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Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture


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Pig,Horse Management

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Pig,Horse Management Class Lecture

  2. 2. Advantages of pig farming <ul><li>Efficient converter of concentrates into meat </li></ul><ul><li>Quick and net high returns because of 6 months of market age. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid expansion of enterprise than cattle and Sheep. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively less investment on equipments, sheds, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>More prolific-exotic breeds being more prolific and it produce 2 litter per year and about 8 – 12 piglets per farrowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest fat storing ability as such no animal equals in this characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient convertor of many by-products and feeds into pork. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed conversion ratio is more in pigs compared to other livestocks. (1:3 compared to beef 1:5). They need less feed per kg gain of body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs require less roughage and hence a small acreage of pasture for growing and fattening pigs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contd., <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement of labour in pig production is low because pigs are adapted to both self feeding as well as full feeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in prices of market hogs are less during the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Hogs have high dressing percentage (60-80%) and are usually in demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Pig produces 65-80% of meat from feed consumed. </li></ul><ul><li>Hogs meat is well suited to curing and smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-recurring expenses are relatively less. </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs can very well utilise the kitchen garbage and left out feed articles of other livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>Pig skins are used for light leather goods. </li></ul><ul><li>More meat can be produced from pigs/unit of time and cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Pork has higher energy due to higher fat content and slightly lower water content. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contd., <ul><li>Initial investment in setting up of piggery unit is very low. </li></ul><ul><li>By products of piggery unit such as skin, bristles, teeth, hoof are raising in demand. </li></ul><ul><li>Pig manure is very useful and valuable for fields. </li></ul><ul><li>More flexibility and expansion ability of enterprise due to most prolific </li></ul><ul><li>and quick growing animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Pork is relatively rich in phosphorous and iron. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of animal protein. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demerits of hog raising <ul><li>Have religious taboo (Muslims do not eat pork) </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of large percentage of concentrates </li></ul><ul><li>Have direct competition for cereals with human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture are spoiled and rendered unsuitable for other livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>More problem of parasitic infestation through pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of diseases takes much time and labour. </li></ul><ul><li>More need of labour at farrowing time </li></ul><ul><li>Great variation in demands for pork in Indian market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chemical composition of pork <ul><li>Moisture - 77.4% Protein - 18.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Fat (ether extract) - 4.4% (Pig fat is called lard) </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals - Ca - 0.03% P - 0.2% Fe - 2.3 mg </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A - (IU/100mg) - 30.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B - (IU/100mg) - 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Caloric Value -100g -114 KCal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Breeding Management <ul><li>Factors affecting the selection of breed are; </li></ul><ul><li> Availability of good breeding stock </li></ul><ul><li> Prolificacy </li></ul><ul><li> Growth ability </li></ul><ul><li> Temperament (mood behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li> Carcass quality </li></ul><ul><li> Efficient feed conversion </li></ul><ul><li> Nicking ability (care of young ones) </li></ul><ul><li> Market demand </li></ul><ul><li> Disease resistance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors for selection of breeding stock <ul><li>Size of litter (minimum 8 piglets) </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and vigour of litters </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and vigour of litters </li></ul><ul><li>Milking ability </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Gain and feed efficiency of progeny </li></ul><ul><li>Longivity </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Free from defects </li></ul><ul><li>Weaning weight of litters in gilts – 120 kg. And in Sow – 150 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: 1. Selection of individual animal is more important than breed. </li></ul><ul><li>2. There are more differences within a breed than between breeds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Breeding systems <ul><li>Inbreeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Involves breeding of related animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> This system is not adopted commercially. </li></ul><ul><li>Out breeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Mating of unrelated animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> This system gives good results with performance of pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Out crossing: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Mating of unrelated animals of same breed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross breeding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> For commercial swine poduction programme. It is a common method used in areas around bacon (a meat from back and side of pig) factories and preserved, cured with salt solution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> It involves mating of animal between two different breeds. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Merits <ul><ul><ul><li> Fewer embryonic losses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Causes increase in litter size </li></ul><ul><li> Uniform birth weights and weaning weight </li></ul><ul><li> Greater resistance to environmental stress </li></ul><ul><li> Increase in growth rate </li></ul><ul><li> Early age of maturity </li></ul><ul><li> Increases livability of pigs and high vigours. </li></ul><ul><li> Regularity in breeding. </li></ul><ul><li> Increased efficiency of feed conversion. </li></ul><ul><li> Mothering ability and higher milk production. </li></ul><ul><li> Cross bred sow, wean larger litters and more weight at weaning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Selection of Boar <ul><ul><ul><li> True to breed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Masculine appearance </li></ul><ul><li> Long deep body </li></ul><ul><li> Smooth shoulders and strong legs </li></ul><ul><li> Sound health and performance record. </li></ul><ul><li> No cryptorchid condition </li></ul><ul><li> Age between 1.5 – 2 years. </li></ul><ul><li> Select only fertile boar with well developed testicles </li></ul><ul><li> Not over fat condition </li></ul><ul><li> Active look. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Irritable boar, difficult to drive and one who inclines to fight may transmit a nervous disposition to piglets. This may make them poor mothers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Selection of sows <ul><ul><ul><li> Sows must be from a litter whose litter size and weight at birth and weaning weight is maximum. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Have minimum back fat thickness (BFT) – measured by Sona-Ray-device – very high ultra frequency sound waves are passed and by reflection BFT is measured – It does not cause any tissue damage. </li></ul><ul><li> Sow must have well developed udder with 12 teats and at least 6 teats in each row evenly distributed on belly sides. </li></ul><ul><li> Teat of sow must be free from any abnormal defects. </li></ul><ul><li> Sow must have deep body. </li></ul><ul><li> Select the sows that are already bred at least once. </li></ul><ul><li> Age of bred sows must be 2-3 years. </li></ul><ul><li> Sows must produce young ones every year. </li></ul><ul><li> Sows should have mothering ability </li></ul><ul><li> Must be ready for another rebreeding at the end of lactation. </li></ul><ul><li> Should have quiet disposition. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Guidelines for normal reproduction of pigs <ul><ul><ul><li> Age at puberty 6 – 7 months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Breeding age of gilts – 10-12 months. </li></ul><ul><li> Breeding weight of gilts – 90-100 kg </li></ul><ul><li> Breeding age of boar – 18-24 months. </li></ul><ul><li> Number of sows/boar – 10 (1:10) Boar : Sow </li></ul><ul><li> Heat cycle – 19-23 days : Average 21 days </li></ul><ul><li> Heat period – 2-3 days </li></ul><ul><li> Mating time – Gilts – 1 st day of heat. In sow – 2 nd day of onset of heat. </li></ul><ul><li> Number of services per conception – 2 at a interval of 14 hours. </li></ul><ul><li> Gestation period – 112 – 114 days (3 months 3 weeks 3 days) </li></ul><ul><li> Suckling period – 56 – 60 days. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Contd., <ul><li>Average litter size at birth – 10-14 </li></ul><ul><li> Average litter size at weaning – 8-10 </li></ul><ul><li> Rest period – 45 days. </li></ul><ul><li> Occurrence of heat after weaning – 2-10 days. This is the fertile heat. </li></ul><ul><li> Period of mating – 15 days after weaning. </li></ul><ul><li> Volume of semen ejaculation – 200 ml – 300 ml. </li></ul><ul><li> Average number of sperm/cu mm – 1 lakh (100,000) </li></ul><ul><li> Average age to castrate pigs – 4-8 weeks </li></ul><ul><li> Market age for fattening pigs – 6 months </li></ul><ul><li> Market weight at 6 months – 70-75 kg. </li></ul><ul><li> Farrowing interval – 7 – 7½ months </li></ul><ul><li> Sows can breed upto – 8-10 years. </li></ul><ul><li> Average life of sow – 6 litters. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Management at breeding of pigs <ul><ul><ul><li> Feeding gilts and sow liberally to increase energy intake 10-15 days prior to mating is called Flushing . It may be done as follows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Feed leguminous hay, cowpea, lucerne, berseem for supply of more protein, minerals and vitamins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Extra allowance of grains. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Give multivitamin injection along with flushing </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantage of flushing <ul><ul><ul><li> Improvement in physical condition of the female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Prompt post weaning oestrus </li></ul><ul><li> Shows prominent heat symptoms </li></ul><ul><li> Increases ovulation rate </li></ul><ul><li> Good litter size </li></ul><ul><li> Shortens period between weaning to successful conception </li></ul><ul><li> More uniform litter size – high number of piglets born. </li></ul><ul><li> Minimise embryonic losses </li></ul>
  17. 17. Detection of heat in sows <ul><ul><ul><li> Vulval swelling and redness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> Vaginal discharge </li></ul><ul><li> Frequent urination </li></ul><ul><li> Reduced appetite </li></ul><ul><li> Mounting behaviour </li></ul><ul><li> Immobility when normal manual pressure is applied on the back region (lumbo-sacral region) </li></ul><ul><li> Restlessness and excitement </li></ul><ul><li> Peculiar grunting sound </li></ul><ul><li> Erection of ears when pressure is applied on the back. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Optimum time to breed sow or gilts <ul><ul><ul><li>Standing heat as detected by immobility of sow in oestrus particularly exhibited by erection of ears when manual pressure is applied on the back of sow. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of boar contact on age at puberty in gilts. </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutes of daily contact with mature boar is sufficient to stimulate early puberty in gilts providing the gilt have adequate opportunity for physical contact with boars. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of guard rails at farrowing pen, farrowing crate(Please refer practical record). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Feeding Management <ul><li>Some characteristic features of Swine Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>       Pigs have single compartment of simple stomach </li></ul><ul><li>       Being a non-ruminant, they cannot utilize fibrous fodder </li></ul><ul><li>       Ration must have more concentrates and less roughages. </li></ul><ul><li>       Feed cost about 75% of total cost of rearing. </li></ul><ul><li>       Nutrition affects growth, reproduction and production. </li></ul><ul><li>       Pig is an efficient converter of concentrate into meat. </li></ul><ul><li>       Feed Conversion Ratio is most efficient (1:3) and hence need less feed / kg gain. </li></ul><ul><li>       Pigs can very well utilize kitchen garbage and left out feed articles of livestock. </li></ul><ul><li>       Converts inedible feeds to edible meat </li></ul><ul><li>       Pigs directly compete with human beings for cereals. </li></ul><ul><li>       Energy requirement are usually expressed as the amount of digestible energy / metabolisable energy / kg of daily ration. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>       Energy plays an important role for meat type of hogs. </li></ul><ul><li>      Pigs suffer more from nutritional deficiency than do ruminants </li></ul><ul><li>      Feeding programme must be efficient to make it profitable. </li></ul><ul><li>      Always give free access to water. </li></ul><ul><li>     Three types of rations are fed before they reach maturity i.e. creep starter, Grower and Finisher. </li></ul><ul><li>       Most economic feed ingredients must be selected. </li></ul><ul><li>       Small pasture is good for raising pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>       Provided it has good succulent forages. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Water requirement for pigs <ul><li>Provision of Water </li></ul><ul><li>       Clean, fresh, adequate, odourless, pure and safe from parasitic ova or larvae. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Factors affecting Water intake <ul><li>       Ambient temperature </li></ul><ul><li>       Composition of feed, kinds of feed, preparation of ration, style of feeding, age, body size, breed, season, physiological stage of animal </li></ul><ul><li>       Amount of Water/hog/day – 2-3 kg / kg of dry feed. In summer, it may be 4-5 kg dry feed. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ration for fattening stock <ul><li>Maize – 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Gram – 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Barley - 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed cake - 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral mixture – 1.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Common salt – 0.5% </li></ul>
  24. 24. Pasture for hogs <ul><li>       Brings – saving in grain consumption </li></ul><ul><li>       Increases profit from hogs </li></ul><ul><li>       Better growth of pigs </li></ul><ul><li>       Prevent anaemia in pigs </li></ul><ul><li>       Conserve manure </li></ul><ul><li>       Improves reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>       Favour limited feeding </li></ul><ul><li>       Increases rate of gain </li></ul><ul><li>       Major portion of protein, mineral and vitamin are provided from pasture for hogs and prevent nutrition deficiency. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Suitable pasture, grasses for Swine <ul><li>Lucerne, cowpea, berseem, sudan grass </li></ul>
  26. 26. Feeding antibiotics to pigs <ul><li>Feeding antibiotics as feed additives is important for following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Helps in success of intensive system of management </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reduces incidence of scouring and unthriftiness in pigs </li></ul><ul><li>3. Causes 10-15% more rapid gain and feed conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Enhances growth rate in early age of piglets </li></ul><ul><li>5. Increases feed efficiency of growing and finishing pigs up to 5% </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Types of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>       Penicillin, Bacitracin, Tetracycline are common. </li></ul><ul><li>Amount </li></ul><ul><li>10-20 mg/kg feed depending upon the kind of antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding swine for market </li></ul><ul><li>       Preparation of hogs for market - starts at an early age consisting of 2 stages namely growing and fattening. </li></ul><ul><li>       There are 2 methods of finishing hogs. </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Full feeding all the time until the animal reaches the market weight. </li></ul><ul><li>2)      Limited feeding in growing period followed by full feeding in the last 2 – 2½ months period before marketing. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Composition of ration </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal based ration </li></ul><ul><li>Maize – 25%, sorghum/barley – 15% Rice polish / wheat bran – 22.5% </li></ul><ul><li>GNC – 12% Til cake – 10% - Fish meal – 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Mixture – 5.5% Rovimix (Vitamin A, B2, D3) – 10 gms </li></ul><ul><li>Non-cereal ration </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat bran – 70%, Til cake – 10%, Fish meal – 5.5%, GNC - 12% mineral mixture 2.5%, Rovimix – 10 gm. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Feed efficiency ratio 1:3 on an average. The weight gain of 70 kg in 6 month period may be attained by consumption of 260 kg of feed. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Weeding Management </li></ul><ul><li>Boars </li></ul><ul><li>       Infertile ones </li></ul><ul><li>       Boars of over 5 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>       Irritable nature and nervous disposition </li></ul><ul><li>       Over fat and too heavy find difficult to mount </li></ul><ul><li>       Not true to breed. </li></ul><ul><li>       Cryptorchid </li></ul><ul><li>       Weak limbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sows </li></ul><ul><li>       1/3 rd of older sow annually. </li></ul><ul><li>       Gilt or sows not settled after 4 services </li></ul><ul><li>       Nervous and irritable litter. </li></ul><ul><li>       Produce small litter. </li></ul><ul><li>       Sows with defective teats and poor milker </li></ul><ul><li>     Sows with small vulva often is an indication of internal reproductive defects. </li></ul><ul><li>       Sows or gilt with inverted teats. </li></ul><ul><li>       Gilt and sows which do not meet the standard of meaty hogs. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Disease Management </li></ul><ul><li>       Methods of disease control </li></ul><ul><li>       Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>       Erection of physical barriers 50 meters around pig enclosure to keep off visitors. </li></ul><ul><li>       Personnel hygiene. </li></ul><ul><li>       Use of protective clothings </li></ul><ul><li>       Disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>       Check on quality of feed and water. </li></ul><ul><li>    Ensure feed in steam pelleted and packed in paper sacks. </li></ul><ul><li>       Liming of pasture and keeping it parasite free </li></ul><ul><li>       Rotation of pastures. </li></ul><ul><li>       Proper sanitation in house. </li></ul><ul><li>       Proper disposal of infected litter and carcass. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>       Quarantine </li></ul><ul><li>       Vaccination of healthy animals. </li></ul><ul><li>       Periodical spray of insecticide in houses. </li></ul><ul><li>       Provide facility of medicated wallow. </li></ul><ul><li>      Keeping proper records for concentrate rate, farrowing index, number born, number weaned, mortality etc. </li></ul><ul><li>     Provide balanced ratio with low in fibre but with more sufficient green laxative feed. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Some important swine diseases and parasites </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Hog cholera-pig typhoid </li></ul><ul><li>Young ones are more susceptible </li></ul><ul><li>2)      Swine paratyphoid caused by bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>3)      Swine dysentry </li></ul><ul><li>4)      Swine vesicular exanthema-caused by virus. Source-improperly cooked garbage. </li></ul><ul><li>5)      Swine Eryzipleas - by bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>6)      Swine pox-by virus </li></ul><ul><li>7)      Swine plague or Haemorrhagic septicaemia.- by bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention by means of vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>8)      FMD – by virus, prevention by vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Swine influenza </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Parasites </li></ul><ul><li>1)     Ascariasis – prevented by deworming </li></ul><ul><li>2)   Ring worm infestation (caused by fungus) </li></ul><ul><li>3)     Mange-by mites </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Other routine farm operations </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Age determination </li></ul><ul><li>           Permanent Dental Formula 3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 3/3 – Total no:44 </li></ul><ul><li>2) Castration. </li></ul><ul><li>a)      Eliminate undesirable males </li></ul><ul><li>b)      Prevent indiscriminate breeding </li></ul><ul><li>c)       To make docile. </li></ul><ul><li>d)      To develop pork of superior quality </li></ul><ul><li>e)      To prevent boar odour in cooked meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Age of piglets-3-4 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Identification “Notching” in pigs - cutting the tip of the ear in ‘V’ shape. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tatooing” </li></ul><ul><li>5) Wallowing – (Please refer practical record) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>6)      Removal of needle teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Baby pigs at birth have 4 pairs of sharp teeth on each jaw called needle teeth. These are of not any use to piglet and may cause injury to mother’s udder. These should be clipped by plier. Care should be taken not to injure gum of the piglet. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Piglet anaemia - Nutritional anaemia in suckling pigs. It’s a highly fatal disease of suckling pigs caused by marked decrease in Hb and fatty degeneration of liver. Causes: lack of Copper salts and Iron in sows kept in indoor, or on concrete floor and limited milk diet from sow. </li></ul><ul><li>Age affected: 3-6 weeks. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>a) Dull-inactive, lack of vigour, dyspnea, depression, rough coat. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Pigs may be very weak, thin skin over neck and mucous membrane are pale. Wrinkles are found over the legs, diarrhoea and die suddenly. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Prevention and Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Add small amount of Fe and Cu in pigs diet at the rate 25mgof Fe , 5mg of Cu/day/pig. </li></ul><ul><li>2)      FeSO 4 - 3.6 ounces (1 ounce - 30 ml) </li></ul><ul><li>Water - 5 quarts (1 quart - 40 ml).feed 1 gm daily. </li></ul><ul><li>3)      Paint the udder of the sow daily with following mixtures. </li></ul><ul><li>FeSO 4 - 500gm </li></ul><ul><li>CuSO 4 - 70gm </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar - 500gm </li></ul><ul><li>Water - 10 litres. </li></ul><ul><li>4)      Allow piglets to free access runs with fresh soil. </li></ul><ul><li>5)      Iron injection of Dextran (Deep I/M) </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Creep Feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Start feeding piglet with creep feed at 2-3 weeks of age for proper growth and development. Area for creep feed should be partitioned so that all piglets have access to feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality of piglets </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rate between birth and weaning is important factor which determines the economic viability of sow enterprise. Even in a well managed farm 25-30% of piglets born never reach weaning age (56 days). While the pre-weaning piglet mortality raises to 20-30% depending upon managemental condition. Post-weaning mortality is about 3%. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Starting of piggery farm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium sized farm - 10 sows and 1 boar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small sized farm - 5 sows with 1 boar. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. HORSE MANAGEMENT Course Teacher, Dr. M.R. Muralidharan, Ph.D.,
  41. 41. BREEDING MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Systems of breeding </li></ul><ul><li>1) Continuous outbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Which involves stallion that are unrelated to mares. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Inbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding of animals more closely related than the average of the breed or population. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Line breeding </li></ul><ul><li>It is also followed to preserve certain desirable characteristics found in particular animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Out Crossing: </li></ul><ul><li>Out crossing is the breeding of two unrelated lines within a breed. The amount of inbreeding decreases, so it is the opposite of line breeding. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>       Stallions are usually put in stud at the age of 4 years after they have retired from turf. </li></ul><ul><li>       Animals which prematurely breakdown at 3 years are returned to stud and such stallion have to be initiated to services. </li></ul><ul><li>       Normally 30-40 mares are allotted to a stallion and the stallion has to cover 2 – 2½ times/mare in order to get them in foal. </li></ul><ul><li>       First year of service - 25 coverings/year </li></ul><ul><li>Second year of service - 50 coverings/year </li></ul><ul><li>Third year of service - 80-100 coverings/year </li></ul><ul><li>    When stallion gets older to 15 years, the covering quota should be accordingly reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>    Total covering in a month for stallion should not exceed 20. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Semen examination </li></ul><ul><li>       Volume 50-150 ml/ejaculation. </li></ul><ul><li>       Concentration of sperms – 50-200 million/ml of semen. </li></ul><ul><li>Care and Management of brood mare </li></ul><ul><li>       Trying of mare and detection of heat </li></ul><ul><li>       Mares are polyoestrum and heat varies according to climate and season. </li></ul><ul><li>       Breeding season, confined twice a year. </li></ul><ul><li>o        Spring breeding season – February – June. </li></ul><ul><li>o        Autumn breeding season – Sep, Oct-Nov </li></ul><ul><li>The breeding in spring season is considered to be best, because the heat in mare is regular and invariably accompanied by functional ovulation. The stallions are more prolific and the conception rate is high. </li></ul><ul><li>       Autumn breeding season may be used for breeding of problamatic mares after the treatment. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Heat symptoms of mares </li></ul><ul><li>       In presence of teaser at the trying bar, the brood mares exhibit following symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>       Raising tail </li></ul><ul><li>       Stand quietly </li></ul><ul><li>       Winking of clitoris (twitching of clitoris) </li></ul><ul><li>       Frequent urination </li></ul><ul><li>       Bending hindquarters followed by contraction and relaxation of vulval lips. </li></ul><ul><li>       Passing of vaginal discharge which subsequently becomes thick, scanty and hangs out like a thin sting. </li></ul><ul><li>       Vulva becomes swollen and slack. </li></ul><ul><li>Average Heat Period: 7 days </li></ul><ul><li>A mare may be covered for 4 days in succession during heat. Every service should be aimed at conception and mare should be covered when she is unmistakably willing to act the mounting of stallion. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Covering of Mares </li></ul><ul><li>       Service hobbles are applied to mare during covering. </li></ul><ul><li>       Twitch can also be applied to the maiden (1 st time exposing) mare. </li></ul><ul><li>       Tie a bandage to the root of the tail of the mare. (Sometimes loose hairs enter into vulva causing subsequent laceration of stallion’s penis during service). </li></ul><ul><li>       The stallion is led out of the stable by two attendants and kept well under control. </li></ul><ul><li>       Stallion should be walked round the mare at a safe distance so that she may see him and get time to settle down. </li></ul><ul><li>       Stallion is made to stand 1.5 metres – not in a direct line behind her, but to the left side of her so that mare and stallion form two sides of square. </li></ul><ul><li>       The mare then can see all the movements of stallion and understand his intention. </li></ul><ul><li>       A stallion will begin by curling of lips and smell the air which to him is full of alluring smacks. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>       He must not be led up to the mare unless he is quite ready and the penis is fully drawn and erect. </li></ul><ul><li>       The impact of the stallion on mare is considerable and her tendency quite naturally is to move a step forward before she has steadied herself and for the stallion getting a good grip on her flanks in order to cover her easily. </li></ul><ul><li>       It is further better that the mare should not hear the cries of her foal which generally upsets her and distracts her from stallion. </li></ul><ul><li>       It will be ensured that the stallion has ejaculated which is indicated by flagging of the tail, contraction of anus and rythmic pulsation in urethra. </li></ul><ul><li>       Normally one service can be enough. The stallion normally ejaculates close to cervix. </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation period: 335-340 days + 5 days </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Management of Foaling mares </li></ul><ul><li>       As the foaling time draws nearer, the filling of udder increases, which becomes firm and rather turgid consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>       The penultimate stage of foaling is marked by sinking of hindquarters on each side of croup in the hollow on both sides of root of tail. </li></ul><ul><li>       Wax like substance produced by the secretion of clear thick serum like material from teat canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Mare usually foals within 12-24 hours after the wax drops off and milk begins to drip away, soiling the lower part of hind legs. Once this stage has reached, the mare may foal at any time. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Foaling </li></ul><ul><li>       Most mare foal lying down and very rarely standing. </li></ul><ul><li>       The whole operation takes place within 15-20 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>       The placenta of the mare should normally drop within 1 hour after foaling. </li></ul><ul><li>       In case of delay beyond 3 hours, it should be removed by administration of hormones or by manual inferference. </li></ul><ul><li>       Maximum foaling takes place between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>       Maximum incidence occur between 10 p.m. and 11 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>       The imminence of foaling is suggested by mammary hypertrophy, waxing of teat and possibly discharge of milk from udder. </li></ul><ul><li>       The best indication that first stage has begun is the onset of patchy sweating behind the elbows and the flanks. </li></ul><ul><li>       The sweating commences about 4 hours before foaling and increases as stage progresses. </li></ul><ul><li>       The tail is frequently raised or held to one side. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Post-partum oestrus or Foal heat </li></ul><ul><li>Usually occurs 5-15 days after foaling. Breeding at this time may cause increased percentage of abortion, dystokia, retained placenta and still birth. </li></ul>
  50. 50. FEEDING MANAGEMENT <ul><li>PRINCIPLES FOR FEEDING HORSES </li></ul><ul><li>       The individual variation of feed requirement and body condition must be given due consideration for planning the feeding regimen of the horses. Some horses perform best while being trimmed or empty stomach whereas other horses exhibit their best when their body condition is optimum. </li></ul><ul><li>       The growth, development and expectations from the horse regarding its performance will determine the extent of feeding especially in early days. </li></ul><ul><li>       Both over-feeding and Under-feeding are harmful to horses. </li></ul><ul><li>       Therefore the diet has to vary as per the requirement of horse and its physiological status. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>       Feeding habits must be given due consideration while feeding horses. </li></ul><ul><li>       All feed ingredients of horses should be free from extraneous substance such as weeds, dust, mould etc. </li></ul><ul><li>       The hygiene of feed box should also be maintained. </li></ul><ul><li>       The time of feeding the horses should be strictly adhered. Also no abrupt changes in the diet should be permitted. However if a change is required, it should be progressed slowly. </li></ul><ul><li>       Well being of horses depends a lot in exercise. It helps them to keep them in shape for riding, racing, work and performance besides it improves their appetite, digestion and overall condition. </li></ul><ul><li>       A clear, wholesome and fresh water should be always available to horse. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>       A source of salt or complete mineral mixture should be always available to horse at all time which gives them opportunity to take minerals depending on their requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>       The feed of the horse must contain roughages otherwise the heavy feed concentrates are likely to pack the stomach. However feeds too high in fiber may also cause discomfort or digestive disturbance especially in race horses. </li></ul><ul><li>       The feed of their greedy eaters should be thinned out in the feed box. </li></ul><ul><li>       Oral hygiene and dental care should receive due attention as teeth problems limit the horse’s ability to chew. </li></ul><ul><li>       Weighing the horses to find out gain or loss in the condition is a valuable parameter to desire the response of the feed and effect changes in feed schedule, if required. </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>       Horses should be fed in groups according to age, growth or development stage to prevent over-feeding or under-feeding which may occur if horses of varying sizes and age are fed together. </li></ul><ul><li>       The foals should be allowed access to creep feed so that they achieve maximum for their growth and bone development as the mare’s milk falls short of all essential nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>       Regular deworming and health inspection are important to keep the horses healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>       The digestive tract of horses is limited in size and feeding large quantity of grain and concentrate feeds at one time results in higher frequency of colic and grain founder. Therefore, high performance horses, which requires large amount of energy from grain or concentrate sources, should be fed 3-4 times daily instead of 2 times. </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>       The grain portion of the diet of high performance horses should be reduced if they are not being exercised. The roughage portion should be suitably increased. This is essential to prevent azoturia or Monday morning sickness which causes muscles spasms or tetany. </li></ul><ul><li>       The diet of horses must contain roughage to provide fibre or bulk. This will reduce the incidence of vices such as wood chewing and mane biting. It will also reduce the incidence of digestive disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>       Horses should not be exercised after feeding as the stomach contents are likely to cause pressure on the diaphragm leading to laboured breathing due to restriction in the lung expansion. Secondly, the absorption of nutrients is also affected as blood circulation is also diverted from splanchnic blood vessels around the intestine to vital organs, reducing the absorptive processes. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Roughage Vs Concentrate feeding <ul><li>       The forage level can be from 0.5 –1 % of body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>       Higher level of forage reduces the chances of disgestive disturbances colic and other disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>       Level of activity is very important to determine the level of concentrate and forage feeding. </li></ul><ul><li>       High level performance horses need more energy and therefore the diet should not contain more roughage which may cause distended digestive tract resulting in discomfort when they are exercised or worked heavily. </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>       Lactating mares, nursing foals, weanlings and the horses undergoing intense work consume the least amount of forage. As such, the concentrate level are higher in diet to meet high requirement of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>       Idle horses require least amount of concentrates in their diet and can do well on high quality of forage alone. </li></ul><ul><li>       Following considerations besides the physiological status of the horse, will determine the level of forage and concentrates feeding. </li></ul><ul><li>a)      Individual needs </li></ul><ul><li>b)      Level of activity </li></ul><ul><li>c)      Response to diet </li></ul><ul><li>d)      Condition of horse </li></ul>
  57. 57. Factors affecting water requirement <ul><li>       Younger the animal more its water requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>       Horse need above 2-4 litres of water/ kg of feed. </li></ul><ul><li>       Water intake is also affected by climate or temperature in that area. </li></ul><ul><li>       Rise in environmental temperature rises water requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>       Composition of faeces (dung) affects the water requirement - diarrhoea-caused by dehydration. </li></ul><ul><li>       The work and exercise performed by the horses also considerably influence the water needs. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>       Highly digestible feed such as grain require less water for its excretion. </li></ul><ul><li>       Dehydration through sweating causes a loss of both water and electrolytes (Na+, Cl - are lost). After work, very dehydrated animal should be given about 4.5 litres every minute preferably containing 30 gms of electrolytes. </li></ul><ul><li>       After normal hardwork, a horse should be cooled by gentle exercise of muscles through walking but access to grazing or hay should not be ruled out. </li></ul><ul><li>       After this relaxation of 1-1½ hours, good quality water should be given before the light meal of concentrates. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Types of feeds and fodders <ul><li>The feed of the horse is divided into 2 broad categories, </li></ul><ul><li>i)    C oncentrates </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Cereals </li></ul><ul><li>2)      Grains </li></ul><ul><li>3)      Cakes </li></ul><ul><li>4)      Meals ; and </li></ul><ul><li>5)      Other industrial by-products rich source of protein </li></ul><ul><li>ii)       Roughages </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Hay </li></ul><ul><li>2)      Silage </li></ul><ul><li>3) Grasses </li></ul>
  60. 60. Cereals and grains <ul><li>       Oats is a very important component in horse diet. It is known for low density and high fibre content which helps to avoid over feeding and at the same time its grain size is more appropriate for chewing. </li></ul><ul><li>       Mouldy oat- should not be fed, since they cause colic as well as heaves. </li></ul><ul><li>       Barley </li></ul><ul><li>       Corn </li></ul><ul><li>       Sorghum - deficient in protein lysine. </li></ul><ul><li>       Wheat </li></ul><ul><li>       Gram </li></ul><ul><li>       Rice </li></ul>
  61. 61. Agro industrial by products <ul><li>Wheat bran - laxative diet, bran deficient in Calcium, palatable vehicle for oral administration. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Brewing and distilling byproducts </li></ul><ul><li>       Molasses and pulps </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable protein sources </li></ul><ul><li>Richest source of protein-soyabean meal, linseed meal, cotton seed meal, sun flower seed meal, groundnut meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal protein sources </li></ul><ul><li>Dried skim milk, fish meal or bone meal, meat meal. </li></ul><ul><li>Roughages </li></ul><ul><li>Lucerne, excellent well balanced feed for horses and a good source of Calcium and Vitamin A. </li></ul><ul><li>Oats hay is preferred by horses. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Practical feeding of various classes <ul><li>Mare feeding </li></ul><ul><li>       The most important period of feeding of pregnant mare is last 90 days </li></ul><ul><li>       The dietary requirement of breeding mare can be arbitrarily divided into 3 stages: </li></ul><ul><li>o        Requirement up to 8 months of gestation </li></ul><ul><li>o        Requirement during last 3 months of gestation </li></ul><ul><li>o        Lactation up to 4 months of post parturition. </li></ul><ul><li>       In the last quarter of pregnancy, foetus occupying increase in proportion of mare abdominal cavity. Accordingly, her capacity for bulky feeds decline during the period in which nutrient requirement increases. </li></ul><ul><li>       The quality of hay should improve during the last 3 months of gestation. </li></ul><ul><li>       The diet in the period should contain concentrate mixture with 16%protein upto 25-35% of the diet which can increase or decrease depending upon the condition of mare, its response to feed, the quality of hay and pasture used. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Suggested concentrate diet during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Feed % in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Oats 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Corn 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Barley 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat bran 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Soya bean meal 11.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed meal 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Alfalfa meal 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Black strap molasses 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Dicalcium phosphate 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Salt trace mineralised 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin supplement 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>The concentrate diet should contain 16% Protein, 1% Calcium and 0.9 % phosphorous. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Feeding of mare during lactation <ul><li>       During 1 st phase of lactation i.e. first 3 months of lactation, feed intake increases by 37% over feed intake during the last quarters of pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>       The amount of concentrate intake can vary depending upon the quality of hay and pasture used, the milk production level of the mare, her condition and other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>       During first 3 months of lactation, the total diet of mare should contain at least 12.5% of protein but it can be upto 14%. </li></ul><ul><li>       The inclusion of soyabean meal has been shown to improve the protein content of early lactation mare’s milk and it is considered to be accompanied by faster growth of foal. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Colostrum <ul><li>       Colostrum of mare is rich in protein, vitamin, minerals and heavily loaded with antibodies against most of common harmful diseases. It has stimulatory and slightly laxative effect on muconium. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Colostrum feeding <ul><li>       The immunoglobulins concentration will be more in udder within last 2 weeks of gestation. </li></ul><ul><li>       The foal absorb r-globulin as intact undegraded molecules throughout first 12 hours of life which get reduced to a great extent in next 24 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>       The mare colostrum contain protein upto 19% immediately after parturition, which falls to 3.3% after 12 hours and to a fairly constant level of 2.2% after 8 days. </li></ul><ul><li>       The foal should receive about 500 ml of colostrum by nipple or stomach tube every hour for 3 or 4 feeds before 12 hours of age. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Feeding of stallion <ul><li>       Stallion are subjected to same seasonal influence as affect the breeding cycles of mare i.e. fertility is greatest in summer and least in winter. </li></ul><ul><li>       Improved fertility in stallions can also be obtained by subjecting them to a artificial light and richer food in winter. </li></ul><ul><li>       At no time, should the stallion be allowed to fatten or lose condition. </li></ul><ul><li>       The energy requirements of the stallion rise during the breeding season. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Feeding during breeding season <ul><li>       Provide more energy, Vitamin, protein, minerals by feeding higher level of concentrate in the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>       The concentrate and roughage can be in equal proportion during this period. However, the level of concentrates can increase or decrease depending upon the quality of forage, condition of stallion and number of services required weekly. </li></ul>
  70. 70. HEALTH MANAGEMENT <ul><li>       Equine influenza – Caused by Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate the animal above 6 months of age. Inactivated vaccine 2 doses are given at 8-12 months apart. </li></ul><ul><li>      Equine infectious anaemia - caused by virus </li></ul><ul><li>No specific treatment available </li></ul><ul><li>Control the stable from flies and mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>      Tetanus - caused by bacteria (Clostridium tetani </li></ul><ul><li>Active immunisation </li></ul><ul><li>Horses are highly susceptible to tetanus </li></ul><ul><li>(During rectal examination, always wear gloves to avoid the chances of spread of tetanus as dung may contain spores) </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>     Strangles </li></ul><ul><li>Killed vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Given in endemic areas </li></ul><ul><li>     Anthrax - caused by bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax spore vaccine given in endemic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid quarantine measure </li></ul><ul><li>      Glanders – caused by bacteria (pseudo monas mali) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete quarantine measures </li></ul><ul><li>    Azoturia (Monday morning sickness) – Equine paralytic myoglobinurea </li></ul><ul><li>Management – Decrease the feed intake when the animal is not working. </li></ul><ul><li> Administration of sedative </li></ul><ul><li>Injection of B-Complex </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li> Trypanosomiasis (Surra) – caused by Trypanosoma evansi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment – Quina pyramine sulphate and chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Injection of berenil (Hoechst company) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Control – by means of vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>      Dourine – Trypanosoma equiperdum </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Mucopurulent discharge from urethra in stallion and vagina in mares </li></ul><ul><li>Gross odema of genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>(For other vaccination details of brood mare and foal please refer theory class notes) </li></ul>
  74. 74. General measures in dealing with out –break <ul><li>When infectious disease are diagnosed, the following principles are to be observed. </li></ul><ul><li>1)      Removal of animals from the lines </li></ul><ul><li>2)      Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>3)      Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>4)      Disposal of carcasses </li></ul><ul><li>5)      Disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>6)      Periodical inspection </li></ul><ul><li>7)      Early diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>8)      Prevention and treatment </li></ul><ul><li>9)      Destruction of infected carcasses, manure and bedding material </li></ul><ul><li>10)Boiling water and steam are useful for disinfection </li></ul>