SlideShare a Scribd company logo
BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL MICROORGANISMS
R. NITHYA, M. Sc., M. Phil.,(Ph. D)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
SRI ADI CHUNCHNAGIRI WOMENS COLLEGE, CUMBUM, THENI DT,
TAMIL NADU, INDIA
What are industrial microorganisms?
Industrial microbiology includes the use
of microorganisms to manufacture food
or industrial products in large quantities.
Numerous microorganisms are used
within industrial microbiology; these include
naturally occurring organisms,
laboratory selected mutants, or even
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
Microorganisms and its uses
 Production of dairy products: Bacteria are the key players
here.
 Bread Baking: A species of Streptococcus is added to the
dough before making bread to bring about the
required fermentation.
 Alcoholic Drinks
 Organic acids
 Enzymes
 Steroid production
 Help in sewage treatment
 Used as insecticides
WHAT IS A CULTURE?
Population of microorganisms grown under well defined conditions.
WHAT IS MIXED CULTURE?
When a particular species of microbe is present in a very small
number in comparison to the total number of microorganisms , such
culture is called as mixed culture.
WHAT IS PURE CULTURE?
A culture containing only one species of microbe is called pure
culture.
SPECIES- a collection of bacterial cells which share an overall similar
pattern of traits in contrast to other bacteria whose pattern differs
significantly.
STRAIN- A strain is a subset of a bacterial species differing from
other bacteria of the same species by some minor but identifiable
difference.
Strain selection
Important characteristics for strain
• The selection of strains resistant to infection
• The selection of non-foaming strains
• The Selection of strains which are resistant to components
in the medium
• The selection of morphologically favourable strains
• The selection of strains which are tolerant of low oxygen
tension
• The elimination of undesirable Products from a production
strain
• The development of strains producing New fermentation
products
Choosing microorganisms for Industrial
microbiology and Biotechnology
The characteristics of microbes that are
desirable to the industrial microbiologist are:
genetic stability,
 easy maintenance and growth, and
amenability to procedures for extraction and
purification of desired product
Finding microorganisms in nature
 major sources of microorganisms for use in
industrial processes are soil, water, and
spoiled bread and fruits;
 only a minor portion of microbial species in
most environments have been identified
COMMON METHODS OF ISOLATION OF PURE CULTURE
• The process of screening a pure culture by
separating one type of microbes from a mixture is
called Isolation.
Some common isolation methods are;
Streak plate method
Pour plate method-
a) Loop dilution technique
b) Serial Dilution technique
Spread plate method
Micromanipulator method
Roll tube method
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
Streak plate method
 Prepare nutrient agar or any required medium and
poured into the petri plates.
 Allow the plates to solidify.
 Sterilize the inoculation loop using flaming technique.
 Transfer microbial mixture from a tube to the edge of
an agar plate with an inoculation loop as per
illustration.
 Incubate plates at 370C for 24hours.
Streak plate method
 TYPES
Different types of streaking techniques are available. They are T - streak,
Quadrant streak, simple streak, radiant streak and continuous streak. These
techniques are named based on the types of line of streak drawn on the
surface of the medium.
Pour plate method
To isolate and get pure culture of microorganisms
 Prepare nutrient agar and PDA potato Dextrose Agar medium (one plate needs approximately
15 - 20 ml) and sterilize at 1210 C for 15 minutes.
 Dilute the sample up to 1: 10000000 (10-7) using diluents.
 Add 1 ml of samples from 1:1000 (10-3).
 Pour the medium into sample added petriplates.
 Rotate the petriplates clockwise and anticlockwise direction.
 Allow the plates to solidify.
 Similarly perform pour plating for other dilutions like 10-4, 10-5 and 10-6.
 Incubate all nutrient agar plates at 370C for 24 hours and PDA plates at 25 – 300C for 48 hours
and record the results.
Pour plate method
Spread plate method
The method is performed for the assay of chemicals
like antibiotics, vitamins etc.
This method is called spread because L rod or cotton
swab is used to spread the sample.
This techniques also used for the isolation and
enumeration of microorganisms from samples with lower
populations of bacteria and other microorganisms.
Spread plate method
 Prepare nutrient agar medium, sterilize at 1210 C and pour in to the petri plates.
 Dilute the sample up to 1:100000 (10-5).
 Add 1 ml of sample from 10-3 on to the centre of an agar medium using sterile pipette.
 Perform similar procedure for 10-4 and 10-5 dilutions.
 Dip the glass spreader (L- rod) in to a beaker of ethanol/spirit.
 Briefly flame ethanol soaked spreader on Bunsen burner and allowed it to cool.
 Spread the sample evenly over the agar surface.
 Incubate all the plates at appropriate temperature (for bacteria 370C and for fungus 25 – 300 C)
for 24 to 48 hours.
SERIAL DILUTION
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
MICROMANIPULATOR METHOD
 Micromanipulators
 • Micromanipulators have been built, which permit one to pick out
 a single cell from a mixed culture. This instrument is used in
 conjunction with a microscope to pick a single cell (particularly
 bacterial cell) from a hanging drop preparation.
ADVANTAGES OF MICROMANIPULATOR METHOD
 • The advantages of this method are that one can be reasonably
 sure that the cultures come from a single cell and one can obtain
 strains with in the species.
DISADVANTAGES
 • Disadvantages are that the equipment is expensive,
 • Its manipulation is very tedious, and it requires a skilled operator
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
ROLL TUBE METHOD
 Prepare ten-fold dilution and add 0.1 ml
of diluted culture to molten agar cooled to
500C poured in test tube.
 Now tilt the tube and roll so that
medium is formed as a thin film
around the wall of tube.
 Incubate and count the no of colonies
on next day.
Enrichment methods for isolation of microorganisms
Enrichment methods are useful for quick isolation of specific types of
organisms.
Types of organisms Enrichment method
Thermophiles High temp (42-1000C)
Psychrotrophs low temp (5-150C)
Acidophiles Low pH (2-4)
Halophiles High NaCl concentration
Anaerobes N2 atmosphere
Actinoplanes Pollen grains
Myxobacteria Wood bark
Strains of microorganisms from unusual environments
The unusual environments such as cold habitats, high altitudes, deserts, deep
sea and petroleum fields are constantly being tried for this purpose.
Such strains may be capable of producing new products of industrial
importance
Screening of metabolites for isolation of microorganisms
The microorganisms can be tested directly for the product
formation, and isolated.
For example – if the product is an antibiotic, then the test system
consists of the strains of organisms which inhibit zones, on the
agar plates.
Another example is the isolation of microorganisms producing
amylases. When grown on agar plates containing starch, and
then stained with iodine, amylase producing organisms can be
identified and isolated.
Screening of microbes
 Although there are many screening techniques, all of
them are generally grouped into two broad categories.
 They are:
 1. Primary screening, and
 2. Secondary screening.
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
Primary Screening of Microorganisms:
Primary screening may be defined as detection and isolation of the
desired microorganism based on its qualitative ability to produce the desired
product like antibiotic or amino acid or an enzyme etc.
The following are some of the important primary screening techniques:
Indicator dye technique
The crowded plate technique
Enrichment culture technique
Auxanographic technique
PRIMARY SCREENING OF ORGANIC ACID PRODUCING
MICROORGANISMS
 The ph indicating dyes may be used for detecting microorganism that are
capable of producing organic acids.
 These dyes undergo colour changes according to its ph.
 Dyes such as Neutral red, Bromothymol blue are added to
the poorly buffered nutrient agar media .
 Colonies are sub cultured to make stock culture.
 Further testing is needed since inorganic acids, bases are
also metabolic products of microbial growth
 Incorporation of CaCO3 in medium is also used to screen
 organic acid producing microbes on basis of formation of clear zone of
dissolved CaCO3 around the colony.
PRIMARY SCREENING OF ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS
 Crowded plate technique is used for screening of antibiotic
producing microorganisms.
 Does not give information about the sensitivity of antibiotics
towards other microorganisms.
 Dilutions are made and then pouring and spreading of soil
samples that give 300 to 400 or more colonies per plate.
 Colonies showing antibiotic activity are indicated by zone of
inhibition around the colony .
 Such colonies are sub cultured and purified by streak before
making stock cultures.
Isolation of industrial microorganisms
Antibiotic producing Amylase producing
microbe microbes
Antibiotic activity against microbe
AUXANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE
This technique is largely employed for detecting microorganisms
are able to produce growth factors (e.g. Amino acid and vitamins) extracellular.
ENRICHMENT CULTURE TECHNIQUE
This technique was used to isolate the desired microorganisms form
a heterogeneous microbial population present in the sample.
Either medium or incubation conditions are adjusted so as to favor
the growth of the desired microorganism.
SECONDARY SCREENING
 It’s a systematic screening programme intended to isolate industrially important or
useful microorganisms .
SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY SCREENING ARE
 It is useful in sorting of microorganisms that have real commercial value. The
microorganisms having poor applicability in fermentation process are discarded.
 Provides the information whether the product formed by microorganisms is new or
not.
 This may be accomplished by paper , thin layer, chromatographic technique.
Screening for new metabolites, and isolation of microorganisms
Research work is particularly directed for identifying
chemotherapeutically important products for the
treatment of tumors,
bacterial diseases (newer antibiotics against resistant
strains) and
viral diseases,
besides several other substances (e.g. hormones, enzyme
inhibitors).
In addition, isolation of microorganisms for improvement of
food industry, and for efficient degradation of the environmental
pollutants and hazardous chemicals also assumes significance.
An isolated producer strain should possess the following
characters:
 1. It should be able to grow on relatively cheaper substrates.
 2. It should grow well in an ambient temperature preferably at 30-40°C. This
reduces the cooling costs.
 3. It should yield high quantity of the end product.
 4. It should possess minimum reaction time with the equipment used in a
fermentation process.
 5. It should possess stable biochemical characteristics.
 6. It should yield only the desired substance without producing undesirable
substances.
 7. It should possess optimum growth rate so that it can be easily cultivated on a large
scale.
Microbes in Industrial Products
 Beverages.
Yeasts are the widely used microorganism for the production of beverages
like beer, brandy, rum, wine, whiskey, etc.
 Organic acids.
Microbes are also used for the industrial production of certain organic acids.
 Enzymes.
 Antibiotic.
 Vitamins.
A List of important microorganisms and their products
Microorganism Product
Algae
Chlorella sorokiniana Single cell protein
Spirulina maxima Single cell protein
Bacteria
Acetobacter aceti Acetic acid
Bacillus subtilis Bacitracin
Actinomycetes
Streptomyces aureofaciens Tetracycline
Fungi
Aspergillus niger Citric acid
Isolation of industrial microorganisms

More Related Content

What's hot

Tower Fermernter
Tower FermernterTower Fermernter
Tower Fermernter
Dinesh S
 
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptxINDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
A.ANBU ABUBAKKAR SIDIK
 
Media for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentationMedia for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentation
NithyaNandapal
 
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes   Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
DhruviSuvagiya
 
Primary screening
Primary screeningPrimary screening
Primary screening
Renu Jaisinghani
 
Design and preparation of media for fermentation
Design and preparation of media for fermentationDesign and preparation of media for fermentation
Design and preparation of media for fermentation
SrilaxmiMenon
 
Downstream processing
Downstream processing Downstream processing
Downstream processing
Sailee Gurav
 
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptxFED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
akshyhari
 
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganismsStrain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Microbiology
 
strain improvement techniques
strain improvement techniquesstrain improvement techniques
strain improvement techniques
jeeva raj
 
Industrial Microorganisms
Industrial MicroorganismsIndustrial Microorganisms
Industrial Microorganisms
M Rakibul Islam
 
Inocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processesInocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processes
RipuDas
 
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineeringSteroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
Ritasree Sarma
 
Methanogenesis
MethanogenesisMethanogenesis
Methanogenesis
Surender Rawat
 
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPESFERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
AYESHA KABEER
 
MEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATIONMEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATION
sachinhalladamani
 
Upstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream processUpstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream process
Dr NEETHU ASOKAN
 
Types of Bioreactors / Fermenters
Types of Bioreactors / FermentersTypes of Bioreactors / Fermenters
Types of Bioreactors / Fermenters
ajithnandanam
 
Scp
ScpScp
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentationSolidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 

What's hot (20)

Tower Fermernter
Tower FermernterTower Fermernter
Tower Fermernter
 
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptxINDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
INDUSTRIAL IMPORTANT MICROBES .pptx
 
Media for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentationMedia for industrial fermentation
Media for industrial fermentation
 
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes   Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
 
Primary screening
Primary screeningPrimary screening
Primary screening
 
Design and preparation of media for fermentation
Design and preparation of media for fermentationDesign and preparation of media for fermentation
Design and preparation of media for fermentation
 
Downstream processing
Downstream processing Downstream processing
Downstream processing
 
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptxFED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
FED BATCH CULTURE-2.pptx
 
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganismsStrain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
Strain development techniques of industrially important microorganisms
 
strain improvement techniques
strain improvement techniquesstrain improvement techniques
strain improvement techniques
 
Industrial Microorganisms
Industrial MicroorganismsIndustrial Microorganisms
Industrial Microorganisms
 
Inocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processesInocula development for yeast processes
Inocula development for yeast processes
 
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineeringSteroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
Steroid transformation, bioreactor and bioprocess engineering
 
Methanogenesis
MethanogenesisMethanogenesis
Methanogenesis
 
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPESFERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
FERMENTERS( BIOREACTORS) AND THEIR TYPES
 
MEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATIONMEDIA FORMULATION
MEDIA FORMULATION
 
Upstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream processUpstream and down stream process
Upstream and down stream process
 
Types of Bioreactors / Fermenters
Types of Bioreactors / FermentersTypes of Bioreactors / Fermenters
Types of Bioreactors / Fermenters
 
Scp
ScpScp
Scp
 
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentationSolidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
Solidstate fermentation and submerge fermentation
 

Similar to Isolation of industrial microorganisms

screening
screening screening
screening
NikitaMalik32
 
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strainEnvironmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
MiracleLivinus1
 
Screening
ScreeningScreening
Screening
Muskan Bhardwaj
 
Upstream processing
Upstream processingUpstream processing
Production of enzymes
Production of enzymesProduction of enzymes
Production of enzymes
ANONYMOUS
 
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptxEnzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
ANONYMOUS
 
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptxMicrobial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
HariniRaja4
 
Screening of industrial important organsm
Screening of industrial important organsmScreening of industrial important organsm
Screening of industrial important organsm
DhruviSuvagiya
 
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter designScreeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
SayantikaDas12
 
Screening
ScreeningScreening
Types of processing.pptx
Types of processing.pptxTypes of processing.pptx
Types of processing.pptx
PGMBslides
 
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptxPURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
VishekKumar8
 
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFGStrain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
alizain9604
 
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbeslab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
mohsinali52313
 
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
Leon Ittiachen
 
Bioburden
Bioburden  Bioburden
Bioburden
vedshree raole
 
Plant Tissue Culture
Plant Tissue Culture Plant Tissue Culture
Plant Tissue Culture
Ravindra Kumar Kachhap Oraon
 
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
Amjad Afridi
 
microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
 microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization. microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
Amjad Afridi
 
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhvcitrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
shashankshashank3736
 

Similar to Isolation of industrial microorganisms (20)

screening
screening screening
screening
 
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strainEnvironmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
Environmental Microbiology - Screening of Producer strain
 
Screening
ScreeningScreening
Screening
 
Upstream processing
Upstream processingUpstream processing
Upstream processing
 
Production of enzymes
Production of enzymesProduction of enzymes
Production of enzymes
 
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptxEnzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
Enzymes-bacterial,industrial, production.pptx
 
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptxMicrobial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
Microbial biotechnology unit 1 [B.Sc Biotechnology].pptx
 
Screening of industrial important organsm
Screening of industrial important organsmScreening of industrial important organsm
Screening of industrial important organsm
 
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter designScreeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
Screeneing of industrially important organisms and fermenter design
 
Screening
ScreeningScreening
Screening
 
Types of processing.pptx
Types of processing.pptxTypes of processing.pptx
Types of processing.pptx
 
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptxPURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
PURE CULTURE TECHNIQUE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION PROCESS .pptx
 
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFGStrain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
Strain Improvement.pptx QWERTUIOPDFGJSDFG
 
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbeslab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
lab techniques in microbiology to study the microbes
 
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
2019 bt 204 module 1(part d)
 
Bioburden
Bioburden  Bioburden
Bioburden
 
Plant Tissue Culture
Plant Tissue Culture Plant Tissue Culture
Plant Tissue Culture
 
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
General methods of studying microorganisms cultivation, isolation, purificati...
 
microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
 microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization. microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
microorganisms cultivation, isolation,purification and characterization.
 
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhvcitrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
citrus.pptx ent jvjvguzugfuffugcgchcyfhvhv
 

More from NithyaNandapal

Colorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
Colorimeter - Instrumentation and ApplicationsColorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
Colorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
NithyaNandapal
 
MEIOSIS.pptx
MEIOSIS.pptxMEIOSIS.pptx
MEIOSIS.pptx
NithyaNandapal
 
CELL WALL.pptx
CELL WALL.pptxCELL WALL.pptx
CELL WALL.pptx
NithyaNandapal
 
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptxSTRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
NithyaNandapal
 
Structure of algae.pptx
Structure of algae.pptxStructure of algae.pptx
Structure of algae.pptx
NithyaNandapal
 
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptxHISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
NithyaNandapal
 
Preservation of microbes
Preservation of microbesPreservation of microbes
Preservation of microbes
NithyaNandapal
 
Bioreactor
Bioreactor Bioreactor
Bioreactor
NithyaNandapal
 
Structure of viruses
Structure of virusesStructure of viruses
Structure of viruses
NithyaNandapal
 
Phase contrast microscope
Phase contrast microscopePhase contrast microscope
Phase contrast microscope
NithyaNandapal
 
Compound microscope
Compound microscopeCompound microscope
Compound microscope
NithyaNandapal
 
Classification of microorganisms
Classification of microorganismsClassification of microorganisms
Classification of microorganisms
NithyaNandapal
 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganismsProkaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
NithyaNandapal
 
Gramineae
GramineaeGramineae
Gramineae
NithyaNandapal
 
Absorption of water
Absorption of waterAbsorption of water
Absorption of water
NithyaNandapal
 
Taxonomy classification
Taxonomy classificationTaxonomy classification
Taxonomy classification
NithyaNandapal
 
Inflorescence
InflorescenceInflorescence
Inflorescence
NithyaNandapal
 
Fruits
FruitsFruits
Floral parts
Floral partsFloral parts
Floral parts
NithyaNandapal
 
Gynoecium
GynoeciumGynoecium
Gynoecium
NithyaNandapal
 

More from NithyaNandapal (20)

Colorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
Colorimeter - Instrumentation and ApplicationsColorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
Colorimeter - Instrumentation and Applications
 
MEIOSIS.pptx
MEIOSIS.pptxMEIOSIS.pptx
MEIOSIS.pptx
 
CELL WALL.pptx
CELL WALL.pptxCELL WALL.pptx
CELL WALL.pptx
 
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptxSTRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
STRUCTURE OF FUNGI.pptx
 
Structure of algae.pptx
Structure of algae.pptxStructure of algae.pptx
Structure of algae.pptx
 
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptxHISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
HISTORY OF MICROBIOLOGY.pptx
 
Preservation of microbes
Preservation of microbesPreservation of microbes
Preservation of microbes
 
Bioreactor
Bioreactor Bioreactor
Bioreactor
 
Structure of viruses
Structure of virusesStructure of viruses
Structure of viruses
 
Phase contrast microscope
Phase contrast microscopePhase contrast microscope
Phase contrast microscope
 
Compound microscope
Compound microscopeCompound microscope
Compound microscope
 
Classification of microorganisms
Classification of microorganismsClassification of microorganisms
Classification of microorganisms
 
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganismsProkaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms
 
Gramineae
GramineaeGramineae
Gramineae
 
Absorption of water
Absorption of waterAbsorption of water
Absorption of water
 
Taxonomy classification
Taxonomy classificationTaxonomy classification
Taxonomy classification
 
Inflorescence
InflorescenceInflorescence
Inflorescence
 
Fruits
FruitsFruits
Fruits
 
Floral parts
Floral partsFloral parts
Floral parts
 
Gynoecium
GynoeciumGynoecium
Gynoecium
 

Recently uploaded

How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
Celine George
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
thanhluan21
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
Niranjan Bapat
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
KlettWorldLanguages
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
Scholarhat
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
monicaaringo1
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 DashboardYear-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Celine George
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
JackieSparrow3
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
DrRavindrakshirsagar1
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
Murugan Solaiyappan
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
Celine George
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
NurFitriah45
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
SarahAlie1
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
AnneMarieJacildo
 

Recently uploaded (20)

How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
How to Manage Shipping Connectors & Shipping Methods in Odoo 17
 
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 WebsiteHow to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
How to Create & Publish a Blog in Odoo 17 Website
 
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
Lecture_Notes_Unit4_Chapter_8_9_10_RDBMS for the students affiliated by alaga...
 
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
DANH SÁCH THÍ SINH XÉT TUYỂN SỚM ĐỦ ĐIỀU KIỆN TRÚNG TUYỂN ĐẠI HỌC CHÍNH QUY N...
 
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan BapatH. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
H. A. Roberts: VITAL FORCE - Dr. Niranjan Bapat
 
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 SlidesHow to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
How to Add a Filter in the Odoo 17 - Odoo 17 Slides
 
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
2024 KWL Back 2 School Summer Conference
 
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
How To Create a Transient Model in Odoo 17
 
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdfC Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
C Interview Questions PDF By Scholarhat.pdf
 
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docxIndividual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
Individual Performance Commitment Review Form-Developmental Plan.docx
 
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
How to Empty a One2Many Field in Odoo 17
 
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 DashboardYear-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
Year-to-Date Filter in Odoo 17 Dashboard
 
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdfThe Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
The Jewish Trinity : Sabbath,Shekinah and Sanctuary 4.pdf
 
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.Vformative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
formative Evaluation By Dr.Kshirsagar R.V
 
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequenceSEQUNCES  Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
SEQUNCES Lecture_Notes_Unit4_chapter11_sequence
 
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 SlidesNew Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
New Features in Odoo 17 Sign - Odoo 17 Slides
 
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
Configuring Single Sign-On (SSO) via Identity Management | MuleSoft Mysore Me...
 
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
modul ajar kelas x bahasa inggris 2024-2025
 
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergartenmatatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
matatag curriculum education for Kindergarten
 
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
1-NLC-MATH7-Consolidation-Lesson1 2024.pptx
 

Isolation of industrial microorganisms

  • 1. BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL MICROORGANISMS R. NITHYA, M. Sc., M. Phil.,(Ph. D) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY SRI ADI CHUNCHNAGIRI WOMENS COLLEGE, CUMBUM, THENI DT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA
  • 2. What are industrial microorganisms? Industrial microbiology includes the use of microorganisms to manufacture food or industrial products in large quantities. Numerous microorganisms are used within industrial microbiology; these include naturally occurring organisms, laboratory selected mutants, or even genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
  • 3. Microorganisms and its uses  Production of dairy products: Bacteria are the key players here.  Bread Baking: A species of Streptococcus is added to the dough before making bread to bring about the required fermentation.  Alcoholic Drinks  Organic acids  Enzymes  Steroid production  Help in sewage treatment  Used as insecticides
  • 4. WHAT IS A CULTURE? Population of microorganisms grown under well defined conditions. WHAT IS MIXED CULTURE? When a particular species of microbe is present in a very small number in comparison to the total number of microorganisms , such culture is called as mixed culture. WHAT IS PURE CULTURE? A culture containing only one species of microbe is called pure culture. SPECIES- a collection of bacterial cells which share an overall similar pattern of traits in contrast to other bacteria whose pattern differs significantly. STRAIN- A strain is a subset of a bacterial species differing from other bacteria of the same species by some minor but identifiable difference.
  • 5. Strain selection Important characteristics for strain • The selection of strains resistant to infection • The selection of non-foaming strains • The Selection of strains which are resistant to components in the medium • The selection of morphologically favourable strains • The selection of strains which are tolerant of low oxygen tension • The elimination of undesirable Products from a production strain • The development of strains producing New fermentation products
  • 6. Choosing microorganisms for Industrial microbiology and Biotechnology The characteristics of microbes that are desirable to the industrial microbiologist are: genetic stability,  easy maintenance and growth, and amenability to procedures for extraction and purification of desired product
  • 7. Finding microorganisms in nature  major sources of microorganisms for use in industrial processes are soil, water, and spoiled bread and fruits;  only a minor portion of microbial species in most environments have been identified
  • 8. COMMON METHODS OF ISOLATION OF PURE CULTURE • The process of screening a pure culture by separating one type of microbes from a mixture is called Isolation. Some common isolation methods are; Streak plate method Pour plate method- a) Loop dilution technique b) Serial Dilution technique Spread plate method Micromanipulator method Roll tube method
  • 10. Streak plate method  Prepare nutrient agar or any required medium and poured into the petri plates.  Allow the plates to solidify.  Sterilize the inoculation loop using flaming technique.  Transfer microbial mixture from a tube to the edge of an agar plate with an inoculation loop as per illustration.  Incubate plates at 370C for 24hours.
  • 12.  TYPES Different types of streaking techniques are available. They are T - streak, Quadrant streak, simple streak, radiant streak and continuous streak. These techniques are named based on the types of line of streak drawn on the surface of the medium.
  • 13. Pour plate method To isolate and get pure culture of microorganisms  Prepare nutrient agar and PDA potato Dextrose Agar medium (one plate needs approximately 15 - 20 ml) and sterilize at 1210 C for 15 minutes.  Dilute the sample up to 1: 10000000 (10-7) using diluents.  Add 1 ml of samples from 1:1000 (10-3).  Pour the medium into sample added petriplates.  Rotate the petriplates clockwise and anticlockwise direction.  Allow the plates to solidify.  Similarly perform pour plating for other dilutions like 10-4, 10-5 and 10-6.  Incubate all nutrient agar plates at 370C for 24 hours and PDA plates at 25 – 300C for 48 hours and record the results.
  • 15. Spread plate method The method is performed for the assay of chemicals like antibiotics, vitamins etc. This method is called spread because L rod or cotton swab is used to spread the sample. This techniques also used for the isolation and enumeration of microorganisms from samples with lower populations of bacteria and other microorganisms.
  • 16. Spread plate method  Prepare nutrient agar medium, sterilize at 1210 C and pour in to the petri plates.  Dilute the sample up to 1:100000 (10-5).  Add 1 ml of sample from 10-3 on to the centre of an agar medium using sterile pipette.  Perform similar procedure for 10-4 and 10-5 dilutions.  Dip the glass spreader (L- rod) in to a beaker of ethanol/spirit.  Briefly flame ethanol soaked spreader on Bunsen burner and allowed it to cool.  Spread the sample evenly over the agar surface.  Incubate all the plates at appropriate temperature (for bacteria 370C and for fungus 25 – 300 C) for 24 to 48 hours.
  • 19. MICROMANIPULATOR METHOD  Micromanipulators  • Micromanipulators have been built, which permit one to pick out  a single cell from a mixed culture. This instrument is used in  conjunction with a microscope to pick a single cell (particularly  bacterial cell) from a hanging drop preparation. ADVANTAGES OF MICROMANIPULATOR METHOD  • The advantages of this method are that one can be reasonably  sure that the cultures come from a single cell and one can obtain  strains with in the species. DISADVANTAGES  • Disadvantages are that the equipment is expensive,  • Its manipulation is very tedious, and it requires a skilled operator
  • 21. ROLL TUBE METHOD  Prepare ten-fold dilution and add 0.1 ml of diluted culture to molten agar cooled to 500C poured in test tube.  Now tilt the tube and roll so that medium is formed as a thin film around the wall of tube.  Incubate and count the no of colonies on next day.
  • 22. Enrichment methods for isolation of microorganisms Enrichment methods are useful for quick isolation of specific types of organisms. Types of organisms Enrichment method Thermophiles High temp (42-1000C) Psychrotrophs low temp (5-150C) Acidophiles Low pH (2-4) Halophiles High NaCl concentration Anaerobes N2 atmosphere Actinoplanes Pollen grains Myxobacteria Wood bark
  • 23. Strains of microorganisms from unusual environments The unusual environments such as cold habitats, high altitudes, deserts, deep sea and petroleum fields are constantly being tried for this purpose. Such strains may be capable of producing new products of industrial importance
  • 24. Screening of metabolites for isolation of microorganisms The microorganisms can be tested directly for the product formation, and isolated. For example – if the product is an antibiotic, then the test system consists of the strains of organisms which inhibit zones, on the agar plates. Another example is the isolation of microorganisms producing amylases. When grown on agar plates containing starch, and then stained with iodine, amylase producing organisms can be identified and isolated.
  • 25. Screening of microbes  Although there are many screening techniques, all of them are generally grouped into two broad categories.  They are:  1. Primary screening, and  2. Secondary screening.
  • 27. Primary Screening of Microorganisms: Primary screening may be defined as detection and isolation of the desired microorganism based on its qualitative ability to produce the desired product like antibiotic or amino acid or an enzyme etc. The following are some of the important primary screening techniques: Indicator dye technique The crowded plate technique Enrichment culture technique Auxanographic technique
  • 28. PRIMARY SCREENING OF ORGANIC ACID PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS  The ph indicating dyes may be used for detecting microorganism that are capable of producing organic acids.  These dyes undergo colour changes according to its ph.  Dyes such as Neutral red, Bromothymol blue are added to the poorly buffered nutrient agar media .  Colonies are sub cultured to make stock culture.  Further testing is needed since inorganic acids, bases are also metabolic products of microbial growth
  • 29.  Incorporation of CaCO3 in medium is also used to screen  organic acid producing microbes on basis of formation of clear zone of dissolved CaCO3 around the colony.
  • 30. PRIMARY SCREENING OF ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING MICROORGANISMS  Crowded plate technique is used for screening of antibiotic producing microorganisms.  Does not give information about the sensitivity of antibiotics towards other microorganisms.  Dilutions are made and then pouring and spreading of soil samples that give 300 to 400 or more colonies per plate.  Colonies showing antibiotic activity are indicated by zone of inhibition around the colony .  Such colonies are sub cultured and purified by streak before making stock cultures.
  • 32. Antibiotic producing Amylase producing microbe microbes
  • 34. AUXANOGRAPHY TECHNIQUE This technique is largely employed for detecting microorganisms are able to produce growth factors (e.g. Amino acid and vitamins) extracellular. ENRICHMENT CULTURE TECHNIQUE This technique was used to isolate the desired microorganisms form a heterogeneous microbial population present in the sample. Either medium or incubation conditions are adjusted so as to favor the growth of the desired microorganism.
  • 35. SECONDARY SCREENING  It’s a systematic screening programme intended to isolate industrially important or useful microorganisms . SOME IMPORTANT POINTS ASSOCIATED WITH SECONDARY SCREENING ARE  It is useful in sorting of microorganisms that have real commercial value. The microorganisms having poor applicability in fermentation process are discarded.  Provides the information whether the product formed by microorganisms is new or not.  This may be accomplished by paper , thin layer, chromatographic technique.
  • 36. Screening for new metabolites, and isolation of microorganisms Research work is particularly directed for identifying chemotherapeutically important products for the treatment of tumors, bacterial diseases (newer antibiotics against resistant strains) and viral diseases, besides several other substances (e.g. hormones, enzyme inhibitors). In addition, isolation of microorganisms for improvement of food industry, and for efficient degradation of the environmental pollutants and hazardous chemicals also assumes significance.
  • 37. An isolated producer strain should possess the following characters:  1. It should be able to grow on relatively cheaper substrates.  2. It should grow well in an ambient temperature preferably at 30-40°C. This reduces the cooling costs.  3. It should yield high quantity of the end product.  4. It should possess minimum reaction time with the equipment used in a fermentation process.  5. It should possess stable biochemical characteristics.  6. It should yield only the desired substance without producing undesirable substances.  7. It should possess optimum growth rate so that it can be easily cultivated on a large scale.
  • 38. Microbes in Industrial Products  Beverages. Yeasts are the widely used microorganism for the production of beverages like beer, brandy, rum, wine, whiskey, etc.  Organic acids. Microbes are also used for the industrial production of certain organic acids.  Enzymes.  Antibiotic.  Vitamins.
  • 39. A List of important microorganisms and their products Microorganism Product Algae Chlorella sorokiniana Single cell protein Spirulina maxima Single cell protein Bacteria Acetobacter aceti Acetic acid Bacillus subtilis Bacitracin Actinomycetes Streptomyces aureofaciens Tetracycline Fungi Aspergillus niger Citric acid