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Presented By –
Biswadeep Mukhopadhyay
Roll No.: CTS/20/602
Department of Computer Science
5th Semester, 3rd Year
“
”
Max Planck
Father of Quantum Physics
Sl No. Topic Slide No.
1 Introduction 4
2 QUBIT 5 - 6
3 Evolution of Quantum Computing 7
4 Quantum Superposition 8
5 Quantum Entanglement 9
6 How does a Quantum Computer Works ? 10 - 11
7 Why Quantum Computing ? 12
8 Types of Quantum Computing 13 - 17
9 Drawbacks 18
10 Tech-Giants’ Utilizing Quantum Computing 19
11 Conclusion 20
• Quantum computing is an area of computer science that uses the
principles of quantum theory. Quantum theory explains the behavior of
energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels.
• Quantum computing uses subatomic particles, such as electrons or
photons. Quantum bits, or qubits, allow these particles to exist in more
than one state (i.e., 1 and 0) at the same time.
• A qubit is a two-level quantum system where the two basis qubit
states are usually written as
1
2
∣ 0⟩ and
1
2
∣ 1⟩.
• A qubit can be in state
1
2
∣ 0⟩ and
1
2
∣ 1⟩ or (unlike a classical bit)
in a linear combination of both states. The name of this
phenomenon is superposition.
• 1982 – Richard Feyman proposed the idea of creating machine
based on the laws of quantum mechanics.
• 1985 – David Deutsch developed the quantum Turing machine,
showing that quantum circuits are universal.
• 1994 – Peter Shor came up with a quantum algorithm to factor very
large numbers in polynomial time.
• 1997 – Lov Grover develops a quantum search algorithm with
O( 𝑁) complexity.
• The quantum system is capable of being in several different states at
the same time.
• Example – Young’s Double Slit Experiment
• It is an extremely strong correlation that exists between quantum particles
• Two or more quantum particles can be inextricably linked in perfect unis-
on, even when placed at opposite ends of the universe.
• This seemingly impossible connection inspired Einstein to describe
entanglement as “Spooky action at a distance”.
Let’s say you invite five colleagues to your wedding, and you need to
plan their seating arrangements. The total number of ways to do so is 5! = 120.
Now, a conventional computing system tends to evaluate each of the 120
possibilities, compare them, and then decide on the final optimization.
However, a quantum computer undertakes the following steps for
optimizing seat allocation:
1.Considers qubits and creates quantum superposition for all possible quantum states.
2.The encoder applies phases to each quantum state and configures the qubits. For the
possible sitting ways that fall in phase, the amplitudes add up, while for the out-of-phase
ways, the amplitudes cancel out.
3.The quantum computer then uses interference to reinforce or amplify some answers and
cancel or diminish the others. As a result, a single solution for optimized seat allocation is
finally reached.
• Quantum computers take up a fraction of the space of classical computers.
• Level of power that can find solutions to problems out of the reach of today's
computers.
• By decreasing the size of transistors we are gradually approaching to the atom
stage, beyond which we can’t move down except applying the quantum mechanics
which in-turn give rise to quantum computing.
• "A quantum computer can create superposition with multiple probabilities that we
cannot achieve today, let alone examine the features of those probabilities. With
this type of application, the quantum computer will be much more efficient than a
classical computer,” asserts García Ripoll.
• Quantum annealing is best for solving optimization problems.
• Quantum annealing is the least powerful and most narrowly applied form of quantum
computing.
• For example, Volkswagen (VW) recently conducted a quantum experiment to optimize traffic
flows in the overcrowded city of Beijing, China. The experiment was run in partnership with
Google and D-Wave Systems. The algorithm could successfully reduce traffic by choosing the
ideal path for each vehicle, according to VW. Classical computers would take thousands of years
to compute the optimum solution to such a problem. Quantum computers, theoretically, can do it
in a few hours or less, as the number of qubits per quantum computer increases.
• Quantum simulations explore specific problems in quantum physics that are
beyond the capacity of classical systems. Simulating complex quantum
phenomena could be one of the most important applications of quantum
computing.
• Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many
problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic
physics, quantum chemistry and cosmology.
In particular, quantum simulators could be used to simulate protein folding — one of
biochemistry’s toughest problems. Misfolded proteins can cause diseases like Alzheimer’s and
Parkinson’s, and researchers testing new treatments must learn which drugs cause reactions for
each protein through the use of random computer modeling. Quantum computers can help
compute the vast number of possible protein folding sequences for making more effective
medications. In the future, quantum simulations will enable rapid designer drug testing by
accounting for every possible protein-to-drug combination.
• Universal quantum computers are the most powerful and most generally applicable, but
also the hardest to build.
• A truly universal quantum computer would likely make use of over 100,000 qubits.
• The basic idea behind the universal quantum computer is that you could direct the
machine at any massively complex computation and get a quick solution.
• In the distant future, universal quantum computers could revolutionize the field of
artificial intelligence. Quantum AI could enable machine learning that is faster than that of
classical computers.
Rigetti’s 128 qubit quantum chip
• Algorithm creation
• The low temperature needed
• Not open for public
• Internet Security
• IBM
• D-Wave Systems
• Google
• Microsoft Corporation
• Rigetti Computing
• IonQ
• Quantum computers have the potential to revolutionize computation
by making certain types of classically intractable problems solvable.
• While no quantum computer is yet sophisticated enough to carry out
calculations that a classical computer can't, great progress is under
way.
• Quantum simulators are making strides in fields varying from
molecular energetics to many-body physics.
Quantum Computing.pptx

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Quantum Computing.pptx

  • 1. Presented By – Biswadeep Mukhopadhyay Roll No.: CTS/20/602 Department of Computer Science 5th Semester, 3rd Year
  • 3. Sl No. Topic Slide No. 1 Introduction 4 2 QUBIT 5 - 6 3 Evolution of Quantum Computing 7 4 Quantum Superposition 8 5 Quantum Entanglement 9 6 How does a Quantum Computer Works ? 10 - 11 7 Why Quantum Computing ? 12 8 Types of Quantum Computing 13 - 17 9 Drawbacks 18 10 Tech-Giants’ Utilizing Quantum Computing 19 11 Conclusion 20
  • 4. • Quantum computing is an area of computer science that uses the principles of quantum theory. Quantum theory explains the behavior of energy and material on the atomic and subatomic levels. • Quantum computing uses subatomic particles, such as electrons or photons. Quantum bits, or qubits, allow these particles to exist in more than one state (i.e., 1 and 0) at the same time.
  • 5. • A qubit is a two-level quantum system where the two basis qubit states are usually written as 1 2 ∣ 0⟩ and 1 2 ∣ 1⟩. • A qubit can be in state 1 2 ∣ 0⟩ and 1 2 ∣ 1⟩ or (unlike a classical bit) in a linear combination of both states. The name of this phenomenon is superposition.
  • 6.
  • 7. • 1982 – Richard Feyman proposed the idea of creating machine based on the laws of quantum mechanics. • 1985 – David Deutsch developed the quantum Turing machine, showing that quantum circuits are universal. • 1994 – Peter Shor came up with a quantum algorithm to factor very large numbers in polynomial time. • 1997 – Lov Grover develops a quantum search algorithm with O( 𝑁) complexity.
  • 8. • The quantum system is capable of being in several different states at the same time. • Example – Young’s Double Slit Experiment
  • 9. • It is an extremely strong correlation that exists between quantum particles • Two or more quantum particles can be inextricably linked in perfect unis- on, even when placed at opposite ends of the universe. • This seemingly impossible connection inspired Einstein to describe entanglement as “Spooky action at a distance”.
  • 10. Let’s say you invite five colleagues to your wedding, and you need to plan their seating arrangements. The total number of ways to do so is 5! = 120. Now, a conventional computing system tends to evaluate each of the 120 possibilities, compare them, and then decide on the final optimization. However, a quantum computer undertakes the following steps for optimizing seat allocation:
  • 11. 1.Considers qubits and creates quantum superposition for all possible quantum states. 2.The encoder applies phases to each quantum state and configures the qubits. For the possible sitting ways that fall in phase, the amplitudes add up, while for the out-of-phase ways, the amplitudes cancel out. 3.The quantum computer then uses interference to reinforce or amplify some answers and cancel or diminish the others. As a result, a single solution for optimized seat allocation is finally reached.
  • 12. • Quantum computers take up a fraction of the space of classical computers. • Level of power that can find solutions to problems out of the reach of today's computers. • By decreasing the size of transistors we are gradually approaching to the atom stage, beyond which we can’t move down except applying the quantum mechanics which in-turn give rise to quantum computing. • "A quantum computer can create superposition with multiple probabilities that we cannot achieve today, let alone examine the features of those probabilities. With this type of application, the quantum computer will be much more efficient than a classical computer,” asserts García Ripoll.
  • 13.
  • 14. • Quantum annealing is best for solving optimization problems. • Quantum annealing is the least powerful and most narrowly applied form of quantum computing. • For example, Volkswagen (VW) recently conducted a quantum experiment to optimize traffic flows in the overcrowded city of Beijing, China. The experiment was run in partnership with Google and D-Wave Systems. The algorithm could successfully reduce traffic by choosing the ideal path for each vehicle, according to VW. Classical computers would take thousands of years to compute the optimum solution to such a problem. Quantum computers, theoretically, can do it in a few hours or less, as the number of qubits per quantum computer increases.
  • 15. • Quantum simulations explore specific problems in quantum physics that are beyond the capacity of classical systems. Simulating complex quantum phenomena could be one of the most important applications of quantum computing. • Quantum simulation promises to have applications in the study of many problems in, e.g., condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, atomic physics, quantum chemistry and cosmology.
  • 16. In particular, quantum simulators could be used to simulate protein folding — one of biochemistry’s toughest problems. Misfolded proteins can cause diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and researchers testing new treatments must learn which drugs cause reactions for each protein through the use of random computer modeling. Quantum computers can help compute the vast number of possible protein folding sequences for making more effective medications. In the future, quantum simulations will enable rapid designer drug testing by accounting for every possible protein-to-drug combination.
  • 17. • Universal quantum computers are the most powerful and most generally applicable, but also the hardest to build. • A truly universal quantum computer would likely make use of over 100,000 qubits. • The basic idea behind the universal quantum computer is that you could direct the machine at any massively complex computation and get a quick solution. • In the distant future, universal quantum computers could revolutionize the field of artificial intelligence. Quantum AI could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Rigetti’s 128 qubit quantum chip
  • 18. • Algorithm creation • The low temperature needed • Not open for public • Internet Security
  • 19. • IBM • D-Wave Systems • Google • Microsoft Corporation • Rigetti Computing • IonQ
  • 20. • Quantum computers have the potential to revolutionize computation by making certain types of classically intractable problems solvable. • While no quantum computer is yet sophisticated enough to carry out calculations that a classical computer can't, great progress is under way. • Quantum simulators are making strides in fields varying from molecular energetics to many-body physics.