & Fungal biomass
• Bacteria & fungi can
  be grown easily on a
  wide range of
  substrates.
• They require a
  minimum temperature
  of 15º-34ºc & a pH of
  5- 7.
Yeast biomass
• Cultivated on agro- industrial
  wastes such as molasses, starchy
  materials, fruit pulp, wood pulp, etc.
• Requires a temperature of 30 -34
  c & pH of 3.5- 4.5.
• Also requires addition of inorganic
  acids & sulphur supplements in the
  form of salts.
FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMASS PRODUCTION

•   Illumination time
•   Temperature
•   .pH
•   Suitable strains
•   Agitation
•   Sterile conditions
SCP PRODUCTION

• Selection of suitable
  strain
• Fermentation
• Harvesting
• Post harvest treatment
• SCP processing for food
Selection of strain
• It a very critical step as the quality of protein depends totally on the
  microbe that is used for the production.
• Thus careful selection of the strain should be done.
• Care should be taken that the selected strain should not produce any
  toxic or undesirable effects in the consumer.
Fermentation
• It can be carried out in the fermentor which is equipped with aerator,
  thermostat, pH, etc. or in the trenches or ponds.
• Microbes are cultured in fed- batch culture.
• Engineers have developed deep lift fermentor & air lift
  fermentor .
Harvesting
• When the colonies of microbes are fully
  developed, they are then harvested.
• The bulk of cells are removed from the
  fermentor by decantation.


Post harvest treatment
• After harvesting, the cells are subjected to
  a variety of processes.
• Post harvesting treatments includes steps
  like separation by centrifugation, washing,
  drying, etc.
PROCESSING FOR FOOD

It includes
1. Liberation of cell proteins by destruction of indigestible cell
     wall.
A. MECHANICAL METHODS
• Crushing, crumbling, grinding, pressure homogenization, etc.
B. CHEMICAL METHODS
• Enzymes & salts are used to digest or disrupt the cell wall.
• Salts like NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, etc. whereas nuclease
     enzymes are used.
C. PHYSICAL METHODS
• Freeze- thaw, osmotic shock, heating & drying.
2. Reduction of nucleic acid content
•   Chemical & enzymatic treatments are preferred.
•   Chemicals which are used includes acidified alcohol, salts, acids &
    alkalies.
•   Use of such chemicals leads to formation of lygino-alanine which causes
    hypersensitivity skin reactions.
•   Enzymes which are used include ribonuclease & nuclease enzymes .
•   These enzymes can be used exogenously or can be induced
    endogenously.
ADVANTAGES
•   Rapid successions of generations.
•   Easily modifiable genetically.
•   High protein content of 43-85% in dry mass.
•   Broad spectrum of original raw material used for production, which also
    includes waste products.
•   Production in continuous cultures
•   consistent quality not dependant on climate in determinable amount
•   low land requirements, economically beneficial.
•   Utilization of solar energy
•   Cellular, molecular and genetic alterations.
DISADVANTAGES
• High content of nucleic acids leading to elevated levels of uric
  acid.
• Development of kidney stone and gout if consumed in high
  quality.
• Possibility for the presence of secondary toxic metabolites.
• Poor digestibility
• Stimulation of gastro-intestinal
• Hypersensitivity skin reactions.
APPLICATIONS
1. As protein supplemented food-
• Also source of vitamins, amino acids,
    minerals, crude fibers, etc.
• Supplemented food for undernourished
    children.

2. As health food-
• Controls obesity
• Provides instant energy .
• Example- Spirulina- part of diet of US
     Olympic team.
3. In therapeutic and natural medicines-
• Reduce body weight, cholesterol,
  stress.
• Lowers blood sugar level in
  diabetic(due to presence of B -
  linolenic acid)
• Prevents accumulation of cholesterol
  in body.
• Healthy eyes and skin (beta carotene)
• Beta carotene ( anti cancer substance-
  UN National Cancer Research Institute)
• Increase lactation.
4. In cosmetics-
• Important role in maintaining
   healthy hair (vitamin A and B).
• Many herbal beauty products.
• Biolipstics and herbal face
   cream(Phycocyanin).
• Capable of replacing coal tar dye
   based cosmetics.

5. Poultry and cattle feed-
• Excellent, convenient source of
   protein and other nutrients.
• Used to feed cattle, fishes etc.
CONCLUSION
• At present SCP production is in its infancy. One of the
  ways to enhance productivity and quality is genetic
  improvements of micro-organisms.
• Using microbial biomass as a food source deserves
  serious consideration because of insufficient world
  food supply and high protein content of most micro-
  organisms.
REFERENCES
Books -
• Biotechnology- Dubey
• Basic Biotechnology- Colin & Ratledge
• Molecular biotechnology- Channarayappa
• Biotechnology- Satyanarayana.

Websites -
• Wikipedia .com
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganismsStrain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Microbiology
 
Organic acids production copy
Organic acids production   copyOrganic acids production   copy
Media for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentationMedia for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentation
NithyaNandapal
 
Ethanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentationEthanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentation
lokeswari selvavinayagam
 
Lactic acid production
Lactic acid productionLactic acid production
Lactic acid production
HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
Fermented milk products
Fermented milk products Fermented milk products
Fermented milk products
Ankita Patil
 
Media formulation
Media formulationMedia formulation
Media formulation
eswar1810
 
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
Isolation of industrial microorganismsIsolation of industrial microorganisms
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
NithyaNandapal
 
FERMENTATION TYPES .
FERMENTATION TYPES .FERMENTATION TYPES .
FERMENTATION TYPES .
Shylesh M
 
Microbial polysaccharides
Microbial polysaccharidesMicrobial polysaccharides
Industrial production of important amino acids
Industrial production of important amino acidsIndustrial production of important amino acids
Industrial production of important amino acids
Pranshu Chandra Bhushan Singh Negi
 
Ethanol production
Ethanol productionEthanol production
Ethanol production
VIDHIVASHISHT2
 
Ti plasmid
Ti plasmidTi plasmid
Ti plasmid
Arunima Sur
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Ti plasmid as a vector,
Ti plasmid as a vector, Ti plasmid as a vector,
Ti plasmid as a vector,
KAUSHAL SAHU
 
Application of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentationApplication of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentation
sivaprakashsiva
 
Downstream processing
Downstream processing Downstream processing
Downstream processing
Sailee Gurav
 
Production of protease and amylase
Production of protease and amylaseProduction of protease and amylase
Production of protease and amylase
Krishna Moorthy
 
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentationSolidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
Amna Jalil
 

What's hot (20)

Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganismsStrain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
 
Organic acids production copy
Organic acids production   copyOrganic acids production   copy
Organic acids production copy
 
Media for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentationMedia for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentation
 
Ethanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentationEthanol fermentation
Ethanol fermentation
 
Lactic acid production
Lactic acid productionLactic acid production
Lactic acid production
 
Fermented milk products
Fermented milk products Fermented milk products
Fermented milk products
 
Media formulation
Media formulationMedia formulation
Media formulation
 
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
Isolation of industrial microorganismsIsolation of industrial microorganisms
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
 
FERMENTATION TYPES .
FERMENTATION TYPES .FERMENTATION TYPES .
FERMENTATION TYPES .
 
Microbial polysaccharides
Microbial polysaccharidesMicrobial polysaccharides
Microbial polysaccharides
 
Industrial production of important amino acids
Industrial production of important amino acidsIndustrial production of important amino acids
Industrial production of important amino acids
 
Ethanol production
Ethanol productionEthanol production
Ethanol production
 
Ti plasmid
Ti plasmidTi plasmid
Ti plasmid
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Bioleaching
 
Ti plasmid as a vector,
Ti plasmid as a vector, Ti plasmid as a vector,
Ti plasmid as a vector,
 
Application of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentationApplication of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentation
 
Downstream processing
Downstream processing Downstream processing
Downstream processing
 
Production of protease and amylase
Production of protease and amylaseProduction of protease and amylase
Production of protease and amylase
 
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentationSolidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
 
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs)
 

Similar to Single cell protein

SINGLE CELL PROTEINS
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSSINGLE CELL PROTEINS
SINGLE CELL PROTEINS
HIMANSHU JAIN
 
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
Debojyoti Chakraborty
 
Single cell protein(scp)
Single cell protein(scp)Single cell protein(scp)
Single cell protein(scp)
AnuKiruthika
 
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
EhtishamShah7
 
single cell.pptx
single cell.pptxsingle cell.pptx
single cell.pptx
GetahunAlega
 
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
TANISHKA RAJESH KUMAR
 
Algal biotechnology Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
Algal biotechnology  Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...Algal biotechnology  Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
Algal biotechnology Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
pratik mahadwala
 
Fermentation.pptx
Fermentation.pptxFermentation.pptx
Fermentation.pptx
KRISHNAPRASAD389580
 
Presentation scp -1.pptx
Presentation scp -1.pptxPresentation scp -1.pptx
Presentation scp -1.pptx
vasuSingh24
 
5273239.ppt
5273239.ppt5273239.ppt
5273239.ppt
ArdiansyahPrayitno2
 
Fungal and yeast single cell protein
Fungal and yeast single cell proteinFungal and yeast single cell protein
Fungal and yeast single cell protein
Punjabi university
 
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
deepanshi0292
 
Industrial microbiology
Industrial microbiologyIndustrial microbiology
Industrial microbiology
Bahauddin Zakariya University lahore
 
Biopreservatives
BiopreservativesBiopreservatives
Biopreservatives
Punjabi university
 
Algae and bacteria scp
Algae and bacteria scpAlgae and bacteria scp
Algae and bacteria scp
Punjabi university
 
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein productionbioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
Shiv Kumar
 
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
अभिषेक शर्मा
 
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptxUnit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
SelestineSalema
 
Cell culture techniques_pdf.
Cell culture techniques_pdf.Cell culture techniques_pdf.
Cell culture techniques_pdf.
BADAL PRATAP SINGH
 
SCP.pptx
SCP.pptxSCP.pptx

Similar to Single cell protein (20)

SINGLE CELL PROTEINS
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSSINGLE CELL PROTEINS
SINGLE CELL PROTEINS
 
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
 
Single cell protein(scp)
Single cell protein(scp)Single cell protein(scp)
Single cell protein(scp)
 
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
8. Single Cell Protein-II.pptx
 
single cell.pptx
single cell.pptxsingle cell.pptx
single cell.pptx
 
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEINSINGLE CELL PROTEIN
SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
 
Algal biotechnology Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
Algal biotechnology  Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...Algal biotechnology  Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
Algal biotechnology Biotechnological approaches for production of important ...
 
Fermentation.pptx
Fermentation.pptxFermentation.pptx
Fermentation.pptx
 
Presentation scp -1.pptx
Presentation scp -1.pptxPresentation scp -1.pptx
Presentation scp -1.pptx
 
5273239.ppt
5273239.ppt5273239.ppt
5273239.ppt
 
Fungal and yeast single cell protein
Fungal and yeast single cell proteinFungal and yeast single cell protein
Fungal and yeast single cell protein
 
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
Single cell Protein(SCP), Introduction of SCP, Importance, types and Drawback...
 
Industrial microbiology
Industrial microbiologyIndustrial microbiology
Industrial microbiology
 
Biopreservatives
BiopreservativesBiopreservatives
Biopreservatives
 
Algae and bacteria scp
Algae and bacteria scpAlgae and bacteria scp
Algae and bacteria scp
 
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein productionbioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
bioprocess parameter of therapeutic protein production
 
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
Bacterial enzymes, industrial enzymes and production of enzymes by Abhishek S...
 
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptxUnit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
Unit1_dairymicrobiologypptx__2023_02_08_12_43_16.pptx
 
Cell culture techniques_pdf.
Cell culture techniques_pdf.Cell culture techniques_pdf.
Cell culture techniques_pdf.
 
SCP.pptx
SCP.pptxSCP.pptx
SCP.pptx
 

More from Firdous Ansari

Biotechnology: Process and Application
Biotechnology: Process and ApplicationBiotechnology: Process and Application
Biotechnology: Process and Application
Firdous Ansari
 
Heterologous proteins
Heterologous proteinsHeterologous proteins
Heterologous proteins
Firdous Ansari
 
Steroid receptor
Steroid receptorSteroid receptor
Steroid receptor
Firdous Ansari
 
Endocrine disorders
Endocrine disorders Endocrine disorders
Endocrine disorders
Firdous Ansari
 
Respiration
RespirationRespiration
Respiration
Firdous Ansari
 
Five kingdom classification
Five kingdom classificationFive kingdom classification
Five kingdom classification
Firdous Ansari
 
Diversity of organisms
Diversity of organismsDiversity of organisms
Diversity of organisms
Firdous Ansari
 

More from Firdous Ansari (7)

Biotechnology: Process and Application
Biotechnology: Process and ApplicationBiotechnology: Process and Application
Biotechnology: Process and Application
 
Heterologous proteins
Heterologous proteinsHeterologous proteins
Heterologous proteins
 
Steroid receptor
Steroid receptorSteroid receptor
Steroid receptor
 
Endocrine disorders
Endocrine disorders Endocrine disorders
Endocrine disorders
 
Respiration
RespirationRespiration
Respiration
 
Five kingdom classification
Five kingdom classificationFive kingdom classification
Five kingdom classification
 
Diversity of organisms
Diversity of organismsDiversity of organisms
Diversity of organisms
 

Recently uploaded

Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
ssuser13ffe4
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 MicroprocessorStack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
JomonJoseph58
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
S. Raj Kumar
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
deepaannamalai16
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
Mule event processing models | MuleSoft Mysore Meetup #47
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 
math operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all usedmath operations ued in python and all used
math operations ued in python and all used
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 MicroprocessorStack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
Stack Memory Organization of 8086 Microprocessor
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
HYPERTENSION - SLIDE SHARE PRESENTATION.
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
 

Single cell protein

  • 1.
  • 2. UNIT 4 Environmental Biotechnology 4.2. Biomass Utilization 4.2.4. Production of Single Cell Proteins by using Biomass as raw material.
  • 3. SYNOPSIS • Introduction • History • SCP production in India • Raw materials • SCP production • Advantages and Disadvantages • Applications • Conclusion • References
  • 4. Environmental Biotechnology may be referred as application of biotechnological techniques to solve the problems and issues of environment. Biomass as the name suggests consists of all organic matter that grows by photosynthetic conversion of solar energy. This biomass is available abundantly and is estimated to contain 3x 10²¹ joules of energy, some 10 times the yearly worldwide consumption. Utilization of Biomass would lead to- a. Help solve modern waste disposal problems. b. Decrease in environmental pollution. c. Help activate shortage of food and animal feed.
  • 5. WHAT ARE SINGLE CELL PROTEINS ? • SCP are dried cells of micro organisms which can be used as dietary protein supplement. • They are used as animal feed & can be used for human feed as protein supplement. • Also called ‘Novel Food’ & ‘Minifood’.
  • 6. HISTORY • Part of our diet since ancient times. • Earlier known as ‘Microbial Protein’. • Name was introduced by Prof. Scrimshow of MIT in 1967 • In 1950’s British Petroleum initiated production of SCP on commercial basis. • Pruteen was the 1st commercial SCP used as animal feed additive • Pruteen was produced from bacteria Methylophilus methylotrophus cultured on methanol & had 72 % protein content.
  • 7.
  • 8. SCP PRODUCTION IN INDIA • National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI). • Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI). • In CFTRI, SCP is produced from algae cultured on sewage.
  • 9. RAW MATERIALS • Production of SCP requires micro-organisms that serve as the protein source and the substrate that is biomass on which they grow. • There is a variety of both the sources that can be used for the production of SCP. • The biomass used can be plant biomass or organic biomass. • The micro-organisms used belong to the group of Algae, Fungi and Bacteria.
  • 10. MICRO ORGANISMS •Micro-organisms used are fungi , yeast, algae & bacteria. •The following table shows average different compositions of main groups of micro– organisms (% dry wt.) COMPOSITON FUNGI ALGAE YEAST BACTERIA PROTEIN 30- 40 % 40- 60 % 45- 55 % 50- 65 % FAT 9-14 % 8-10 % 5-10 % 3-7 % NUCLEIC ACID 7-10 % 3-8 % 6-12 % 8-12 %
  • 11. A list of the micro-organisms used for SCP production Fungi • Aspergillus fumigatus • Aspergillus niger • Rhizopus cyclopium Yeast • Saccharomyces cerevisae • Candida tropicalis • Candida utilis FUNGI YEAST Algae • Spirulina sps. • Chlorella pyrenoidosa • Chondrus crispus Bacteria • Pseudomonas fluroescens • Lactobacillus • Bacillus megaterium ALGAE BACTERIA
  • 12. COMPARISION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS ADVANTAGES DIS ADVANTAGES FUNGI Easy to grow & harvest Lower growth rates & lower protein content ALGAE Easy to grow & harvest & high Non –digestible cellulosic cell quality protein wall, concentrate heavy metals YEAST Larger in size, lower NA content Poor digestibility, low protein , familiarity & acceptability content, slow growth rate BACTERIA High protein content, digestible High NA content, small in cell wall size, low density
  • 13. Biomass • Biomass also plays a very important role in the production of SCP. • Selection of biomass depends on the micro-organisms used for the production. • For eg. Algae are cultivated on sewage whereas Yeast are cultured on agro-industrial wastes.
  • 14. Algal Biomass • Algae grows auto- tropically. • Requires low intensity of light. • Temperature – 35 - 40 C & pH – 8. 5 -10.5 • Cultivated in large trenches of sewage oxidation ponds.
  • 15. Bacterial & Fungal biomass • Bacteria & fungi can be grown easily on a wide range of substrates. • They require a minimum temperature of 15º-34ºc & a pH of 5- 7.
  • 16. Yeast biomass • Cultivated on agro- industrial wastes such as molasses, starchy materials, fruit pulp, wood pulp, etc. • Requires a temperature of 30 -34 c & pH of 3.5- 4.5. • Also requires addition of inorganic acids & sulphur supplements in the form of salts.
  • 17. FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMASS PRODUCTION • Illumination time • Temperature • .pH • Suitable strains • Agitation • Sterile conditions
  • 18. SCP PRODUCTION • Selection of suitable strain • Fermentation • Harvesting • Post harvest treatment • SCP processing for food
  • 19. Selection of strain • It a very critical step as the quality of protein depends totally on the microbe that is used for the production. • Thus careful selection of the strain should be done. • Care should be taken that the selected strain should not produce any toxic or undesirable effects in the consumer. Fermentation • It can be carried out in the fermentor which is equipped with aerator, thermostat, pH, etc. or in the trenches or ponds. • Microbes are cultured in fed- batch culture. • Engineers have developed deep lift fermentor & air lift fermentor .
  • 20.
  • 21. Harvesting • When the colonies of microbes are fully developed, they are then harvested. • The bulk of cells are removed from the fermentor by decantation. Post harvest treatment • After harvesting, the cells are subjected to a variety of processes. • Post harvesting treatments includes steps like separation by centrifugation, washing, drying, etc.
  • 22. PROCESSING FOR FOOD It includes 1. Liberation of cell proteins by destruction of indigestible cell wall. A. MECHANICAL METHODS • Crushing, crumbling, grinding, pressure homogenization, etc. B. CHEMICAL METHODS • Enzymes & salts are used to digest or disrupt the cell wall. • Salts like NaCl, sodium dodecyl sulfate, etc. whereas nuclease enzymes are used. C. PHYSICAL METHODS • Freeze- thaw, osmotic shock, heating & drying.
  • 23. 2. Reduction of nucleic acid content • Chemical & enzymatic treatments are preferred. • Chemicals which are used includes acidified alcohol, salts, acids & alkalies. • Use of such chemicals leads to formation of lygino-alanine which causes hypersensitivity skin reactions. • Enzymes which are used include ribonuclease & nuclease enzymes . • These enzymes can be used exogenously or can be induced endogenously.
  • 24. ADVANTAGES • Rapid successions of generations. • Easily modifiable genetically. • High protein content of 43-85% in dry mass. • Broad spectrum of original raw material used for production, which also includes waste products. • Production in continuous cultures • consistent quality not dependant on climate in determinable amount • low land requirements, economically beneficial. • Utilization of solar energy • Cellular, molecular and genetic alterations.
  • 25. DISADVANTAGES • High content of nucleic acids leading to elevated levels of uric acid. • Development of kidney stone and gout if consumed in high quality. • Possibility for the presence of secondary toxic metabolites. • Poor digestibility • Stimulation of gastro-intestinal • Hypersensitivity skin reactions.
  • 26. APPLICATIONS 1. As protein supplemented food- • Also source of vitamins, amino acids, minerals, crude fibers, etc. • Supplemented food for undernourished children. 2. As health food- • Controls obesity • Provides instant energy . • Example- Spirulina- part of diet of US Olympic team.
  • 27. 3. In therapeutic and natural medicines- • Reduce body weight, cholesterol, stress. • Lowers blood sugar level in diabetic(due to presence of B - linolenic acid) • Prevents accumulation of cholesterol in body. • Healthy eyes and skin (beta carotene) • Beta carotene ( anti cancer substance- UN National Cancer Research Institute) • Increase lactation.
  • 28. 4. In cosmetics- • Important role in maintaining healthy hair (vitamin A and B). • Many herbal beauty products. • Biolipstics and herbal face cream(Phycocyanin). • Capable of replacing coal tar dye based cosmetics. 5. Poultry and cattle feed- • Excellent, convenient source of protein and other nutrients. • Used to feed cattle, fishes etc.
  • 29. CONCLUSION • At present SCP production is in its infancy. One of the ways to enhance productivity and quality is genetic improvements of micro-organisms. • Using microbial biomass as a food source deserves serious consideration because of insufficient world food supply and high protein content of most micro- organisms.
  • 30. REFERENCES Books - • Biotechnology- Dubey • Basic Biotechnology- Colin & Ratledge • Molecular biotechnology- Channarayappa • Biotechnology- Satyanarayana. Websites - • Wikipedia .com