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PROJECT SCHEDULING
The tool that communicates what work needs to be performed,
which resources of the organization will perform the work and
the timeframes in which that work needs to be performed.
The project schedule should reflect all of the work associated
with delivering the project on time. Without a full and
complete schedule, the project manager will be unable to
communicate the complete effort, in terms of cost and
resources, necessary to deliver the project.
For making a schedule, a TIME-SCALED NETWORK ANALYSIS
is used .
COMMON TYPES OF PROJECT SCHEDULING:
GANTT CHART with S-Curve
PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique
CPM - Critical Path MethOd
PDM- Precedence diagram method
GANTT CHART
 A tool used for planning and scheduling project
activities and to monitor progress over time by
comparing planned and actual progress
 A display of cumulative costs, progress or other
quantities plotted against time. The name derives
from the S-like shape of the curve, flatter at the
beginning and end and steeper in the middle,
which is typical of most projects. The beginning
represents a slow, deliberate but accelerating
start, while the end represents a deceleration as
the work runs out.
S- CURVE
PERT was Developed as a result of looking
for an improved method of planning and
evaluating progress of a large scale research
and development program.
Designed to provide the management a
periodic reporting of current status and an
outlook for the future on meeting approved
plans and schedules
PERT - Program Evaluation and
Review Technique
CPM - Critical Path Method
Designed as a tool for planning, scheduling
and control of construction work
Its emphasis was on the work or activities to
be managed
COMPARISON : PERT VS CPM
PERT CPM
PERT is a project management
technique, used to manage uncertain
activities of a project.
CPM is a statistical technique of project
management that manages well defined
activities of a project.
A technique of planning and control of
time.
A method to control cost and time.
Event-oriented Activity-oriented
Evolved as Research & Development
project
Evolved as Construction project
Probabilistic Model Deterministic Model
Time Time-cost trade-off
Unpredictable Activities Predictable activities
Research and Development Project Non-research projects like civil
construction, ship building etc.
PERT/CPM
PERT AND CPM combined, is a control tool for defining
the parts of construction job and then putting them
together in a NETWORK form.
It serves as an aid to the construction manager but it
does not make decision for him nor it does guarantee go
od management. It only serves the project manager to
see the whole picture of the entire job.
It encourages periodic re-evaluation and providing an
accurate measure of progress. Thus, a person in charge
of each work and the project manager knows WHAT is
supposed to happen and WHEN it is supposed to
happen.
PERT/CPM
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE (PD) 1594
Prescribing Policies, Guidelines, Rules and
Regulations for Government Infrastructure
Contract
PERT/CPM
The project manager can easily obtain
 Graphical display of project activities
 Estimate of how long will the project last
 Determine which activities are the most
critical to timely project completion
 Determine how long any activity can be
delayed without lengthening the project
THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM
 PLANNING
 SCHEDULING
 CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM
PLANNING
 Defined as determining the relationship
between the work operation and the
sequence in which they are to be
performed
THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM
PLANNING
1. Dividing the project into distinct activities.
2. Estimating time requirement for each activity.
3. Establishing precedence relationship among
activities.
4. Construction of the arrow diagram (network)
PLANNING PHASE
 FIVE INPUTS THAT CAN BE OBTAINED
1. A network diagram defining the
activities in the project
2. Duration of activities
3. Cost estimates of the activities for
monitoring cost, cash flow requirements
4. Resource estimates
5. Trade indicators (responsibility) for
activity grouping
THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM
SCHEDULING
 Defined as the process of translating the
arrow diagram into time table of calendar
days. Determines the start and end time of
every activity.
SCHEDULE PHASE
FOUR OUTPUT THAT CAN BE OBTAINED
1. Schedule of activities in the network
diagram (critical activities, earliest start,
earliest finish, latest start, latest finish,
float)
2. Bar Chart or a Time-Scaled Network
3. Resource Analysis
4. Cash Requirement
THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM
CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
 Flexibility and updated re-computations
brought about by changing conditions is
the key to a successful network
programming, wherein, this must be
updated periodically.
CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
PHASE
THE OUTPUT PHASE:
1. Time Status Report
2. Revised Schedules
3. Revised Bar Charts/Arrow Diagram/
Network
4. Revised resource Analysis
5. Revised Cash Flow analysis
CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
PHASE
USES ACTUAL DATAS INCLUDING:
1. Additions to the project
2. Deletion from the project
3. Changes as to duration, description, trade
indicators, cost and resource estimates
4. Actual Starting Dates
5. Actual Finishing Dates.
NETWORK or ARROW
DIAGRAM
A project consists of interrelated activities which are to
be executed in a certain order before the entire task is
completed.
The activities are interrelated in a logical sequence
which is known as Precedence relationship.
Project is represented in the form of network for the
purpose of analytical treatment to get solutions for
scheduling and controlling its activities.
A Network diagram are composed mainly of a number
of Arrows (Activity) and Nodes (Events)
ELEMENTS OF NETWORK DIAGRAMMING
Activity (Arrows) - is the work
operations required to complete a task
or the actual work between events.
Events (Nodes) – Point in time
signifying the beginning or end of one
or more activities.
Dummy Activity- an arrow with
imaginary activity on a network
showing the precedence relationship
between two activities. Duration = 0
Duration – the time it takes an activity
to be finished.
Path- a sequence of activities that
leads from the starting node to the
finishing node.
NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS
Conventions:
1. Activity on Arrow
2. Activity on Node
Principles :
1. Everything on the
Diagram must have
meaning.
2. An activity has a single
definite starting point (tail
event) and a single ending
point (head event)
3. The network does not
describe time relationship
but rather dependency
relationship
4. The network is hardly
ever done by a single
person.
THE NETWORK DIAGRAM
Critical Path - Is the longest
route in the network of a project
representing a project. The sum
of the activities duration along
this path will be the DURATION
OF THE PROJECT, any delays
within these activities may result
to delay on the entire project.
Two Phases:
1. Forward Pass – determining
the Earliest Start (ES) Event
1. Backward Pass-
Determining the Latest
Finish (LF) Event
THE NETWORK DIAGRAM
Earliest Event – earliest occurrence of
an event and numerically equal to the
longest path of activities in series from
the project start to finish.
ES – Earliest Start Event
ES(n) =MAX { EF(n-1) + D(n)}
EF- Earliest Finish Event
EF(n) =ES(n-1)+ D(n)
Latest Events - latest time the event
may occur without delaying project
completion.
LS – Latest Start Event
LS(n) =LF(n+1) - D(n)
LF- Latest Finish Event
LF(n) =MIN { LF(n+1) - D(n)}
THE NETWORK DIAGRAM
Conditions for Critical Path:
1. Based on Earliest Start and Latest
Finish:
ES(1) = LF(1)
ES(n) = LF(n)
ES(n) - ES(1) = LF(n) - LF(1) = D(n)
1. Based on Total Float and Free
Float:
TF(n) = FF(n) =0
THE NETWORK DIAGRAM
Total Float (TF) - the span of time
an activity can be delayed after its
earliest start time without delaying
the project completion.
TF (n) =LF(n)- EF(n)
TF (n) =LF(n)- ES(n-1)- D(n)
Free Float (FF) – the span of time
that the activity completion time
can be delayed without affecting the
Earliest Start Time of immediate
successor activities in the network.
FF (n) =ES(n)- ES(n-1)- D(n)
1. The starting event and
ending event of an activity
are also called tail event
and head event respectively.
2. The network should have a
unique starting node (tail
event).
3. The network should have a
unique completion node
(head event).
4. No activity should be
represented more than one
activity in the network.
5. No two activities should
have the same starting
node and the same ending
node.
6. Duration of a dummy
activity is zero
Guidelines for Network
Construction
Example:
ACTIVITY PREDECESSOR(S)
DURATION
(WEEKS)
A - 2
B - 5
C - 4
D B 5
E A 7
F A 3
G B 3
H C,D 6
I C,D 2
J E 5
K F,G,H 4
L F,G,H 3
M I 12
N J,K 8
1. Construct the Network
diagram for this data from a
project:
2. Determine the Critical Path
and Determine the total
duration of the Project
3. Compute the Total Float and
Free Float
Seatwork:
ACTIVITY PREDECESSOR(S)
DURATION
(WEEKS)
A - 6
B - 3
C - 4
D A 2
E B 3
F C 5
G C 3
H E,F 5
I D 5
J HG 3
1. Construct the Network
diagram for this data from a
project:
2. Determine the Critical Path
and Determine the total
duration of the Project
1. Construct the Network
diagram for this data from a
project:
2. Determine the Critical Path
and Determine the total
duration of the Project
3. Compute the Total Float and
Free Float
REMINDERS: BSCE 4A
Reporting- Printed Output – last submission Friday, March22,
2019
FINAL EXAM - Tuesday, MARCH 28, 2019 6-9PM
Coverage: Chapters 3-9
PIT (Assignment) – Printed Output submitted
on/before April 01, 2019.
Output: Project Drawings, Program of
Works, Gantt Chart with S-Curve and
PERT/CPM network diagram
REMINDERS: BSCE 4C
Reporting- Printed Output – last submission Friday, March22,
2019
FINAL EXAM - Tuesday, MARCH 26, 2019 6-9PM
Coverage: Chapters 1-9
PIT (Assignment) – Printed Output submitted
on/before April 01, 2019.
Output: Project Drawings, Program of
Works, Gantt Chart with S-Curve and
PERT/CPM network diagram

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PROJECT-SCHEDULING-pptx.pptx

  • 1. PROJECT SCHEDULING The tool that communicates what work needs to be performed, which resources of the organization will perform the work and the timeframes in which that work needs to be performed. The project schedule should reflect all of the work associated with delivering the project on time. Without a full and complete schedule, the project manager will be unable to communicate the complete effort, in terms of cost and resources, necessary to deliver the project. For making a schedule, a TIME-SCALED NETWORK ANALYSIS is used .
  • 2. COMMON TYPES OF PROJECT SCHEDULING: GANTT CHART with S-Curve PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique CPM - Critical Path MethOd PDM- Precedence diagram method
  • 3. GANTT CHART  A tool used for planning and scheduling project activities and to monitor progress over time by comparing planned and actual progress  A display of cumulative costs, progress or other quantities plotted against time. The name derives from the S-like shape of the curve, flatter at the beginning and end and steeper in the middle, which is typical of most projects. The beginning represents a slow, deliberate but accelerating start, while the end represents a deceleration as the work runs out. S- CURVE
  • 4. PERT was Developed as a result of looking for an improved method of planning and evaluating progress of a large scale research and development program. Designed to provide the management a periodic reporting of current status and an outlook for the future on meeting approved plans and schedules PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique
  • 5. CPM - Critical Path Method Designed as a tool for planning, scheduling and control of construction work Its emphasis was on the work or activities to be managed
  • 6. COMPARISON : PERT VS CPM PERT CPM PERT is a project management technique, used to manage uncertain activities of a project. CPM is a statistical technique of project management that manages well defined activities of a project. A technique of planning and control of time. A method to control cost and time. Event-oriented Activity-oriented Evolved as Research & Development project Evolved as Construction project Probabilistic Model Deterministic Model Time Time-cost trade-off Unpredictable Activities Predictable activities Research and Development Project Non-research projects like civil construction, ship building etc.
  • 7. PERT/CPM PERT AND CPM combined, is a control tool for defining the parts of construction job and then putting them together in a NETWORK form. It serves as an aid to the construction manager but it does not make decision for him nor it does guarantee go od management. It only serves the project manager to see the whole picture of the entire job. It encourages periodic re-evaluation and providing an accurate measure of progress. Thus, a person in charge of each work and the project manager knows WHAT is supposed to happen and WHEN it is supposed to happen.
  • 8. PERT/CPM PRESIDENTIAL DECREE (PD) 1594 Prescribing Policies, Guidelines, Rules and Regulations for Government Infrastructure Contract
  • 9. PERT/CPM The project manager can easily obtain  Graphical display of project activities  Estimate of how long will the project last  Determine which activities are the most critical to timely project completion  Determine how long any activity can be delayed without lengthening the project
  • 10. THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM  PLANNING  SCHEDULING  CONTROLLING AND MONITORING
  • 11. THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM PLANNING  Defined as determining the relationship between the work operation and the sequence in which they are to be performed
  • 12. THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM PLANNING 1. Dividing the project into distinct activities. 2. Estimating time requirement for each activity. 3. Establishing precedence relationship among activities. 4. Construction of the arrow diagram (network)
  • 13. PLANNING PHASE  FIVE INPUTS THAT CAN BE OBTAINED 1. A network diagram defining the activities in the project 2. Duration of activities 3. Cost estimates of the activities for monitoring cost, cash flow requirements 4. Resource estimates 5. Trade indicators (responsibility) for activity grouping
  • 14. THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM SCHEDULING  Defined as the process of translating the arrow diagram into time table of calendar days. Determines the start and end time of every activity.
  • 15. SCHEDULE PHASE FOUR OUTPUT THAT CAN BE OBTAINED 1. Schedule of activities in the network diagram (critical activities, earliest start, earliest finish, latest start, latest finish, float) 2. Bar Chart or a Time-Scaled Network 3. Resource Analysis 4. Cash Requirement
  • 16. THREE PHASES OF PERT/CPM CONTROLLING AND MONITORING  Flexibility and updated re-computations brought about by changing conditions is the key to a successful network programming, wherein, this must be updated periodically.
  • 17. CONTROLLING AND MONITORING PHASE THE OUTPUT PHASE: 1. Time Status Report 2. Revised Schedules 3. Revised Bar Charts/Arrow Diagram/ Network 4. Revised resource Analysis 5. Revised Cash Flow analysis
  • 18. CONTROLLING AND MONITORING PHASE USES ACTUAL DATAS INCLUDING: 1. Additions to the project 2. Deletion from the project 3. Changes as to duration, description, trade indicators, cost and resource estimates 4. Actual Starting Dates 5. Actual Finishing Dates.
  • 19. NETWORK or ARROW DIAGRAM A project consists of interrelated activities which are to be executed in a certain order before the entire task is completed. The activities are interrelated in a logical sequence which is known as Precedence relationship. Project is represented in the form of network for the purpose of analytical treatment to get solutions for scheduling and controlling its activities. A Network diagram are composed mainly of a number of Arrows (Activity) and Nodes (Events)
  • 20. ELEMENTS OF NETWORK DIAGRAMMING Activity (Arrows) - is the work operations required to complete a task or the actual work between events. Events (Nodes) – Point in time signifying the beginning or end of one or more activities. Dummy Activity- an arrow with imaginary activity on a network showing the precedence relationship between two activities. Duration = 0 Duration – the time it takes an activity to be finished. Path- a sequence of activities that leads from the starting node to the finishing node.
  • 21. NETWORK FUNDAMENTALS Conventions: 1. Activity on Arrow 2. Activity on Node Principles : 1. Everything on the Diagram must have meaning. 2. An activity has a single definite starting point (tail event) and a single ending point (head event) 3. The network does not describe time relationship but rather dependency relationship 4. The network is hardly ever done by a single person.
  • 22. THE NETWORK DIAGRAM Critical Path - Is the longest route in the network of a project representing a project. The sum of the activities duration along this path will be the DURATION OF THE PROJECT, any delays within these activities may result to delay on the entire project. Two Phases: 1. Forward Pass – determining the Earliest Start (ES) Event 1. Backward Pass- Determining the Latest Finish (LF) Event
  • 23. THE NETWORK DIAGRAM Earliest Event – earliest occurrence of an event and numerically equal to the longest path of activities in series from the project start to finish. ES – Earliest Start Event ES(n) =MAX { EF(n-1) + D(n)} EF- Earliest Finish Event EF(n) =ES(n-1)+ D(n) Latest Events - latest time the event may occur without delaying project completion. LS – Latest Start Event LS(n) =LF(n+1) - D(n) LF- Latest Finish Event LF(n) =MIN { LF(n+1) - D(n)}
  • 24. THE NETWORK DIAGRAM Conditions for Critical Path: 1. Based on Earliest Start and Latest Finish: ES(1) = LF(1) ES(n) = LF(n) ES(n) - ES(1) = LF(n) - LF(1) = D(n) 1. Based on Total Float and Free Float: TF(n) = FF(n) =0
  • 25. THE NETWORK DIAGRAM Total Float (TF) - the span of time an activity can be delayed after its earliest start time without delaying the project completion. TF (n) =LF(n)- EF(n) TF (n) =LF(n)- ES(n-1)- D(n) Free Float (FF) – the span of time that the activity completion time can be delayed without affecting the Earliest Start Time of immediate successor activities in the network. FF (n) =ES(n)- ES(n-1)- D(n)
  • 26. 1. The starting event and ending event of an activity are also called tail event and head event respectively. 2. The network should have a unique starting node (tail event). 3. The network should have a unique completion node (head event). 4. No activity should be represented more than one activity in the network. 5. No two activities should have the same starting node and the same ending node. 6. Duration of a dummy activity is zero Guidelines for Network Construction
  • 27. Example: ACTIVITY PREDECESSOR(S) DURATION (WEEKS) A - 2 B - 5 C - 4 D B 5 E A 7 F A 3 G B 3 H C,D 6 I C,D 2 J E 5 K F,G,H 4 L F,G,H 3 M I 12 N J,K 8 1. Construct the Network diagram for this data from a project: 2. Determine the Critical Path and Determine the total duration of the Project 3. Compute the Total Float and Free Float
  • 28. Seatwork: ACTIVITY PREDECESSOR(S) DURATION (WEEKS) A - 6 B - 3 C - 4 D A 2 E B 3 F C 5 G C 3 H E,F 5 I D 5 J HG 3 1. Construct the Network diagram for this data from a project: 2. Determine the Critical Path and Determine the total duration of the Project 1. Construct the Network diagram for this data from a project: 2. Determine the Critical Path and Determine the total duration of the Project 3. Compute the Total Float and Free Float
  • 29. REMINDERS: BSCE 4A Reporting- Printed Output – last submission Friday, March22, 2019 FINAL EXAM - Tuesday, MARCH 28, 2019 6-9PM Coverage: Chapters 3-9 PIT (Assignment) – Printed Output submitted on/before April 01, 2019. Output: Project Drawings, Program of Works, Gantt Chart with S-Curve and PERT/CPM network diagram
  • 30. REMINDERS: BSCE 4C Reporting- Printed Output – last submission Friday, March22, 2019 FINAL EXAM - Tuesday, MARCH 26, 2019 6-9PM Coverage: Chapters 1-9 PIT (Assignment) – Printed Output submitted on/before April 01, 2019. Output: Project Drawings, Program of Works, Gantt Chart with S-Curve and PERT/CPM network diagram