SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Seven Types ofSeven Types of
MeaningMeaning
A presentation on SemanticsA presentation on Semantics
miftadia_laula@yahoo.co.i
d
A piece of language conveys its dictionary
meaning, connotations beyond the
dictionary meaning, information about the
social context of language use, speaker’s
feelings and attitudes rubbing off of one
meaning on the another meaning of the
same word when it has two meanings and
meaning because of habit occurrence.
Geoffrey Leech in his ‘Semantic- A
Study of meaning’ (1974) breaks down
meaning into seven types or ingredients
giving primacy to conceptual meaning.
HYMES’s SPEAKINGHYMES’s SPEAKING
 In Sociolinguistics, seven types of meaning are in line with
Hymes’s theory of SPEAKING.
 Situation – style; talk about formal or informal style.
 Participant – who is the speaker.
 End – goal is the denotative meaning.
 Act – speech act; the implicature; the ordering/commanding
whether you are giving information, promising, or any other
expressions; something that is implied by the speech
 Key – emotion/the mood of the speaker
 Instrument – the thing we use to send the message
 Norm
 Genre – the same with style.
1.1. Conceptual or DenotativeConceptual or Denotative
MeaningMeaning
Conceptual meaning is also called logical or
cognitive meaning. It is the basic propositional
meaning which corresponds to the primary
dictionary definition.
It is the essential or core meaning.
E.g.
/P/ can be described as- voiceless + bilabial +
plosive.
Similarly
Boy = + human + male -adult.
The hierarchical structure of ‘Boy’ = + Human +
Male -Adult
It is the literal meaning of the word
indicating the idea or concept to which it
refers. The concept is minimal unit of
meaning which could be called ‘sememe’.
As we define phoneme on the basis of
binary contrast, similarly we can define
sememe ‘Woman’ as = + human +
female + adult.
Conceptual meaning deals with the core
meaning of expression. It is the denotative
or literal meaning. It is essential for the
functioning of language. For example, a part
of the conceptual meaning of ‘Needle”
may be “thin”, “sharp” or
“instrument”.
The aim of conceptual meaning is to
provide an appropriate semantic
representation to a sentence or statement.
The conceptual meaning is the base for all
the other types of meaning.
2.2. Connotative MeaningConnotative Meaning
Connotative meaning is the communicative value of
an expression over and above its purely conceptual
content. It is something that goes beyond mere
referent of a word and hints at its attributes in the
real world.
Thus purely conceptual content of ‘woman’ is
+human + female+ adult but the psychosocial
connotations could be ‘gregarious’, ‘having
maternal instinct’ or typical (rather than
invariable) attributes of womanhood such as
‘babbling’,’ experienced in cookery’, ‘skirt or
dress wearing ‘etc.
Connotations vary age to age and society to
society.
E.g. Old age ‘Woman’ - ‘Non-trouser
wearing or sari wearing’ in Indian context must
have seemed definite connotation in the past.
Present ‘Woman’---- Salwar/T-shirt/Jeans
wearing.
The boundary between conceptual and connotative
seems to be analogous.
Connotative meaning is regarded as incidental,
comparatively unstable, in determinant, open
ended, variable according to age, culture and
individual, whereas conceptual meaning is not like
that . It can be codified in terms of limited symbols.
3.3. Social MeaningSocial Meaning
The meaning conveyed by the piece of
language about the social context of its use is
called the social meaning.
The decoding of a text is dependent on our
knowledge of stylistics and other variations of
language.
We recognize some words or pronunciation
as being dialectical i.e. as telling us something
about the regional or social origin of the
speaker.
Social meaning is related to the situation in
which an utterance is used.
E.g. “I ain’t done nothing”
The line tells us about the speaker and that
is the speaker is probably a black American,
underprivileged and uneducated.
“Come on yaar, be a sport. Don’t be
Lallu”
The social meaning can be that of Indian
young close friends.
Stylistic variation represents the social
variation. This is because styles show the
geographical region social class of the speaker.
Style helps us to know about the period, field
and status of the discourse.
For example, ‘steed ’, ‘horse and ‘nag’ are
synonymous. They all mean a kind of animal
i.e. Horse. But they differ in style and so have
various social meaning. ‘Steed’ is used in
poetry; ‘horse’ is used in general, while ‘nag’ is
slang.
The word ‘Home’ can have many use also like
domicile (official), residence (formal) abode
(poetic) , home (ordinary use).
4.4. Affective or Emotive MeaningAffective or Emotive Meaning
It refers to emotive association or effects of
words evoked in the reader, listener. It is
what is conveyed about the personal feelings
or attitude towards the listener.
E.g. ‘home’ for a sailor/soldier or
expatriate and ‘mother’ for a
motherless child, a married woman (esp.
in Indian context) will have special effective,
emotive quality.
For Leech affective meaning refers to what
is convey about the feeling and attitude of
the speak through use of language (attitude
to listener as well as attitude to what he is
saying).
Affective meaning is often conveyed through
conceptual, connotative content of the
words used
E.g.
“You are a vicious tyrant and a
villainous reprobation and I hate you”
or
“I hate you, you idiot”.
We are left with a little doubt about the
speaker’s feelings towards the listener.
Here speaker seems to have a very negative
attitude towards his listener. This is called
affective meaning.
But very often we are more discreet (cautious) and
convey our attitude indirectly.
E.g. “I am terribly sorry but if you would be
so kind as to lower your voice a little”
The sentence conveys our irritation in a scaled
down manner for the sake of politeness. Intonation
and voice quality are also important here. Thus the
sentence above can be uttered in biting sarcasm and
the impression of politeness maybe reversed while
–
E.g. “Will you belt up?”
can be turned into a playful remark between
intimates if said with the intonation of a request.
Words like darling, sweetheart or hooligan, vandal
have inherent emotive quality and they can be used
neutrally.
5.5. Reflected MeaningReflected Meaning
Reflected meaning arises when a word has more
than one conceptual meaning or multiple
conceptual meaning.
In church service ‘the comforter and the Holy
Ghost ’refer to the third in Trinity. They are
religious words. But unconsciously there is a
response to their non-religious meanings too.
Thus the ‘comforter’ sounds warm and
comforting while the ‘Ghost’ sounds ‘awesome’
or even ‘dreadful’. One sense of the word seems
to rub off on another especially through relative
frequency and familiarity (e.g. a ghost is more
frequent and familiar in no religious sense.).
In poetry too we have reflected meaning as
in the following lines from ‘Futility’
‘Are limbs so dear achieved, are sides,
Full nerved still warm-too hard to stir’
Owen here uses ‘dear’ in the sense of
expensiveness. - But the sense of beloved is
also eluded.
Daffodils
“The could not but be gay
In such jocund company”
The word ‘gay’ was frequently used in
the time of William Wordsworth but the
word now is used for ‘homosexuality’.
Reflected meaning is also found in taboo
words.
The word ‘intercourse’ immediately
reminds us of its association with sex
(sexual intercourse). The sexual
association of the word drives away its
innocent sense, i.e. ‘communication’.
6.6. Collocative MeaningCollocative Meaning
Collocative meaning is the meaning which a
word acquires in the company of certain
words. Words collocate or co-occur with
certain words only e.g. Big business not
large or great.
Collocative meaning refers to associations
of a word because of its usual or habitual
co-occurrence with certain types of words.
‘Pretty’ and ‘handsome’ indicate ‘good
looking’.
The word ‘pretty’ collocates with – girls,
woman, village, gardens, flowers, etc.
On the other hand, the word ‘handsome’
collocates with – ‘boys’ men, etc. so ‘pretty
woman’ and ‘handsome man’.
The verbs ‘wander’ and ‘stroll’ are quasi-
synonymous- they may have almost the same
meaning but while ‘cows may wander into
another farm’, they don’t stroll into that farm
because ‘stroll’ collocates with human subject
only.
7.7. Thematic MeaningThematic Meaning
It refers to what is communicated by the
way in which a speaker or a writer
organizes the message in terms of
ordering focus and emphasis.
Thus active is different from passive
though its conceptual meaning is the
same.
The ways we order our message also
convey what is important and what not.
This is basically thematic meaning.
1) Mrs. Smith donated the first prize
2) The first prize was donated by Mrs.
Smith.
In the first sentence “who gave away the
prize “is more important, but in the
second sentence “what did Mrs. Smith
gave is important”. Thus the change of
focus change the meaning also.
Alternative grammatical construction also
gives thematic meaning. For example,
1) He likes Indian good most.
2) Indian goods he likes most
3) It is the Indian goods he likes most.

More Related Content

What's hot

Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
Dr. Cupid Lucid
 
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTSSEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
Musfera Nara Vadia
 
Semantic roles
Semantic rolesSemantic roles
Semantic roles
Buhsra
 
Sense and reference
Sense and referenceSense and reference
Sense and reference
ojenytan
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
critical discourse analysis
critical discourse analysiscritical discourse analysis
critical discourse analysis
siti nursaripah
 
5. clause and complex clause
5. clause and complex clause5. clause and complex clause
5. clause and complex clause
Melia Nesti Ayu
 
Basic notions; language variation and levels
Basic notions;  language variation and levelsBasic notions;  language variation and levels
Basic notions; language variation and levels
Amna Malik
 
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.PptxPragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptxComponential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
Rasha sakr
 
Types of meaning
Types of meaningTypes of meaning
Types of meaning
Sarah Falih Duboony
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
Asif Usman
 
Lecture 3 implicature
Lecture  3 implicatureLecture  3 implicature
Lecture 3 implicature
Adel Thamery
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
Shanze Toor
 
Semantic roles and semantic features
Semantic roles and semantic featuresSemantic roles and semantic features
Semantic roles and semantic features
Dayra Madeline Yanangómez Calero
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
Gibreel Sadeq Alaghbary
 
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLESPRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
A. Tenry Lawangen Aspat Colle
 
Functionalism
FunctionalismFunctionalism
Functionalism
sehrish_naudhani
 
Traditional grammar
Traditional grammarTraditional grammar
Traditional grammar
Rogelyn Castañeto
 
Genre
GenreGenre

What's hot (20)

Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTSSEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS - PRESUPPOSITIONS AND ENTAILMENTS
 
Semantic roles
Semantic rolesSemantic roles
Semantic roles
 
Sense and reference
Sense and referenceSense and reference
Sense and reference
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
 
critical discourse analysis
critical discourse analysiscritical discourse analysis
critical discourse analysis
 
5. clause and complex clause
5. clause and complex clause5. clause and complex clause
5. clause and complex clause
 
Basic notions; language variation and levels
Basic notions;  language variation and levelsBasic notions;  language variation and levels
Basic notions; language variation and levels
 
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.PptxPragmatics:  Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Pragmatics: Deixis And Distance By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
 
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptxComponential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
Componential Analysis of Meaning.pptx
 
Types of meaning
Types of meaningTypes of meaning
Types of meaning
 
Pragmatics
PragmaticsPragmatics
Pragmatics
 
Lecture 3 implicature
Lecture  3 implicatureLecture  3 implicature
Lecture 3 implicature
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Semantic roles and semantic features
Semantic roles and semantic featuresSemantic roles and semantic features
Semantic roles and semantic features
 
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysisDiscourse analysis
Discourse analysis
 
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLESPRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
PRAGMATICS: COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
 
Functionalism
FunctionalismFunctionalism
Functionalism
 
Traditional grammar
Traditional grammarTraditional grammar
Traditional grammar
 
Genre
GenreGenre
Genre
 

Viewers also liked

Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
Shagufta Moghal
 
SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS
Hameel Khan
 
semantics the study of meaning
 semantics the study of meaning semantics the study of meaning
semantics the study of meaning
Yoshinta Debbi A
 
Grice maxims
Grice maximsGrice maxims
Grice maxims
Stella Karamadouki
 
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation ProcessesTSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
Kelvin WC
 
The cooperative principle
The cooperative principleThe cooperative principle
The cooperative principle
universidad de pamplona
 
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnmentPragmatics presupposition and entailnment
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment
phannguyen161
 
Semantic Roles
Semantic RolesSemantic Roles
Semantic Roles
Jose Navarrete Gonzalez
 
Structural Semantics
Structural SemanticsStructural Semantics
Structural Semantics
Maqsood Ahmad
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
phu sql
 
ppt of flowchart
ppt of flowchartppt of flowchart
ppt of flowchart
140120109032
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
desmunddantes
 
Kwl chart presentation
Kwl chart presentationKwl chart presentation
Kwl chart presentation
SMB9309
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
IntanArmala
 
K-W-L Strategy
K-W-L StrategyK-W-L Strategy
K-W-L Strategy
Rhea Teressa Suba-an
 
Vocabulary development
Vocabulary developmentVocabulary development
Vocabulary development
sidwell mabasa
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
amna-shahid
 
Flow charts
Flow chartsFlow charts
Flow charts
Peter Andrews
 
Venn diagram
Venn diagramVenn diagram
Venn diagram
oes_217
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS SEMANTICS
SEMANTICS
 
semantics the study of meaning
 semantics the study of meaning semantics the study of meaning
semantics the study of meaning
 
Grice maxims
Grice maximsGrice maxims
Grice maxims
 
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation ProcessesTSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
TSLB3013 : Linguistics - Word Formation Processes
 
The cooperative principle
The cooperative principleThe cooperative principle
The cooperative principle
 
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnmentPragmatics presupposition and entailnment
Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment
 
Semantic Roles
Semantic RolesSemantic Roles
Semantic Roles
 
Structural Semantics
Structural SemanticsStructural Semantics
Structural Semantics
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
ppt of flowchart
ppt of flowchartppt of flowchart
ppt of flowchart
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Kwl chart presentation
Kwl chart presentationKwl chart presentation
Kwl chart presentation
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
K-W-L Strategy
K-W-L StrategyK-W-L Strategy
K-W-L Strategy
 
Vocabulary development
Vocabulary developmentVocabulary development
Vocabulary development
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Flow charts
Flow chartsFlow charts
Flow charts
 
Venn diagram
Venn diagramVenn diagram
Venn diagram
 

Similar to Semantics: Seven types of meaning

Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.pptSeven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
TaimeeAhmed
 
Types of meanings
Types of meaningsTypes of meanings
Types of meanings
Dr. Mohsin Khan
 
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
AliAsghar276
 
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
Hina Honey
 
Semantic
SemanticSemantic
Semantic
Febriani VN
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
Willow Pangket
 
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag UniversityDescribing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Uludag University
 
Semantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs PragmaticsSemantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs Pragmatics
A. Tenry Lawangen Aspat Colle
 
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docxIMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
JaniceCordova7
 
Semantics dasri
Semantics dasriSemantics dasri
Semantics dasri
antikakurniaputri
 
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics inETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
BetseyCalderon89
 
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
Alexander Decker
 
Semantics dasri
Semantics dasriSemantics dasri
Semantics dasri
antikakurniaputri
 
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in SemanticsReference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Ersa Dewana
 
Semantics and meanings.
Semantics and meanings.Semantics and meanings.
Semantics and meanings.
Sakthivel Krishnan
 
Tools of communication
Tools of communicationTools of communication
Tools of communication
Varun Kuhad
 
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation IssuesConnotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
Khaleel Al Bataineh
 
Verbal messages ch 5(4)
Verbal messages   ch 5(4)Verbal messages   ch 5(4)
Verbal messages ch 5(4)
Amenia Packer
 
Mishmash
MishmashMishmash
Mishmash
MasoomAkhtar2
 
Cross-Cultural Presentation
Cross-Cultural PresentationCross-Cultural Presentation
Cross-Cultural Presentation
PaigeCarroll6
 

Similar to Semantics: Seven types of meaning (20)

Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.pptSeven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
Seven types of meaning- A topic of semantics.ppt
 
Types of meanings
Types of meaningsTypes of meanings
Types of meanings
 
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)Semantics (seven types of meaning)
Semantics (seven types of meaning)
 
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
51285452 seven-types-of-meaning
 
Semantic
SemanticSemantic
Semantic
 
Semantics
SemanticsSemantics
Semantics
 
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag UniversityDescribing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
 
Semantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs PragmaticsSemantic vs Pragmatics
Semantic vs Pragmatics
 
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docxIMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
 
Semantics dasri
Semantics dasriSemantics dasri
Semantics dasri
 
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics inETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
ETL705 Week 6Semantics and the LexiconKey topics in
 
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
An in depth analysis of the manifestation of emotions and ideas through simil...
 
Semantics dasri
Semantics dasriSemantics dasri
Semantics dasri
 
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in SemanticsReference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
Reference, Sense, and Referring Expression in Semantics
 
Semantics and meanings.
Semantics and meanings.Semantics and meanings.
Semantics and meanings.
 
Tools of communication
Tools of communicationTools of communication
Tools of communication
 
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation IssuesConnotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
Connotative and Denotative Meaning and Translation Issues
 
Verbal messages ch 5(4)
Verbal messages   ch 5(4)Verbal messages   ch 5(4)
Verbal messages ch 5(4)
 
Mishmash
MishmashMishmash
Mishmash
 
Cross-Cultural Presentation
Cross-Cultural PresentationCross-Cultural Presentation
Cross-Cultural Presentation
 

More from Miftadia Laula

Quantifier much many little few
Quantifier   much many little fewQuantifier   much many little few
Quantifier much many little few
Miftadia Laula
 
Foreign influences on old english
Foreign influences on old englishForeign influences on old english
Foreign influences on old english
Miftadia Laula
 
Phonological features of Consonant System
Phonological features of Consonant SystemPhonological features of Consonant System
Phonological features of Consonant System
Miftadia Laula
 
Teaching writing by Ann Raimes
Teaching writing by Ann RaimesTeaching writing by Ann Raimes
Teaching writing by Ann Raimes
Miftadia Laula
 
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
Miftadia Laula
 
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy BookPoetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
Miftadia Laula
 

More from Miftadia Laula (6)

Quantifier much many little few
Quantifier   much many little fewQuantifier   much many little few
Quantifier much many little few
 
Foreign influences on old english
Foreign influences on old englishForeign influences on old english
Foreign influences on old english
 
Phonological features of Consonant System
Phonological features of Consonant SystemPhonological features of Consonant System
Phonological features of Consonant System
 
Teaching writing by Ann Raimes
Teaching writing by Ann RaimesTeaching writing by Ann Raimes
Teaching writing by Ann Raimes
 
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
Tenses and Conjuctions (For Indonesian students)
 
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy BookPoetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
Poetry, Autobiography, and Holy Book
 

Recently uploaded

BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
EduSkills OECD
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapitolTechU
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
OH TEIK BIN
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
Payaamvohra1
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
Mohammad Al-Dhahabi
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Iris Thiele Isip-Tan
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
danielkiash986
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
Celine George
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 

Recently uploaded (20)

BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
Andreas Schleicher presents PISA 2022 Volume III - Creative Thinking - 18 Jun...
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
 
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptxA Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
A Free 200-Page eBook ~ Brain and Mind Exercise.pptx
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
NIPER 2024 MEMORY BASED QUESTIONS.ANSWERS TO NIPER 2024 QUESTIONS.NIPER JEE 2...
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 7pptx.pptx
 
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
How to Manage Reception Report in Odoo 17
 
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
skeleton System.pdf (skeleton system wow)
 
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health SciencesEducational Technology in the Health Sciences
Educational Technology in the Health Sciences
 
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brubPharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
Pharmaceutics Pharmaceuticals best of brub
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
Benner "Expanding Pathways to Publishing Careers"
 
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
How to Predict Vendor Bill Product in Odoo 17
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN TẬP VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN CÂU HỎI TRONG ĐỀ MINH HỌA THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
 
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 

Semantics: Seven types of meaning

  • 1. Seven Types ofSeven Types of MeaningMeaning A presentation on SemanticsA presentation on Semantics miftadia_laula@yahoo.co.i d
  • 2. A piece of language conveys its dictionary meaning, connotations beyond the dictionary meaning, information about the social context of language use, speaker’s feelings and attitudes rubbing off of one meaning on the another meaning of the same word when it has two meanings and meaning because of habit occurrence. Geoffrey Leech in his ‘Semantic- A Study of meaning’ (1974) breaks down meaning into seven types or ingredients giving primacy to conceptual meaning.
  • 3. HYMES’s SPEAKINGHYMES’s SPEAKING  In Sociolinguistics, seven types of meaning are in line with Hymes’s theory of SPEAKING.  Situation – style; talk about formal or informal style.  Participant – who is the speaker.  End – goal is the denotative meaning.  Act – speech act; the implicature; the ordering/commanding whether you are giving information, promising, or any other expressions; something that is implied by the speech  Key – emotion/the mood of the speaker  Instrument – the thing we use to send the message  Norm  Genre – the same with style.
  • 4. 1.1. Conceptual or DenotativeConceptual or Denotative MeaningMeaning Conceptual meaning is also called logical or cognitive meaning. It is the basic propositional meaning which corresponds to the primary dictionary definition. It is the essential or core meaning. E.g. /P/ can be described as- voiceless + bilabial + plosive. Similarly Boy = + human + male -adult. The hierarchical structure of ‘Boy’ = + Human + Male -Adult
  • 5. It is the literal meaning of the word indicating the idea or concept to which it refers. The concept is minimal unit of meaning which could be called ‘sememe’. As we define phoneme on the basis of binary contrast, similarly we can define sememe ‘Woman’ as = + human + female + adult.
  • 6. Conceptual meaning deals with the core meaning of expression. It is the denotative or literal meaning. It is essential for the functioning of language. For example, a part of the conceptual meaning of ‘Needle” may be “thin”, “sharp” or “instrument”. The aim of conceptual meaning is to provide an appropriate semantic representation to a sentence or statement. The conceptual meaning is the base for all the other types of meaning.
  • 7. 2.2. Connotative MeaningConnotative Meaning Connotative meaning is the communicative value of an expression over and above its purely conceptual content. It is something that goes beyond mere referent of a word and hints at its attributes in the real world. Thus purely conceptual content of ‘woman’ is +human + female+ adult but the psychosocial connotations could be ‘gregarious’, ‘having maternal instinct’ or typical (rather than invariable) attributes of womanhood such as ‘babbling’,’ experienced in cookery’, ‘skirt or dress wearing ‘etc.
  • 8. Connotations vary age to age and society to society. E.g. Old age ‘Woman’ - ‘Non-trouser wearing or sari wearing’ in Indian context must have seemed definite connotation in the past. Present ‘Woman’---- Salwar/T-shirt/Jeans wearing. The boundary between conceptual and connotative seems to be analogous. Connotative meaning is regarded as incidental, comparatively unstable, in determinant, open ended, variable according to age, culture and individual, whereas conceptual meaning is not like that . It can be codified in terms of limited symbols.
  • 9. 3.3. Social MeaningSocial Meaning The meaning conveyed by the piece of language about the social context of its use is called the social meaning. The decoding of a text is dependent on our knowledge of stylistics and other variations of language. We recognize some words or pronunciation as being dialectical i.e. as telling us something about the regional or social origin of the speaker. Social meaning is related to the situation in which an utterance is used.
  • 10. E.g. “I ain’t done nothing” The line tells us about the speaker and that is the speaker is probably a black American, underprivileged and uneducated. “Come on yaar, be a sport. Don’t be Lallu” The social meaning can be that of Indian young close friends.
  • 11. Stylistic variation represents the social variation. This is because styles show the geographical region social class of the speaker. Style helps us to know about the period, field and status of the discourse. For example, ‘steed ’, ‘horse and ‘nag’ are synonymous. They all mean a kind of animal i.e. Horse. But they differ in style and so have various social meaning. ‘Steed’ is used in poetry; ‘horse’ is used in general, while ‘nag’ is slang. The word ‘Home’ can have many use also like domicile (official), residence (formal) abode (poetic) , home (ordinary use).
  • 12. 4.4. Affective or Emotive MeaningAffective or Emotive Meaning It refers to emotive association or effects of words evoked in the reader, listener. It is what is conveyed about the personal feelings or attitude towards the listener. E.g. ‘home’ for a sailor/soldier or expatriate and ‘mother’ for a motherless child, a married woman (esp. in Indian context) will have special effective, emotive quality.
  • 13. For Leech affective meaning refers to what is convey about the feeling and attitude of the speak through use of language (attitude to listener as well as attitude to what he is saying). Affective meaning is often conveyed through conceptual, connotative content of the words used
  • 14. E.g. “You are a vicious tyrant and a villainous reprobation and I hate you” or “I hate you, you idiot”. We are left with a little doubt about the speaker’s feelings towards the listener. Here speaker seems to have a very negative attitude towards his listener. This is called affective meaning.
  • 15. But very often we are more discreet (cautious) and convey our attitude indirectly. E.g. “I am terribly sorry but if you would be so kind as to lower your voice a little” The sentence conveys our irritation in a scaled down manner for the sake of politeness. Intonation and voice quality are also important here. Thus the sentence above can be uttered in biting sarcasm and the impression of politeness maybe reversed while – E.g. “Will you belt up?” can be turned into a playful remark between intimates if said with the intonation of a request. Words like darling, sweetheart or hooligan, vandal have inherent emotive quality and they can be used neutrally.
  • 16. 5.5. Reflected MeaningReflected Meaning Reflected meaning arises when a word has more than one conceptual meaning or multiple conceptual meaning. In church service ‘the comforter and the Holy Ghost ’refer to the third in Trinity. They are religious words. But unconsciously there is a response to their non-religious meanings too. Thus the ‘comforter’ sounds warm and comforting while the ‘Ghost’ sounds ‘awesome’ or even ‘dreadful’. One sense of the word seems to rub off on another especially through relative frequency and familiarity (e.g. a ghost is more frequent and familiar in no religious sense.).
  • 17. In poetry too we have reflected meaning as in the following lines from ‘Futility’ ‘Are limbs so dear achieved, are sides, Full nerved still warm-too hard to stir’ Owen here uses ‘dear’ in the sense of expensiveness. - But the sense of beloved is also eluded.
  • 18. Daffodils “The could not but be gay In such jocund company” The word ‘gay’ was frequently used in the time of William Wordsworth but the word now is used for ‘homosexuality’.
  • 19. Reflected meaning is also found in taboo words. The word ‘intercourse’ immediately reminds us of its association with sex (sexual intercourse). The sexual association of the word drives away its innocent sense, i.e. ‘communication’.
  • 20. 6.6. Collocative MeaningCollocative Meaning Collocative meaning is the meaning which a word acquires in the company of certain words. Words collocate or co-occur with certain words only e.g. Big business not large or great. Collocative meaning refers to associations of a word because of its usual or habitual co-occurrence with certain types of words. ‘Pretty’ and ‘handsome’ indicate ‘good looking’.
  • 21. The word ‘pretty’ collocates with – girls, woman, village, gardens, flowers, etc. On the other hand, the word ‘handsome’ collocates with – ‘boys’ men, etc. so ‘pretty woman’ and ‘handsome man’. The verbs ‘wander’ and ‘stroll’ are quasi- synonymous- they may have almost the same meaning but while ‘cows may wander into another farm’, they don’t stroll into that farm because ‘stroll’ collocates with human subject only.
  • 22. 7.7. Thematic MeaningThematic Meaning It refers to what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or a writer organizes the message in terms of ordering focus and emphasis. Thus active is different from passive though its conceptual meaning is the same. The ways we order our message also convey what is important and what not. This is basically thematic meaning.
  • 23. 1) Mrs. Smith donated the first prize 2) The first prize was donated by Mrs. Smith. In the first sentence “who gave away the prize “is more important, but in the second sentence “what did Mrs. Smith gave is important”. Thus the change of focus change the meaning also.
  • 24. Alternative grammatical construction also gives thematic meaning. For example, 1) He likes Indian good most. 2) Indian goods he likes most 3) It is the Indian goods he likes most.