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History is a science, no more and no less.
---------J. B. Bury


John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury,
was an eminent Irish historian, classical scholar, Byzantinist and
philologist.
If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development.
---------Aristotle


                            Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek
                            philosopher, a student of Plato and
                            teacher of Alexander the Great. His
                            writings cover many subjects, including
                            physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, m
                            usic, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, g
                            overnment, ethics, biology, and zoology.
The history of English grammars begins late in the sixteenth
century with the Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar.

 In the early works, the structure and rules of English
grammar were contrasted with those of Latin. A more modern
approach, incorporating phonology, was introduced in the
nineteenth century.
BRIEF HISTORY ON EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR



The Dutch tradition of writing English grammars, which began with Thomas
Basson's The Conjugations in Englische and Netherdutche in the same year—
1586—as William Bullokar's first English grammar (written in
English), gained renewed strength in the early 20th century in the work of
three grammarians: Hendrik Poutsma, Etsko Kruisinga, and Reinard
Zandvoort. Poutsma's Grammar of late modern English, published between
1904 and 1929 and written for "continental, especially Dutch students,"
selected all its examples from English literature




                                 Thomas Basson
Reinard Zandvoort
A sentence is a group of words that
expresses a complete meaning.




      1) Assertive sentences
      2) Interrogative sentences
      3) Imperative sentences
      4) Exclamatory sentences
1. Assertive (or declarative) sentences: These sentences are statements. They state
or declare something. It can make either a positive or a negative statement.
2. Interrogative sentences: These sentences ask questions. They end with a question
    mark.
3. Imperative sentences: These sentences expresses orders, requests and advice.
    They end with the full stop.
4.Exclamatory sentences: These sentences expresses strong or sudden feelings.
    They begin with what or how. They end with the mark of exclamation.
It is a person or a thing we talk about in a sentence. It is
   the doer of the action denoted by the verb.




   It is what we say about the subject in a sentence. It must
   have a finite verb.

EXAMPLE:

     I stand across Gilbert
1.Noun
                 A part of speech (also a word class,
2.Adjective      a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a
3.Pronoun        linguistic category of words (or more
4.Verb           precisely lexical items), which is generally
5.Adverb         defined by the syntactic or
6.Preposition    morphological behaviour of the lexical item
7.Conjunction    in question.
8.Interjection
A noun is the name of a person, a place, an animal or a thing.

Kinds of Nouns:

    Proper nouns
    Common nouns
    Collective nouns
    Material nouns
    Abstract nouns
•A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing.
•Eg:
     Hitler was a great leader.
     Harry Potter is awesome.
•A proper noun is the name common to every member of a class or a
kind.
•Eg:
      A good book on your shelf is a friend that turns its back on you
and remains a friend.
•A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things taken
 together.
•Eg:
     A herd of cattle is passing .
     The jury found the prisoner guilty.
•A collective noun is the name of a material of which a thing is made.
•Eg:
     Don't miss all the beautiful colors of the rainbow looking for that pot of
     gold.
     We play cricket with willow wood.
•An abstract noun is the name of a quality, an action or a state.
•Eg:
     I love all the stars in the sky, but they are nothing compared to the
ones in your eyes.
     Since you get more joy out of giving joy to others, you should put a
good deal of thought into the happiness that you are able to give.
     - Eleanor Roosevelt
An adjective is a word that describes a noun. It is usually put
   before the noun.


Kinds of Adjectives:

  Adjectives of quality
  Adjectives of quantity
  Numeral adjectives
  Distributive adjectives
  Demonstrative adjectives
  Interrogative adjectives
  Possessive adjectives
They tell us about the quality or kind of a person or thing we are
talking about.
Eg:
   Janaki has a sweet voice
   The tiger is a fierce animal
They denote how much of a thing is meant.
Eg:
   There is no rum in the bottle.
   He gave   some money to the beggar.
They show how many persons or things are meant, or the order in
which persons or things stand.
Eg:
   There are   seven   eggs on the plate.
They denote each one of a number.
Eg:
   They gave a pen to   each boy.
Some other distributive adjectives are:
   every, neither, either.




  These adjectives point out which person or thing is referred to:
  Eg:
      What are you reading these days?
        This   watch does not belong to me.
These adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions.
Eg:
   Whose turn is it?
   What time is it?
The words my, our, you, his her, its, there are possessive
adjectives. These are used with nouns to show who possesses
something. These words are also called pronouns.
Eg:
   Our teacher did not come today.
   Do your homework!
A pronoun is a word used in place of a
noun.



          Personal pronouns
          Relative pronouns
          Interrogative pronouns
          Reflexive and emphatic
           pronouns
          Demonstrative pronouns
          Distributive pronouns
          Indefinite pronouns
          Reciprocal pronouns
Personal pronouns stand for three persons:
First person(the person speaking):I,we,me,mine,us,our
Second person(the person spoken to): you,yours
Third person(the person or thing spoken
of):he,she,it,him,her,his,they ,them,theirs
Pronouns who, whose,whom,which and that are called
relative pronouns when they are used to join sentences.
Pronouns who, what,which ,whom,whoseare called
interrogative pronouns when they are used to ask
questions.
Eg: Where is the party tonight?
The words
myself, ourselves, yourself, herself, himself, itself,them
selves are called reflexive pronouns.Sometimes they
are used for emphasis.
Eg: The baby saw itself(the baby) in the mirror.
    I myself wrote to him.
The words this,that, these,those are called
demonstrative pronouns when they are used to point
out the things and persons they refer to.
Eg:
  That was a brilliant shot from Raina.
The words each,either,neither,everyone,everybody
are called distributive pronouns.They refer to persons
or things one at a time.They are always singular.
Eg:
   They were given a rupee each.
    You could buy either of the books.
The words given in the tabular column below are
called indefinite pronouns.They do not refer to person
or anything in particular.
Eg: One must love one’s country.
The word each other and one another are called
reciprocal pronouns.
Eg: The two brothers did not like .
A verb is a word which expresses an action, or states what a person
or a thing is, or expresses what is done to a person or a thing, or
tells what a person or a thing ‘suffers’.




    Transitive verb
    Intransitive verb
Transitive verb:
    A verb which requires an object to complete its meaning is
    called a transitive verb.
    Eg:
        Ram has broken the chair.
        They distributed sweets.




 Intransitive verb:
    A verb which does not require an object to complete its meaning
    is called a intransitive verb.
    Eg:
        The dogs are barking.
         Stars twinkle.
They tell us how, when, where , how often actions take place.




 KINDS OF ADVERBS:

            a) Simple adverbs
            b) Interrogative adverbs
            c) Relative adverbs
KINDS OF SIMPLE ADVERBS:



    1.   Adverbs of Manner-how
    2.   Adverbs of time-when
    3.   Adverbs of place-where
    4.   Adverbs of frequency-how often
    5.   Adverbs of degree-what extent
    6.   Adverbs of affirmation and negation
    7.   Adverbs of reason
Preposition is a word which shows the
relationship of a noun or a pronoun with
another word in a sentence.
at,in,on
above,below
between, among
against



 at,in,on
 from,to
 since,for
 by,till(until)
 during



   into
   along
   across
   towards,to
   by,with
Co-ordinating conjunctions
Sub-ordinating conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions
Timeline of English grammars

1586. William Bullokar: Bref Grammar for
English.
1594. Paul Greaves: Grammatica Anglicana.
1617. Alexander Hume: Orthographie and
Congruitie of the Britan Tongue.
1619/1621. Alexander Gill: Logonomia Anglica.
1634. Charles Butler: English Grammar.
1640. Ben Jonson: The English Grammar.
1646. Joshua Poole: The English
Accidence.[12]653. John Wallis: Grammatica
Linguæ Anglicanæ.
1654. Jeremiah Wharton: The English
Grammar.
1662. James Howell: A New English Grammar.
1669. John Newton: School Pastime for Young
Children: or the Rudiments of Grammar.
1669. John Milton: Accedence Commenc't
Grammar (a Latin grammar written in
English).
1671. Thomas Lye: The Child's Delight.
1685. Christopher Cooper: Grammatica
Linguæ Anglicanæ.
1688. Guy Miège: The English Grammar.
1804. Noah Webster: A Grammatical Institute
of the English Language.
1818. William Cobbett: A Grammar of the
English Language, In a Series of Letters.
1850. William Chauncey Fowler: English
grammar: The English language in its
elements and forms.
1874 Eduard Adolf Maetzner, An English
grammar: methodical, analytical, and
historical. With a treatise on the
orthography, prosody, inflections and syntax
of the English tongue, and numerous
authorities cited in order of historical
development. (English translation of Englische
Grammatik (1860–65)).
1892/98. Henry Sweet: A New English
Grammar, Logical and Historical (Part 1:
Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence; Part
2: Syntax).
1904–1929. H. Poutsma: A Grammar of
Modern English (5 volumes).
1909–1932. Etsko Kruisinga: A Handbook of
Present-day English
1909–1940. Otto Jespersen: A Modern English

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Review on english grammar

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. History is a science, no more and no less. ---------J. B. Bury John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), known as J. B. Bury, was an eminent Irish historian, classical scholar, Byzantinist and philologist.
  • 4. If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development. ---------Aristotle Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, m usic, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, g overnment, ethics, biology, and zoology.
  • 5. The history of English grammars begins late in the sixteenth century with the Pamphlet for Grammar by William Bullokar.  In the early works, the structure and rules of English grammar were contrasted with those of Latin. A more modern approach, incorporating phonology, was introduced in the nineteenth century.
  • 6. BRIEF HISTORY ON EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR The Dutch tradition of writing English grammars, which began with Thomas Basson's The Conjugations in Englische and Netherdutche in the same year— 1586—as William Bullokar's first English grammar (written in English), gained renewed strength in the early 20th century in the work of three grammarians: Hendrik Poutsma, Etsko Kruisinga, and Reinard Zandvoort. Poutsma's Grammar of late modern English, published between 1904 and 1929 and written for "continental, especially Dutch students," selected all its examples from English literature Thomas Basson
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  • 9. A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete meaning. 1) Assertive sentences 2) Interrogative sentences 3) Imperative sentences 4) Exclamatory sentences
  • 10. 1. Assertive (or declarative) sentences: These sentences are statements. They state or declare something. It can make either a positive or a negative statement.
  • 11. 2. Interrogative sentences: These sentences ask questions. They end with a question mark.
  • 12. 3. Imperative sentences: These sentences expresses orders, requests and advice. They end with the full stop.
  • 13. 4.Exclamatory sentences: These sentences expresses strong or sudden feelings. They begin with what or how. They end with the mark of exclamation.
  • 14. It is a person or a thing we talk about in a sentence. It is the doer of the action denoted by the verb. It is what we say about the subject in a sentence. It must have a finite verb. EXAMPLE: I stand across Gilbert
  • 15. 1.Noun A part of speech (also a word class, 2.Adjective a lexical class, or a lexical category) is a 3.Pronoun linguistic category of words (or more 4.Verb precisely lexical items), which is generally 5.Adverb defined by the syntactic or 6.Preposition morphological behaviour of the lexical item 7.Conjunction in question. 8.Interjection
  • 16. A noun is the name of a person, a place, an animal or a thing. Kinds of Nouns: Proper nouns Common nouns Collective nouns Material nouns Abstract nouns
  • 17. •A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing. •Eg: Hitler was a great leader. Harry Potter is awesome.
  • 18. •A proper noun is the name common to every member of a class or a kind. •Eg: A good book on your shelf is a friend that turns its back on you and remains a friend.
  • 19. •A collective noun is the name of a group of persons or things taken together. •Eg: A herd of cattle is passing . The jury found the prisoner guilty.
  • 20. •A collective noun is the name of a material of which a thing is made. •Eg: Don't miss all the beautiful colors of the rainbow looking for that pot of gold. We play cricket with willow wood.
  • 21. •An abstract noun is the name of a quality, an action or a state. •Eg: I love all the stars in the sky, but they are nothing compared to the ones in your eyes. Since you get more joy out of giving joy to others, you should put a good deal of thought into the happiness that you are able to give. - Eleanor Roosevelt
  • 22. An adjective is a word that describes a noun. It is usually put before the noun. Kinds of Adjectives: Adjectives of quality Adjectives of quantity Numeral adjectives Distributive adjectives Demonstrative adjectives Interrogative adjectives Possessive adjectives
  • 23. They tell us about the quality or kind of a person or thing we are talking about. Eg: Janaki has a sweet voice The tiger is a fierce animal
  • 24. They denote how much of a thing is meant. Eg: There is no rum in the bottle. He gave some money to the beggar.
  • 25. They show how many persons or things are meant, or the order in which persons or things stand. Eg: There are seven eggs on the plate.
  • 26. They denote each one of a number. Eg: They gave a pen to each boy. Some other distributive adjectives are: every, neither, either. These adjectives point out which person or thing is referred to: Eg: What are you reading these days? This watch does not belong to me.
  • 27. These adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions. Eg: Whose turn is it? What time is it?
  • 28. The words my, our, you, his her, its, there are possessive adjectives. These are used with nouns to show who possesses something. These words are also called pronouns. Eg: Our teacher did not come today. Do your homework!
  • 29. A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.  Personal pronouns  Relative pronouns  Interrogative pronouns  Reflexive and emphatic pronouns  Demonstrative pronouns  Distributive pronouns  Indefinite pronouns  Reciprocal pronouns
  • 30. Personal pronouns stand for three persons: First person(the person speaking):I,we,me,mine,us,our Second person(the person spoken to): you,yours Third person(the person or thing spoken of):he,she,it,him,her,his,they ,them,theirs
  • 31. Pronouns who, whose,whom,which and that are called relative pronouns when they are used to join sentences.
  • 32. Pronouns who, what,which ,whom,whoseare called interrogative pronouns when they are used to ask questions. Eg: Where is the party tonight?
  • 33. The words myself, ourselves, yourself, herself, himself, itself,them selves are called reflexive pronouns.Sometimes they are used for emphasis. Eg: The baby saw itself(the baby) in the mirror. I myself wrote to him.
  • 34. The words this,that, these,those are called demonstrative pronouns when they are used to point out the things and persons they refer to. Eg: That was a brilliant shot from Raina.
  • 35. The words each,either,neither,everyone,everybody are called distributive pronouns.They refer to persons or things one at a time.They are always singular. Eg: They were given a rupee each. You could buy either of the books.
  • 36. The words given in the tabular column below are called indefinite pronouns.They do not refer to person or anything in particular. Eg: One must love one’s country.
  • 37. The word each other and one another are called reciprocal pronouns. Eg: The two brothers did not like .
  • 38. A verb is a word which expresses an action, or states what a person or a thing is, or expresses what is done to a person or a thing, or tells what a person or a thing ‘suffers’. Transitive verb Intransitive verb
  • 39. Transitive verb: A verb which requires an object to complete its meaning is called a transitive verb. Eg: Ram has broken the chair. They distributed sweets. Intransitive verb: A verb which does not require an object to complete its meaning is called a intransitive verb. Eg: The dogs are barking. Stars twinkle.
  • 40. They tell us how, when, where , how often actions take place. KINDS OF ADVERBS: a) Simple adverbs b) Interrogative adverbs c) Relative adverbs
  • 41. KINDS OF SIMPLE ADVERBS: 1. Adverbs of Manner-how 2. Adverbs of time-when 3. Adverbs of place-where 4. Adverbs of frequency-how often 5. Adverbs of degree-what extent 6. Adverbs of affirmation and negation 7. Adverbs of reason
  • 42. Preposition is a word which shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun with another word in a sentence.
  • 43. at,in,on above,below between, among against at,in,on from,to since,for by,till(until) during into along across towards,to by,with
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  • 48. Timeline of English grammars 1586. William Bullokar: Bref Grammar for English. 1594. Paul Greaves: Grammatica Anglicana. 1617. Alexander Hume: Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue. 1619/1621. Alexander Gill: Logonomia Anglica. 1634. Charles Butler: English Grammar. 1640. Ben Jonson: The English Grammar. 1646. Joshua Poole: The English Accidence.[12]653. John Wallis: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ. 1654. Jeremiah Wharton: The English Grammar. 1662. James Howell: A New English Grammar. 1669. John Newton: School Pastime for Young Children: or the Rudiments of Grammar. 1669. John Milton: Accedence Commenc't Grammar (a Latin grammar written in English). 1671. Thomas Lye: The Child's Delight. 1685. Christopher Cooper: Grammatica Linguæ Anglicanæ. 1688. Guy Miège: The English Grammar.
  • 49. 1804. Noah Webster: A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. 1818. William Cobbett: A Grammar of the English Language, In a Series of Letters. 1850. William Chauncey Fowler: English grammar: The English language in its elements and forms. 1874 Eduard Adolf Maetzner, An English grammar: methodical, analytical, and historical. With a treatise on the orthography, prosody, inflections and syntax of the English tongue, and numerous authorities cited in order of historical development. (English translation of Englische Grammatik (1860–65)). 1892/98. Henry Sweet: A New English Grammar, Logical and Historical (Part 1: Introduction, Phonology, and Accidence; Part 2: Syntax). 1904–1929. H. Poutsma: A Grammar of Modern English (5 volumes). 1909–1932. Etsko Kruisinga: A Handbook of Present-day English 1909–1940. Otto Jespersen: A Modern English