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THE TENSES
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Classification based on Time Frame
• Classification based on Aspect
• Block diagram of Tenses
• List of Rules
• Present Tense
• Past Tense
• Future Tense
• List of Examples
INTRODUCTION
The word Tense is derived
from latin word “tempus”
which means time. A verb
indicates the time of an
action, event or condition by
changing its form.
Based on Time frame
The verb tenses may be
categorized according to the
time frame:
•Present Tense
•Past Tense
•Future Tense
Present Tense :---
Present tense expresses an
unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring
action or situation that exists only now. It
can also represent a widespread truth.
Past Tense :---
Past tense expresses an action or
situation that was started and finished in
the past.
Future Tense :---
Future tense expresses an action
or situation that will occur in the future.
CONTENTS
Based on Aspect
Verb tenses may also be
categorized according to aspect.
Aspect refers to the nature of
the action described by the verb.
There are four aspects:
•Indefinite or Simple
•Continuous or Progressive
•Perfect or Complete
•Perfect Continuous
Indefinite Tense
The three indefinite tenses, or
simple tenses, describe an action but do
not state whether the action is finished.
Continuous Tense
The three continuous tenses,
incomplete tenses, or progressive
tenses, describe an unfinished action.
Perfect Tense
The three complete tenses, or
perfect tenses, describe a finished action.
Perfect Continuous Tense
To combine the complete tenses and
the incomplete tenses, to describe an action
which was in progress and then finished
CONTENTS
There are twelve possible
verb tenses.
Verb Tenses
Present Past Future
Present Indefinite
Present Continuous
Present Perfect
Present Perfect Cont.
Past Indefinite
Past Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Cont.
Future Indefinite
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Cont.
CONTENTS
Here is a list of rules of
these tenses:
Simple
Forms
Progressive
Forms
Perfect
Forms
Perfect
Progressive
Forms
Present
Ist form +
s / es
am/is/are +
Ist form +
ing
have/ha
s + IIIrd
form
have/has
been + Ist
form + ing
Past IInd form
was/were +
Ist form +
ing
had +
IIIrd
form
had been +
Ist form +
ing
Future
will/shall
+ Ist form
will be + Ist
form + ing
will have
+ IIIrd
form
will have
been + Ist
form + ing
CONTENTS
Present Tense
Present
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Cont.Tense
Present Indefinite Tense
The simple present is used
to describe an action, an event, or
condition that is occurring in the
present, at the moment of speaking
or writing.
For Example—
I play.
He / She plays.
Present Continuous Tense
The present continuous
emphasizes the continuing nature of
an act, event, or condition.
For Example—
I am playing.
He / She is playing.
They are playing.
Present Perfect Tense
The present perfect tense is
used to describe action that began in
the past and continues into the
present or has just been completed.
For Example—
I have played.
He / She has played.
Present Perfect Cont.Tense
The present perfect
continuous is used to describe an
action, event, or condition that has
begun in the past and continues into
the present.
For Example—
I / You have been playing.
He / She has been playing.
CONTENTS
Past Tense
Past
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Cont.Tense
Past Indefinite Tense
The simple past is used to
describe an action, an event, or
condition that occurred in the past.
For Example—
I played.
He / She played.
Past Continuous Tense
The past continuous tense is
used to described actions ongoing in the
past.
For Example—
I was playing.
He / She was playing.
You were playing.
Past Perfect Tense
The past perfect tense is
used to refer to actions that took
place and were completed in the
past.
For Example—
I had played.
He / She had played.
Past Perfect Cont.Tense
The past perfect
continuous is used to indicate that
a continuing action in the past began
before another past action began or
interrupted the first action.
For Example—
I had been playing.
He / She had been playing.
CONTENTS
Future Tense
Future
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Cont.Tense
Future Indefinite Tense
The simple future is used to
refer to actions that will take place
after the act of speaking or writing.
For Example—
I shall play.
He / She will play.
Future Continuous Tense
The future continuous tense
is used to describe actions ongoing in
the future. The future progressive is
used to refer to continuing action
that will occur in the future.
For Example—
I shall be playing.
He / She will be playing.
Future Perfect Tense
The future perfect is used to
refer to an action that will be
completed sometime in the future
before another action takes place.
For Example—
I shall have played.
He / She will have played.
Future Perfect
Continuous Tense
The future perfect continuous
tense is used to indicate a continuing
action that will be completed at some
specified time in the future.
For Example—
I shall have been playing.
He / She will have been playing.
CONTENTS
Here is a list of examples of these
tenses and their definitions:
Simple
Forms
Progressive
Forms
Perfect
Forms
Perfect
Progressive
Forms
Present I play I am playing
I have
played
I have been
playing
Past I played
I was
playing
I had
played
I had been
playing
Future
I shall
play
I shall be
playing
I shall
have
played
I shall have
been
playing

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English tenses

  • 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Classification based on Time Frame • Classification based on Aspect • Block diagram of Tenses • List of Rules • Present Tense • Past Tense • Future Tense • List of Examples
  • 3. INTRODUCTION The word Tense is derived from latin word “tempus” which means time. A verb indicates the time of an action, event or condition by changing its form.
  • 4. Based on Time frame The verb tenses may be categorized according to the time frame: •Present Tense •Past Tense •Future Tense
  • 5. Present Tense :--- Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth. Past Tense :--- Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Future Tense :--- Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. CONTENTS
  • 6. Based on Aspect Verb tenses may also be categorized according to aspect. Aspect refers to the nature of the action described by the verb. There are four aspects: •Indefinite or Simple •Continuous or Progressive •Perfect or Complete •Perfect Continuous
  • 7. Indefinite Tense The three indefinite tenses, or simple tenses, describe an action but do not state whether the action is finished. Continuous Tense The three continuous tenses, incomplete tenses, or progressive tenses, describe an unfinished action. Perfect Tense The three complete tenses, or perfect tenses, describe a finished action. Perfect Continuous Tense To combine the complete tenses and the incomplete tenses, to describe an action which was in progress and then finished CONTENTS
  • 8. There are twelve possible verb tenses. Verb Tenses Present Past Future Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect Cont. Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Cont. Future Indefinite Future Continuous Future Perfect Future Perfect Cont. CONTENTS
  • 9. Here is a list of rules of these tenses: Simple Forms Progressive Forms Perfect Forms Perfect Progressive Forms Present Ist form + s / es am/is/are + Ist form + ing have/ha s + IIIrd form have/has been + Ist form + ing Past IInd form was/were + Ist form + ing had + IIIrd form had been + Ist form + ing Future will/shall + Ist form will be + Ist form + ing will have + IIIrd form will have been + Ist form + ing CONTENTS
  • 10. Present Tense Present Present Indefinite Tense Present Continuous Tense Present Perfect Tense Present Perfect Cont.Tense
  • 11. Present Indefinite Tense The simple present is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that is occurring in the present, at the moment of speaking or writing. For Example— I play. He / She plays.
  • 12. Present Continuous Tense The present continuous emphasizes the continuing nature of an act, event, or condition. For Example— I am playing. He / She is playing. They are playing.
  • 13. Present Perfect Tense The present perfect tense is used to describe action that began in the past and continues into the present or has just been completed. For Example— I have played. He / She has played.
  • 14. Present Perfect Cont.Tense The present perfect continuous is used to describe an action, event, or condition that has begun in the past and continues into the present. For Example— I / You have been playing. He / She has been playing. CONTENTS
  • 15. Past Tense Past Past Indefinite Tense Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Cont.Tense
  • 16. Past Indefinite Tense The simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the past. For Example— I played. He / She played.
  • 17. Past Continuous Tense The past continuous tense is used to described actions ongoing in the past. For Example— I was playing. He / She was playing. You were playing.
  • 18. Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense is used to refer to actions that took place and were completed in the past. For Example— I had played. He / She had played.
  • 19. Past Perfect Cont.Tense The past perfect continuous is used to indicate that a continuing action in the past began before another past action began or interrupted the first action. For Example— I had been playing. He / She had been playing. CONTENTS
  • 20. Future Tense Future Future Indefinite Tense Future Continuous Tense Future Perfect Tense Future Perfect Cont.Tense
  • 21. Future Indefinite Tense The simple future is used to refer to actions that will take place after the act of speaking or writing. For Example— I shall play. He / She will play.
  • 22. Future Continuous Tense The future continuous tense is used to describe actions ongoing in the future. The future progressive is used to refer to continuing action that will occur in the future. For Example— I shall be playing. He / She will be playing.
  • 23. Future Perfect Tense The future perfect is used to refer to an action that will be completed sometime in the future before another action takes place. For Example— I shall have played. He / She will have played.
  • 24. Future Perfect Continuous Tense The future perfect continuous tense is used to indicate a continuing action that will be completed at some specified time in the future. For Example— I shall have been playing. He / She will have been playing. CONTENTS
  • 25. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions: Simple Forms Progressive Forms Perfect Forms Perfect Progressive Forms Present I play I am playing I have played I have been playing Past I played I was playing I had played I had been playing Future I shall play I shall be playing I shall have played I shall have been playing